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10-1

Chapter 10
Suspension and steering systems
Contents
Section

Section
Balljoints - check and replacement...........................
8
Chassis lubrication
,
See Chapter 1
Coil spring (front) - removal and installation
4
Coil spring (rear) - removal and installation
:.......................
11
Drivebelt check and replacement
See Chapter 1
Front end alignment
21
General information........................................................................
1
Intermediate steering shaft - removal and installation
15
Lower control arm (front) - removal and installation
6
Lower control arm (rear) - removal and installation........................
12
Power steering fluid level check
See Chapter 1
Power steering pump - removal and installation................
18 .
Power steering system - bleeding..................................................
19
Shock absorber (front) - removal and installation ... ;......................
2

Shock absorber (rear) - removal and installation...........................
10
Stabilizer bar (front) - removal and installation
,.....
3
Stabilizer bar (rear) - removal and installation
..........................•
9
Steering gear - removal and· installation
17
Steering knuckle - removal and installation
5
Steering linkage - inspection, removal and installation..................
16
Steering wheel - removal and installation
7.............. 14
Suspension and steering check
See Chapter 1
Tire and tire pressure checks
See Chapter 1
Tire rotation
,
See Chapter 1
Upper control arm (front) - removal and installation
7
Upper control arm (rear) - removal and installation
13
Wheels and tires - general information
,...................................
20

Specifications

General
Power steering fluid type

.

Torque specifications

See Chapter 1
Ft-Ibs (unless otherwise

Front suspension
Balljoints
Lower ballstud nuts
, ,..,',."
, ,.."
,',
Upper ballstud nuts ................................................................•...........
Lower control arms
Pivot bolts
Pivot bolt nuts
Shock absorbers
Upper nut
Lower bolts
. Stabilizer bar
Clamp bolts
:
Link bolt nuts
Upper control arms
Pivot shaft retaining nuts

.

83'
61*

.
.

114
107

.
.

20

.
.

24
156 in-Ibs

.

70

.

91
114

97 in-Ibs

Rear suspension
Lower control arms .
Lower control arm-to-rear

axle bracket

Nut
Bolt.
Lower control arm-to-frame bracket
Nut
Bolt ............•...................................................................................
Shock absorbers
Upper nuts/bolts
Nut
Bolt..
Lower nuts
Stabilizer bar
Clamp bolts
Link bolts/nuts
Upper control arms
Upper control arm-to-frame crossmember
Nut
:
Bolt

.
.

91
114

.
.
.

18
63

.
.

18
16

.
.

95
114

156 in-Ibs

indicated)

10-2

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

Torque specifications

. Ft-Ibs (unless otherwise

indicated)

Rear suspension (continued)
Upper control arms (continued)
Upper control arm-to-rear axle bracket
Nut
Bolt.

:

:

74

.
.

83

.
.

35
61

Steering
Idler arm
Idler arm-to-center link nut..
Idler arm-to-frame nuts
"
Pitman arm
Pitman arm-to-center link nut ....................................•.......................
Pitman arm-to-steering gear nut
,:
Steering damper
Steei'ing damper-to-center
link nut
Steering damper-to-frame
nut
Steering gear bolts/nuts
Steering shaft U-joint pinch bolt/nut
: ;.:
Steering wheel nut
,
Tie-rod assembly
Tie-rod adjuster clamp pinch bolts/nuts
:
:
Tie-rod end castle nuts (inner and outer)

35
.

179

.
.
.
.
.

53
40
63
35
32

.
.

168 in-lbs
35*

*00 not back off castle nut for cotter pin insertion.

1.1a Front suspension and steering components
1
2
3
4
5

Stabilizer bar
Stabilizer bar clamps
Steering gear
Pitman arm
Idlerarm

6
7
8
9

Center link
Inner tie-rod ends
Tie-rod adjuster tube and Clamps
Outer tie-rod ends

10
11
12
13

Lower
Lower
Lower
Lower

shock absorber mounting bolts
control arms
control arm pivot bolts/nuts
control arm balljoints

10-3

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
1

General information

Suspension
Refer to i/lustratiofJs 1.1a, 1.1band 1.2
The front 'suspension

(see illustrations)

is fully independent; it allows each wheel to
compensate for road surface irregularities
without a significant
effect on the other
wheel. The suspension at each front wheel
consists of an upper and lower control arm, a
steering knuckle between the two arms, a
shock absorber and a coil spring. The coil
spring is positioned
between the spring
housing and the 'lower control arm. The
shock absorber, which is positioned inside
the coil spring, is bolted to the lower control
arm and to the roof of the spring housing.
The steering knuckle is connected to the

upper and lower-control
arms by a pair ofballjoints,
one in each arm. The lower
balljoints are pressed into the lower control
arms; the upper balljoints are riveted to the
.upper control arms. Both upper and lower
balljoints are replaceable. A stabilizer bar
controls vehicle roll during cornering. The
stabilizer bar is attached to the frame by a
pair of steel clamps and to the lower control
arms by link bolts.
The semi-independent
rear suspension
(see illustration) consists of a solid rear axle
housing suspended
by a pair of shock
absorbers and coil springs and is located by
two upper and two lower control arms. The
springs are positioned between brackets on
the rear axle and the frame spring seats;
insulators are installed between the springs
and their upper and lower seats. The shocks
are bolted to brackets on the axle tube and

the frame spring seats. A stabilizer bar controls vehicle roll during cornering. The stabilizer bar is bolted to the lower control arms.

Steering
The power-assisted
steering system
(see illustration 1.1a) consists of the steering
gearbox, the Pitman arm, the center link, the
idler arm, and the tie-rod assemblies (inner
tie-rod, adjuster tube and outer tie-rod end).

2 ' Shock absorber (front) - removal
and installation
Refer to illustrations 2.2 and 2.3
1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
front of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands, then remove the wheel.

