Interpretatione and Analytics. In chapter 9, I examine Aristotle’s views about
ontological priority relations between particulars and universals. I note that none of the
types of priority defined in the Categories will secure Aristotle’s view that particulars
are prior to universals. I reconstruct a view with the desired result from Aristotle’s
discussion of one thing’s being a “cause of being” for another. I conclude in chapter
10 that Aristotelian primary substances are prior to all other entities in that they alone
are nonrelational entities.