1.1 b Front suspension details
1
2
3
4
5

Stabilizer bar
Coiispring
Upper control arm bal/joint
Lower control arm bal/joint
Outer tie-rod end bal/joint

6
7
8
9
10

Outer tie-rod end
Adjuster tube clamps
Adjuster tube
Inner tie-rod end
Lower control arm

11
12
13
14
15

ABS sensor electrical lead
ABS wheel speed sensor
Brake backing plate/splash shield
Steering knuckle
Stabilizer bar link

10-4'

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

3

Shock absorbers

4

Coil springs '

"

2.2 Using a small mirror, locate the upper
shock absorber mounting nut inside this
hole in the upper control arm. Note the
two flat sides on the end of the damper
rod; put a small wrench on these flats
while breaking loose the upper shock nut
with another wrench
2
Holding the flats of the shock absorber
damper rod with one wrench, remove the
upper shock absorber-to-body nut '(see iIIus- '
tration), washer and rubber bushing (don't
forget the other washer, and bushing underneath, after you have removed the shock).
3
Unbolt the shock absorber from the
lower control arm (see illustration).
4
Remove the shock absorber.
5
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to tighten all fasteners to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Speclflcattons.

2.3 To detach the lower end of the shock
absorber from the lower control arm,
remove these two bolts (arrows)

3

Stabilizer bar (front) - removal
and installation

Refer to illustrations 3.2 and 3.3
1
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
,
2
Remove the nuts (see illustration) from
the link bolts that attach each end of the sta- '
-blllzer bar to the lower control arms. Note the
order in which the washers, rubber bushings
and sleeve are removed to ensure proper
reassembly.
3
Remove the stabilizer bar clamps and
rubber bushings, (see illustration).
4
Remove the stabilizer bar.

3.2 To remove the stabilizer bar link,
'remove this nut (arrow) and remove the
bolt, noting the order of the bush!o'gs,
washers and spacer
5
Inspect the stabilizer bar and link bolt
rubber parts for cracks and tears. Replace all
damaged rubber parts.
6
Apply multi-purpose grease to the bushing installation areas on the stabllizer bar
before installing the busl'lings and clamps.
7
Make sure the slits 'in the bushings are
facing toward the front of the vehicle.
8
Make sure the stabilizer bar is centered
in the bushings and clamps before tightening
the mounting bolts.
9
Installation is otherwise the reverse of
removal procedure. Be sure to tighten all
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.

10-5

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

3.3 To detach the stabilizer bar from the
frame, remove these bolts (arrows) from
. each bushing clamp; note how the sllt in
the bushing faces forward - it must be
oriented the same way when you reattach
the stabilizer bar

4

Coil spring
installation

(front)

- removal

and

Removal
Refer to illustrations

4.6 and 4.8

1
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, raise
the vehicle and place it securely on jackstands. Remove the wheel.
2
Remove the wheel speed sensor (see
illustration 5.2).
3
Remove the shock absorber (see Section 2).
4
Remove the stabilizer bar link bolt (see
illustration 3.2).
5
Disconnect the outer tie-rod end from
the steering knuckle (see Section 16).
6
Install a suitable internal type spring
compressor in accordance with the tool manufacturer's instructions
(see illustration).
Compress the spring enough to relieve all
pressure from the spring seats (but don't
compress it any more than necessary; if the
spring is compressed to 9.6 inches or less, it
could be ruined). When you can wiggle the
spring, it's compressed enough. (You can
buy a suitable spring compressor at most
auto parts stores or rent one from a tool
rental yard.)
7
Support the lower control arm with a
floor jack.
8
Remove the control arm pivot bolts and .
nuts (see illustration).
9
Pull the lower control arm down and to
the rear, then guide the compressed coil
spring out.
10 If the coil spring is being replaced, carefully unscrew the spring compressor.

4.6 Atypical aftermarket internal-type
spring compressor tool: The hooked arms
grip the upper coils of the spring, the plate
is inserted below the lower coils, and
when the nut on the threaded rod is
turned, the spring is compressed
.replace the spring.
12 If the coil spring is being replaced, install
the spring compressor and compress the
spring.
13 With the lower spring insulator in place,
position the spring on the lower control arm
with the flat end of the spring facing up and
the tapered end facing down. Make sure the
tapered end seats on the lower control arm
with the lower end of the spring seated in the
lowest part of the spring seat. The end of the
spring must cover all or part of one of the
drain holes in the lower control arm, but the
other hole must not be covered.
14 Put the floor jack under the lower control arm and raise the arm into position in the
frame. Install the control arm pivot bolts and
nuts. Tighten the nuts untif they're snuq but
don't torque them yet.
15 Remove the spring compressor.
16 Reattach the outer tie-rod end to the
steering knuckle (see Section 16).
17 Reattach the stabilizer bar link to the
lower control arm (see Section 3).
18 Install the shock absorber (see Section 2).

4.8 Support the lower control arm with a
floor jack, then remove the pivot bolts and
nuts (arrow indicates front pivot bolt)

19 Install the ASS wheel speed sensor, if
equipped. Tighten the sensor bolt and harness bracket bolts securely .
20
Position the floor jack under the lower
control arm balljoint and raise the arm to simulate normal ride height. Tighten the lower
control arm pivot bolt nuts to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
21 Install the wheel, remove the jackstands
and lower the vehicle. Tighten the wheel lug
nuts to the torque listed in the Chapter 1
Specifications.

5

Steering

knuckle

- removal

and

installation
Refer to illustrations

5.2, 5.4, 5.6 and 5.9

1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
front of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Remove the wheel.
2
If the vehicle is equipped with ASS,
remove the wheel speed sensor and wire harness bracket (see illustration).
3
Remove the brake caliper and disc (see
chapter 9).
4
Remove the brake disc shield (see illustration).

Installation
11 Inspect the upper and lower spring insulators. If either insulator is cracked or exces.sively worn, replace it. Inspect the coil spring
for chips in the corrosion protection coating.
If the coating has been chipped or damaged,

5.2 To detach the ABS wheel speed
sensor and wiring harness bracket from
the steering knuckle, remove these two
bolts (arrows)

5.4 To detach the disc brake shield from
the steering knuckle, remove these three
bolts (arrows)

10-6

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

5.6 Remove the hub seal and inspect it
for cracks and tears; replace it if
it's damaged
5
Disconnect the tie-rod end from the
steering knuckle (see Section 16).
6
Remove the hub seal (see illustration).
Inspect the seal fer cracks and tears. If it's
damaged, replace it.
7
Disconnect the lower end of the shock
'absorber from the lewer control arm (see
Section 3).
8
Support the lower control arm with a
floor jack under the balljoint area and raise
the jack just enough to support the lower arm
(see illustration
7.3). Warning:' Do. NOT
remove the iloor jack while the steering
knuckle is remaved! If you do, the coil spring
will jump aff its lower seat with cansiderable
farce, enaugh farce to. cause serious injury if
it shauld strike you.
9
To separate the lower and upper control
arms from the steering knuckle, remove the
ball stud nut cotter pins, loosen the ballstud
nuts and force the ball studs out of the
knuckle with a special tool, available at most
auto parts stores, or a suitable alternative
such as the tool we fabricated from hardware
store nuts and bolts and a deep socket (see
illustration).
Remove the ballstud nuts and
removethe knuckle.
10 If you intend to reuse the old steering

5.9 A special tool is recommended for
pushing the balljoint ballstuds out of the
steering knuckle, but you can fabricate '
your own tool (shown here) from a large
bolt, nut, washer and socket. In this
photo, our setup is being used to pusH the
upper ballstud out of the knuckle; to push
out the lower ballstud, simply' reverse the
tool, with the socket seated againstthe
upper ballstud nut

knuckle, inspect the tapered ballstud holes in
the knuckle for dirt and unusual wear such as
elongation or out-of-roundness. 'If any wear
or damage is evident, replace the steering
knuckle.
'
11 Installation is the reverse of'removal.
Don't forget the hub seal, and be sure to.
tighten the ballstud nuts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specificatiens.

6

Lower control arm (front).removal and installation
'

1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and place it-securely en jackstands.
Remove the wheel.
2
Remove the shock absorber (see, Section 2).
3
Disconnect the stabilizer bar link belt

7.5a Remove the upper control arm pivot shaft retaining nuts
(arrows), remove the shims (arrows), count and label them to
ensure that they're installed 'in the same place during reassembly,
then put them in a plastic bag for safekeeping (left side shown)

7.3 Support the lower control arm with a
jackstand positioned between the lower
spring seat and the balljoint (the farther
out the arm you place the jackstand, the
'greater the leverage ratio on the arm)
from the lower control arm (see Sectian 3).
4
Remove the coil spring (see Section 4).
5
To. disconnect the lower control arm
from the steering knuckle, removethe ballstud nut cotter pin, loosen the ballstud nut
and force the ball stud out of the steering
knuckle with a tool like the one shown in
illustration 5.9,.
6
Rel"(1evethe lower control arm.
7
If you intend to reinstall the same-control
arm, be sure to. inspect the control arm bushings for cracks, tears and other damage. I,f
either bushing is damaged, take the arm to
an automotive machine shop and have new
bushings installed. '
8
Installation is the reverse of removal, Be
sure to tighten all fasteners 'to. the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.

7

Upper control
installation
,

Refer to. illustrations

arm - removal

and

7.3, 7.5a and 7.5b

1
If you're remeving the upper control arm
from the left (driver's side):

7.5b The upper control arm pivot shaft on the right (passenger's
side) is the same, but a little more difficult to access

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

8.5 It's easy to check the lower control
arm balljoint for wear: The shoulder
(arrow) protrudes 0.050 inch •
(approximately 3/64-inch) from the
surface of the cover. As the balljoint
wears, this shoulder moves up into the
balljoint assembly; if the shoulder is flu~h
with the cover, or is up inside the hole,
replace the balljoint .
a) Remove the air cleaner assembly and
the intake duct (see Chapter 4).
b) It may also be helpful to remove the,
intermediate steering shaft (see Section
15). If you do this, put the ignition key
lock cylinder in the Lock position to prevent damage to the SIR coil (clockspring) for the airbag system.
2
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, raise
the front of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands, then remove the
wheel.
3
Support the lower control arm with a
floor jack placed under the lower balljoint
area (see illustration). The jack must remain
here, to keep the coil spring and lower control arm in position, until the upper control
arm has been reinstalled.
4
If the vehicle is equipped with ABS,
remove the wheel speed sensor (see illustration 5.2).
5
Loosen the retaining nuts (see illustrations) from the upper control arm pivot shaft
and remove the alignment shims from each
bolt. Tape the shims together and clearly
label them to ensure that they're returned to
the same location du~ing reassembly, then
store them in labeled plastic bags so you
don't lose them or mix them up.
6
Remove the cotter pin for the upper
ballstud nut, loosen the nut, force the ballstud out of the steering knuckle with a tool
such as the one shown in illustration
5.9,
remove the nut and separate the ballstud and
knuckle.
7
Remove the pivot shaft nuts (see illustrations 7.5a or 7.5b).
8
Remove the upper control arm.
9
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to put the shims back where they were
and tighten all fasteners to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.

8.9a To replace an upper balljoint, drill
out the four rivet heads with progressively
larqer drill bits; start with a 1/8-inch drill
bit, then proceed to a 1/4-inch, then
,
switch to a 1/2-inch bit to cut off the rivet'
heads (stop drilling once the heads
are removed)
,

8

10-7

8.9b Use a punch to knock out the
rivetshanks

.Balljoints - check and
replacement

Check
1
Inspect the control arm balljoints fo~
looseness whenever either of them is separated from the steering knuckle. See if you
can turn the ballstud in its socket with your
fingers.
2
If the balljoint is loose, or if the ballstud
can be turned, replace the balljoint. You can
also check the balljoints with the suspension
assembled as follows.
3
Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands placed under
the lower control arms. Position the stands as
close to each balljoint as possible. Make sure
the vehicle is stable. It should not rock on the
stands.
,

'.

Lower balljoints
Refer to illustration

8.5

4
Wipe each balljoint clean and. inspect
the seal for, cuts and tears. If the seal is damaged, replace the balljoint.
5 'The lower balljoints employ a visual
wear indicator (see illustration)
that allows
easy diagnosis. The shoulder at'the base of
the grease fitting protrudes about O..050-inch
(3/64-inch) from the lower surface of the
balljoint's lower cover when. the balljoint is
new. As the balljoint wears, this shoulder
slowly moves up into the balljoint. If the
shoulder is flush with or inside the surface of
the lower cover, replace the lower balljoint.

Upper balljoints
6
Position a dial indicator against the
wheel rim, grasp the top and bottom of the'
tire and "rock" the tir.e, alternately pushing
the top and pulling the bottom; and viceversa. The dial indicator should indicate no
more than O.125-inch deflection. If the indi-

8.9c If any rivet material remains, the
balljoint ~ay have to ,be knocked loose
with a chisel and hammer

c~~ed read!l1~exceeds this figure, replace the
upper balljoint.
.

Replacement
Refer to illustrations 8.9a through 8.9h
7
If you're replaCing aIower balljolnt,
remove the lower control arm (see Section 6).
If you're replacing an upper balljoint, removing the upper control arm (see Section 7) is
desirable,
but not essential; the upper
balljoint can be replaced without removing
the arm (although it's easier to do with the
arm secured in 'a bench vise).
8
To replace, the lower balljoint, take the
control arm and a new balljoint to an automotive machine shop, The machine shop will
press out the old balljoint and press in the
new unit. You cannot do this at home unless
you have a hydraulic press or a balljoint
replacem'ent tool with the proper adapters.
9
To replace the upper balljoint, drill out
the rivets as follows: Using a 1/8-inch drill bit,
drill a 1/4-inch deep hole in the center of
each rivet. Then swltch to a 1/2-inch drill bit
.and 'finish the job; drill just deep enough to
remove the rivet head. Insert a punch through
the rivet. holes and knock out the old balljoint
(see illustrations).
Install the new balljoint;

10-8

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems.

8.9d To assemble the new balljoint,
the grease fitting' ...

install

8.ge ... and install the new dust boot

8.91 Install the balljoint in the
upper control arm ...

some assembly may be required (see iIIus. trations).
Tlqhten the nuts to the torque
specified in the instructions that come with
the kit.
10 Install the lower or upper control arm
(see Section 6 or 7).
11 Have the ·front end alignment checked
by a dealer service department or alignment
shop.

9

Stabilizer bar (rear) - removal and
installation

1
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on [ackstands.'
2
Remove the nuts and washers (see
illustration 1.2) from the bolts.
3
It's really not necessary to remove the
retainers, brackets or sleeves unless you're
plarining to replace a rear lower control arm.
If so, remove these parts and install them on
the new lower arm.
4
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to tighten the rear stabilizer retaining
nuts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.

8.9g ...

install the metal dust shield
(if equipped) ...

10 Shock absorber (rear) - removal
and installation
Refer to illustrations 10.2, WA and 10.5
1
Raise the rear of the vehicle and support
it on jackstands.
2
Support the rear axle assembly with a
floor jack under the side being worked on

10.2 Before removing a rear shock absorber, support the end of
the rear axle from which you're removing the shock with a jack

8.9h ... install the bolts and nuts,
tightening the nuts to the torque specified
in the kit instructions
(see illustration).
Warning: Failure to support the rear axle could allow a rear coil
spring to fly out and cause injury. Damage to
the brake hose or the driveshaft U-joint could
also result.
3
On models with air suspension, disconnect the air lines from the shocks by turning
the spring clip gO-degrees and carefully
pulling out the air line housing.

10.4 To detach the upper end of the shock absorber from the
frame, remove these two bolts (arrows)

10-9

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

10.5 To detach the lower end of the shock
absorber from the rear axle, remove this
nut (arrow) and washer

12.6 To disconnect the lower control ~rm
from the frame bracket, remove the nut
and bolt as'shown

13.4 To disconnect the upper control arm
from the- rear axle bracket, remove this
nut and bolt

4
Remove the upper mounting nuts and
bolts (see illustration).
5
Remove the lower shock mounting nut
(see illustration)
and washer from the
bracket on the rear axle.
6
Remove the shock absorber.
7
Remove the shock boot heat shield from
the old shock and switch it to the new shock.
8
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to tighten all fasteners to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
9'
Now move the jack over to the other
end of the rear axle and repeat this procedure
for the other rear shock absorber.

7
Carefully lower the jack until all tension
is removed from the coil spring, then remove
the spring and the upper and lower spring
insulators.
8
Inspect the upper and lower spring insulators. If either insulator is cracked or excessively wom, replace it. Inspect the coil spring
for chips in the corrosion protection coating.
If the coating has been chipped or damaged,
replace the spring.
9
Installation
is the reverse of removal.
Don't forget to install the upper and lower
insulators. The tape on the spring should be
at the top, and the upper end of the spring
should face toward the left side of the vehicle, perpendicular
to the centerline 0.1 the
vehicle (within five degrees to the rear and 15
degrees to the front). Before tightening the
fasteners to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, raise the rear axle to simulate
normal ride height.

4
On models equipped with ABS, detach
the wheel speed sensor harness, from the
lower control arm.
5
Remove the lower control arm-to-axle
bracket nut and bolt.
6
Remove the lower control arm-to-frame
bracket nut and bolt (see illustration).
7
Remove the control arm.
8
Inspect the bushings at either end of the
control arm. If either bushing is cracked or
torn, take the lower control arm and a new
bushing to an automotive machine shop to
have the bushinq replaced,
9
Installation is the reverse of the removal
procedure. Raise the rear 'axle with the floor
jack to simulate normal ride height, then
tighten all fasteners to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.

11

Coil spring (rear) - removal and
installation

Note: If both coil springs are to be removed,
remove and install them one at a time to prevent the axle assembly from slipping sideways or rocking
forward,
complicating
reassembly.
1
Raise the rear of the vehicle and support
it on jackstands. Place the [ackstands under
the vehicle jacking points, not under the rear
axle.
2
Support the side of the rear axle assembly being serviced with a floor jack (see illustration 10.2). Warning: Failure to support the
rear axle could allow a rear coil spring to fly
out and cause injury. Caution: Failure to support the rear axle could result in damage to
the brake hose or the driveshaft U-joint.
3
It's a good idea to chain the coil spring
to the rear axle to prevent a spring from popping out when the axle is lowered. Bolt the
chain together, but leave enough slack in the
chain to allow the coil spring to extend fully.
4
On models with air suspension, disconnect the automatic level control sensor link
from the upper control ann.
5
Remove the rear brake line junction
block bolt from the axle. Don't disconnect the
metal lines from the junction block.
6
Remove the shock
absorber,
lower
mounting nut and disconnect'the
shock from
the rear axle bracket (see illustration 10.5).

12

Lower control arm (rear) removal and installation

Refer to illustration

12,6

, Note: If both lower control arms are to be
removed, remove and install them one at a
time to prevent the axle assembly from slipping sideways or rocking forward, complicating reassembly.
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts. Raise
the rear of the vehicle and support it securely
on [ackstands.
Place the jackstands
under
the vehicle jacking points, not under the rear
axle. Remove the rear wheel.
2
Support 'the rear axle assembly with a
floor jack (see illustration 10.2). Warning:
The jack must remain in this position throughout the entire procedure, Failure to support
the rear axle could allow a coil spring to pop
out, which could cause serious bodily injury if
it were to strike you or someone nearby. Caution: Failure to support the rear axle could
result in damage to the brake hose or the
driveshaft U-joint.
3
Detach the stabilizer bar, if,equipped,
from the lower control arm (see Section 9).

13

Upper control arm (rear) removal and installation

Refer to illustrations

13.4 and 13.5

Note: If both upper control arms are to be
removed, remove and install them one at a
time to prevent the axle assembly from slipping sideways or rocking forward, complicating reassembly.
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts. Raise
the rear of the vehicle and place it securely
on jackstands. Remove the rear wheel.
2
Support the rear axle with a floor jack
(see illustration 10.2). Warning: The jack
must remain in this position throughout the
entire procedure. Failure to support the rear
axle could allow a coil spring to pop out, which
could cause serious injury if it were to strike
you or someone nearby. Caution: Failure to
support the rear axle could result in damage to
the brake hose or the driveshaft U-joint.
3
On models with air suspension, disconnect the automatic level control sensor link
from the upper control ami.
4
Remove the nut and bolt that attach the
upper control arm to the rear axlebracket
(see illustration).
5
Remove the nut and bolt that attach the

Chapter 10 suspenston and steering systems

10-10

13.5 To disconnect the upper control arm
from the frame crossmember, remove this
nut and bolt
upper control arm to the frame crossmember
(see illustration).
6
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Raise the rear axle with the floor jack to simulate normal ride height, then tighten all fasteners to'the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.

14

Steering

wheel

- removal

and

installation

14.2a Before you can unplug either of the
yellow electrical connectors for the airbag
modules, you must remove the connector
position assurance (CPA) retainers (the
small locks that prevent the connectors
from accidentally unplugging)

14.2b Use a small screwdriver to unlock
the airbag module connectors ...

Caution: On models equipped with a Delco
Loc 1/ or Theftlock audio system, be sure the
lockout feature is turned off before performing any procedure
which requires disconnecting the battery.
1
Disconnect the cable from the negative
battery terminal.
'
2
To disable the airbag system:

a) Turn the steering wheel so that the front
Refer to illustrations 14.2a, 14.2b, 14.2c,
14.3, 14.4a, 14.4b, 14.4c, 14.4d, 14.6, 14.7
and 14.8
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
turn the steering wheel to the straight ahead
position, place the ignition switch in the Lock
position and disable the airbag system before
working in the vicinity of the impact sensors,
steering column or instrument panel to avoid
the possibility
of accidental deployment
of
the airbag, which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).

14.3 To detach the airbag module from
the steering wheel, remove the retaining
screws (left side shown) (on earlier
models, there are four retaining screws two on each side; on later models, there
are two - one on each side)

wheels are pointing straight ahead.
b) Turn the ignition key to the Lock position.
c) Remove the airbag iuse from the instrument panel fuse block (see Chapter '12).
d) Remove the left kick panel (see Chapter 11).
e) Remove the connector position assurance (CPA) retainers (connector locks)
and unplug the yel/ow connectors at the
base of the steering column (see illustrations). (There are two yellow connectors: the one with the green CPA is for
the steering wheel airbag; the other connector is for the passenger-sjde
airbag.
Unplug both connectors just to be safe.

14.4a Lift off the airbag module

...

14.2c ... then unplug the electrical
connector for each airbag module
,f)

The airbags are now disabled.
alarmed if you note that the
warning light comes on when
tion key is turned to On. This
operation; it does not indicate
system malfunction
unless it
turn off.

3
Remove the airbag
screws (see illustration).

14.4b

module

Don't be
AIRBAG
the igniis normal
an airbag
does not
retaining

... remove the connector position
assurance (CPA) retainer ...

10-11

Chapter 10 "Suspension and steering systems

14.4c ... unlock and unplug the yellow
airbag module connector ...

14.4d ... and unplug the electrical
connector for the horn lead and
ground wire

14.6 After removing the steering wheel
nut, mark the relationship of the steering
wheel to the steering shaft to ensure
proper reassembly
column, install the CPAs in the connectors
and install the airbag fuse. For more information about the airbag system, refer to Chapter 12.
"

15

Intermediate steering shaft removal and installation -

Refer to illustrations

15.1a, 15.1b, 15.2 and

15.3

14.7 Use a steering wheel puller to
remove the steering Wheer
4
Remove the alrbaq module and unplug
the electrical connectors for the module, and
for the horn lead and ground wire (see illustrations). Warning: Carry tne airbag module
with the trim side facing away from your
body. Set the airbag module aside with the
trim side facing up.
5
Remove the steering wheel retaining
nut.
6
Mark the relationship
of the steering
wheel to the steering shaft (see illustration). "
7
Remove the steering wheel with a puller"
(see illustration). Warning: Don't allow the
steering shaft to turn with the steering wheel
removed. If the sh/f-ft turns, the airbag coil
assembly (the mechanism which protects the
airbag wiring when the steering wheel is
turned) will become uncentered,
which' will
cause the airbag harness to break when tb«
vehicle is returned to service.
8
Installation
is the reverse of removal.
Before installing the steering wheel, make
sure that the airbag coil assembly is centered
(see illustration).
Be sure to tighten the
steering wheel nut and the airbag module
retaining screws to the torque values listed in

,

14.8 When properly installed, the airbag
coil will be centered with the marks
aligned (circle) and the tab fitted between
the projections on the top of steering
column (arrow)

this Chapter's Specifications.
9
To enable the airbag system, plug in the
yellow connectors at the base of the steering

15.1a Locate the plastic steering gear
shield (arraw) ...

Warning: Disable the airbag system before
working in the vicinity of the steering wheel,
instrument panel or any airbag system component. Failure to do so could cause accidental deployment of the airbag resulting in persona/ injury (see Chapter 12).
Caution: Before starting, make sure that the
wheels are pointing straight ahead and the
ignition key lock cylinder is in the Lock position. Failure to do so might result in damage
to the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR)
coil (the airbag module lead).
.
1
Oetach the shield from the steering gear
return pipe nut (see illustrations).

15.1b ... and pry it off the steering gear
return pipe nut with a screwdriver (the
shield is flexible - prying it off won't
damage it)

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

15.3 To detach the upper end of the intermediate shaft from the
steering gear, remove the pinch bolt (arrow) and nut from the
upper intermediate shaft coupling

16.8a Before ioosening the adjuster tube clamp and' unscrewing
the tie-rod end, measure the distance from the end of the adjuster
tube to the center of the ballstud and record
your measurement ...
2
Remove the pinch bolt from the lower
coupling (see illustration). Push the intermediate shaft up and to the rear to -disenqaqe it
from the steering gear.
3
Remove the pinch bolt and nut from the
upper coupling (see illustration).
4
Remove'the intermediate shaft. Warning: DO NOT allow the steering column shaft
to rotate .with the intermediate shaft removed
or damage to the airbag system could occur.
5
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to tighten the upper and 10wE:1r
coupling
pinch bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.

16

Steering linkage - inspection,
removal and installation

Inspection
1
The steering linkage (see illustrations
1.1 a and 1.1 b) connects the steering gear to
the front wheels and keeps the wheels in
proper relation to each other. The linkage
consists of the Pitman arm, the idler arm, the
center link, and two adjustable
tie-rod

16.8b ...

or count the number of threads showing outside the
adju'ster tube

assemblies. The Pitman arm, which is fas. tened to the steering gear shaft, moves the
center link back-and-forth. The center link is
supported on the other end by a framemounted
idler arm. The back-and-forth
motion of. the center link is transmitted to the
steering knuckles through a pair of tie-rod
assemblies. Each tie rod consists of an inner
and outer tie-rod end, a threaded adjuster
tube and two clamps.
2
Set the wheels in the straight-ahead
position and lock the steering wheel.
3
Raise one side of the vehicle until the
tire is approximately 1-inch off the ground. '
4
Mount a dial indicator with the needle
resting on the outside edge of the wheel.
Grasp the front and rear of the tire and, using
light pressure, wiggle the wheel back-andforth and note the dial indicator reading. The
gauge reading should be less than 0.108inch. If the play in the steering system is more
than specified, inspect each steering linkage
pivot point and bail stud for looseness and
replace parts-If necessary.
5
Halsethe vehicle and support it on jackstands. Push up, then pull down on the center link end of the idler arm, exerting a force

of approximately 25 pounds each way. Measure the total 'distance the end of the arm
travels -, If the play is greater than 1/4-inch,
replace the, idler arm.
6
Check for torn bail stud boots, frozen
joints 'and bent or damaged linkage components.

Removal and installation
Warning: DO NOT allow the steering column
shaft to rotate with any of the following steering linkage components removed or damage
to the airbag system could occur.

Tie-rod
Refer to illustrations 16.8a, 16.8b, 16.9a,
16.9b, 16.10a, 16.10b, 16.10c and 16.15
Note: This procedure
covers replacing the
tie-rod ends as well as the entire tie-rod. If
you'll only be replacing a tie-rod end, ignore
the Steps that don't apply.
7
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
Apply the parking brake. Remove the wheel.
8
If the inner or outer tie-rod end must be
replaced, measure the distance from the end
of the adjuster tube to the center of the ball-

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

16.9b ... then loosen - but don't yet
remove - the castellated nut on the tie-rod
end ballstud

16.10b If you're separating the inner tierod end from the center link, loosen - but
don't remove - the nut ...
stud and record it (see illustration). You can
also count the number of exposed threads on
the tie-rod end (the threads sticking out from
the adjuster tube) (see illustration).
9
Remove the cotter pin and loosen, but
do not remove, the castellated nut from the
ballstud (see illustrations).
If only the outer
tie-rod end is being replaced, loosen the
outer nut only. If only the inner tie-rod end is
being replaced, loosen the inner nut only. -lf
the entire tie-rod assembly is being replaced,
loosen both nuts.
1
If the outer tie-rod end or the entire tierod assembly is being replaced, use a small
puller to separate the outer tie-rod end from
the steering knuckle (see illustration),
then
remove the castellated nut and detach the
outer tie-rod end ballstud from the knuckle. If
the inner tie-rod end or the entire tie-rod is
being replaced, separate the inner tie-rod
end from the center link (see illustrations).
11 Loosen the adjuster tube clamp bolts
and unscrew the outer and/or inner tie-rod
end(s).
12 Lubricate the threaded portion of the tierod end with chassis grease. Screw the new
tie-rod end into the adjuster tube and adjust

o

16.10c ... then install a small puller and
separate the inner tie-rod end and the
center link
the distance from the tube to the ballstud to
the previously measured dimension. The number of threads showing on the inner and outer
tie-rod ends should be equal within three
threads. Don't tighten the clamp yet.
13 Connect
the disconnected
ball stud
nut(s). Tighten the nut(s) to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications and install a

10-13

16.10a Install a small puller on the tie-rod
end ballstud anc:l,separate the ballstud
from the steering knuckle; leaving the nut
in place will prevent the parts from
violently separating
new cotter pin. If the ballstud spins when
attempting to tighten the nut, force it into the
tapered hole with a large pair of pliers. If necessary, tighten the nut slightly to align a slot
in the nut with the hole in the ballstud.
14 Insert the inner tie-rod end ballstud into
the center link until it's seated. Install the nut
and tighten it to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
15 Tighten the clamp nuts. The center of
the bolt should be nearly horizontal and the
adjuster tube slot must not line up with the
gap in the clamps (see illustration).
16 Install the wheel and lug nuts, lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications. Drive
the vehicle to an alignment shop to have the
front end alignment checked and, if necessary, adjusted.

Pitman arm
Refer to illustrations

16.19, 16.20 and 16.21

17 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
18 Remove the center link nut from the Pitman arm ballstud. Discard the nut - don't
reuse it.

16.15 Make sure the
pinch bolts for the
tie-rod adjuster tube
clamps are roughly
horizontal, and the
slot in the adjuster
tube is not aligned
with the gaps in the
clamps (arrows)

10-14

Chapter 10 S,:!spension and steering systems

16.19 Separate thecenter link from the Pitman arm with
a small puller
19 Using a puller, separate the Pitman arm
ballstud from the center link (see iIIustra. tion).
20 Remove the Pitman arm-to-steering
gear nut and washer. Mark the Pitman arm
and the steering gear shaft to ensure proper
alignment at reassembly time (see illustration).
21 Remove the Pitman arm with a Pitman
arm puller (see illustration).
22 Inspect the ballstud threads for damage.
Inspect the ballstud seals for excessive wear.
Clean the threads on the ballstud.
23 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure the marks you made on the Pitman arm and Pitman shaft are aligned.

Idler arm
Refer to illustration 16.27
24 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Apply the parking brake.
25 Loosen but do not remove the idler armto-center link nut.
26 Separate the idler arm from the center,
link with a small puller. Remove the nut.

16.20 Mark the relationship of the Pitman arm to the steering
gear shaft

27 To detach the idler arm, remove the idler
arm-to-frame nuts (see iIIustratiofl).
28 To install the idler ar-m, position it on the
frame and install the bolts, tightening them to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
'
,
29 Insert the idler arm ballstud into the center link and install the nut. Tighten the nut to
the specified torque. If the, ballstud spins'
when attempting to tighten the nut, force it
into the tapered hole with a large pair of pliers.

Center link
30 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on [ackstands. Apply the parking brake.
31 Separate the two inner tie-rod ends from
the center link (see Step 10).
32 Separate the center link from the Pitman
arm (see illustration 16.19).
33 Separate the idler arm from the center
link.
34 Installation is the reverse of the removal
procedure.
If the ballstuds
spin when
attempting to tighten the nuts, force them

16.21 Separate the Pitman arm from the steering gear shaft with
a Pitman ann puller
'

into the tapered holes with a large pair of pliers. Be sure to tighten all of the nuts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.

Steering damper
35 Inspect the steering damper for fluid
leakage. A slight film of fluid near the shaft
seal is normal, but if there's excessive fluid
present and it's obviously coming from the
steering damper, replace the damper,
36 Inspect the steering damper bushing for
excessive wear. If it's 'in 'bad shape, replace
the damper.
37 To test the damper itself, disconnect it
from the frame or axle end (see next step).
Using as much travel as possible, extend and
compress the damper. The resistance should
be smooth and constant for each stroke. If
any binding or unusual noises are present,
replace the damper.
38 Remove the damper ballstud-to-center
link cotter pin, then remove the nut. Separate
the damper fromthe center link.
39 Remove the steering damper mounting
bolt and nut, then remove the damper.

16.27 To detach the idler arm, remove these two nuts (arrows)

10-15

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
the steering gear input shaft and remove the
steering gear from the vehicle. Warning: On
models equipped with an airbag, DO NOT
allow the steering column shaft to rotate with
'the steering gear removed or damagf} to the
airbag system could occqr,

Installation

17.7 To detach the steering gear from the
frame, remove these bolts (arrows)
40 Installation
is the reverse of removal.
Tighten all the fasteners securely.

17 Steering gear - removal and
installation

Removal
Refer to illustration

17. 7

Warning: Disable the airbag system before
working in the vicinity of the steering wheel,
instrument panel or any airbag system component. Failure to do so could cause accidental deployment of the airbag resulting in personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Caution: Before starting, make sure that the
wheels are pointing straight ahead and the
ignition key lock cylinder is in the Lock position. Failure to do so might result in damage
to the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR)
coil (the airbag module lead).
1
Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
Apply the
parking brake.
2
Place a drain pan under the steering
gear. Pry loose the intermediate shaft shield
(see illustrations
15.1a and 15.1b), disconnect the power steering hose fittings and cap
the ends to prevent excessive fluid loss and
contamination.
3
Mark the relationship of the intermediate
shaft lower universal joint to the steering gear
input shaft. Remove the intermediate
shaft
lower pinch bolt (see illustration
15.2).
4
Disconnect
the Pitman arm from the
center link (see illustration
16.19).
5
Remove
the Pitman
arm nut and
washer. Mark the relationship of the Pitman
arm to the shaft so it can be installed in the
same position (see illustration
16.20).
6
Remove the Pitman arm from the shaft
with a special puller (see illustration
16.21).
7
Support the steering gear and remove
the mounting bolts (see illustration).
Lower
the unit, separate the intermediate shaft from

8
Slide the Pitman arm onto the.shaft.
Make sure the marks are aligned. Install the
washer and nut and tighten the nut to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
9
Raise the steering gear and Pitman arm
into position, align the marks on the intermediate shaft and steering gear input shaft and
connect the intermediate shaft to the steering
gear. Reattach the Pitman arm to the center
link.
10 Install the mounting bolts and washers
and tighten them to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
1~ Tighten the Pitman arm-to-steering
gear
nut and the Pitman arm-to-center
link nut to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
12 Install the lower intermediate shaft pinch
bolt and tighten it to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
Install the plastic
shield.
13 Connect the power steering hose fittings
to the steering gear and fill the power steering pump reservoir with the recommended
fluid (see Chapter 1).
14 Lower the vehicle and bleed the steering
system (see Section 19).

18 Power steering pump - removal
and installation

Removal
1
Disconnect the cable from the negative
battery terminal.
2'
Drain the coolant (see Chapter 1),
3
Using a syringe orsiphon,
remove as
much power steering fluid as possible from
the power steering pump reservoir to prevent
spillage (see Chapter 1).
4
Remove the serpentine drivebelt (see
Chapter 1).
5
If the vehicle
is equipped
with a
mechanical fan, remove the pulley bracket for
the engine cooling fan.
6
Detach the heater inlet and outlet hoses
from the water pump (see Chapter 3). Detach
the heater hose clip from the alternator and
power steering pump bracket. Set the hoses
aside.
7
Disconnect
the pressure and return
hoses and the reservoir hose from the power
steering pump.
8
Remove the power steering pump-tobracket bolts, then remove the power steering pump, the bracket between the pump
and pulley, and the pulley, as a single assembly.
9
Remove the pulley from the power
steering pump with a pulley removal tool.

10

Separate the pump from the bracket.
11 Installation
is the reverse of removal.
Tighten all pump bolts securely. To install the
pulley, a pulley installation
tool will be
required (these are available at most auto
parts stores).
1,2 Prime the pump by turning the pulley in
the reverse direction to that of normal rotation (counterclockwise
as viewed from the
front) until air bubbles cease to emerge from
the fluid when observed through the reservoir
filler cap.
13 Install the serpentine
drivebelt
(see
Chapter 1).
14 Bleed the power steering system (see
Section 19).

19 Power steering system - bleeding
1
This is not a routine operation and normally will only be required when the system
has been dismantled and reassembled.
2
Fill the reservoir to the correct level with
fluid of the recommended type and allow it to '
remain undisturbed for at least two (2) minutes,
3'
Start the engine and run it for two or
three seconds only. Check the reservoir and
add more fluid as necessary.
4
Repeat the operations described in the
preceding
paragraph
until the fluid level
remains constant.
5
Raise the front of the vehicle until the
wheels are clear of the ground.
6
Start the engine and increase the speed
to about 1500 rpm. Now turn the steering
wheel gently from stop-to-stop.
Check the
reservoir fluid level.
'
7
Lower the vehicle to the ground and,
with the engine still running, move the vehicle
forward sufficiently to obtain full right lock followed by full left lock. Recheck the fluid level.
If the fluid in the reservoir is extremely foamy,
allow the vehicle to stand for a few minutes
with the engine switched off and then repeat
the previous operations. At the same time,
check the belt tightness and check for a bent
or loose pulley. Check, also to make sure the
power steering hoses. are not touching any
other part of the vehicle, especially sheet
metal or the exhaust manifold.
8
The procedures
above will normally
remedy an extreme foam condition and/or an
objectionably
noisy pump (low fluid level
and/or air in the power steering fluid are the
leading causes of this condition). If, however,
either or both conditions persist after a few
trials, the power steering system will have to
be thoroughly
checked,
Do not drive the
vehicle until the condition(s) have been remedied.
'

'20

Wheels ,and tires - general
information

Refer to illustration 20. 1
All vehicles covered

by this manual are

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems

, 10-16

METRIC TIRE SIZES
P 185
TIRE TYPE /
P-PASSENGER
T-TEMPORARY
C-COMMERCIAL

/
.

t

Vertic,

80 R 13

7

....-A--+~IAMETER

ASPECT RATIO
(SECTION HEIGHT)
(SECTION WIDTH)

(INCHES)
~:
15

Centerline
of
Vehicle

70
SECTION WIDTH
(MILLIMETERS)
185
195

75
80

CONSTRUCTION
TYPE
R-RAOIAL
B-BIAS - BELTED
O-OIAGONAL (BIAS)

CAMBER ANGLE (FRONT VIEW)

205

o

ETC

I
t./

Centerline

of Ball
Joint Axis

•••••
FRONT

CASTER ANGLE (SIDE VIEW)

SECTION
HEIGHT

,...•..
--F--~

t

20.1 Metric tire size code

FRONT

..••.•-equipped with metric-sized
fiberglass or
steel-belted radial tires (see illustration). Use
of other size or type of tires may affect the
ride and handling of the vehicle. Don't mix
different types of tires, such as radials and
bias belted, on the same vehicle as handling
may be seriously affected. It's recommended
that tires be replaced in pairs on the same
axle, but if only one tire is being replaced, be
sure it's the same size, structure and tread
design as the other. Because tire pressure
has a substantial effect on handling and
wear, the pressure on all tires should be
checked at least once a month or before any
extended trips (see Chapter 1).
Wheels must be replaced if they are
bent, dented, leak air, have elongated bolt
holes, are heavily rusted, out of vertical symmetry or if the lug nuts won't stay tight.
Wheel repairs that use welding or peening are
not recommended.
Tire and wheel balance is important to
the overall handling, braking and performance of the vehicle. Unbalanced wheels
can adversely affect handling and ride characteristics as well as tire lif/'l. Whenever a tire
is installed on a wheel, the tire and wheel
should be balanced by a shop with the
proper equipment.

21

Front end alignment - general
information

Refer to illustration 21. 1
A front end alignment refers to the
adjustments made to the front wheels so they
are in proper angular relationship to the suspension and the ground (see illustration).
Front wheels that are out of proper alignment
not only affect steering control, but also
increase tire wear. Camber, caster and toe-in
can be adjusted on the vehicles covered by
this manual.
Getting the proper front wheel alignment
is a very exacting process, one in which complicated and expensive machines are necessary to perform the job properly. Because of
this, you should have a technician with the
proper equipment perform these tasks. We
will, however, use this space to give you a
basic idea of what is involved with front end
alignment so you can better understand the
process and deal intelligently with the shop
that does the work.
Camber is the tilting of the front wheels
from vertical when viewed from the front of
the vehicle. Caster is the tilting of the top of
the front steering axis from the vertical. A tilt

E -----'

•••

TOE-IN (TOP VIEW)
21.1 Front end alignment details
A minus B = C (degrees camber)
D = Degrees caster
E minus F = toe-in (measured in inches)
G - toe-in (expressed in degrees)

toward the rear is positive caster and a tilt
toward the front is negative caster. These two
angles are adjusted by altering the relationship of the upper control arm to' the crossmember.
Toe-in is the turning in of the front
wheels. The purpose of a toe specification is
to ensure parallel rolling of the front wheels.
In a vehicle with zero toe-in, the distance
between the front edges of the wheels will be
the same as the distance between the rear
edges of the wheels. The actual amount of
toe-in is normally only a fraction of an inch.
Toe-in adjustment is controlled by the position of the tie-rod end on the tie-rod. Incorrect toe-in will cause the tires to wear
improperly by making them scrub against the
road surface.


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