Klima JohnBuridansNominalistLogic&c.pdf

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1 Buridan’s life, works, and influence
The little we know about Buridan’s life can easily be summarized in a couple of sentences.
Between the tentative dates of his birth and death (ca. 1295-1361), he spent the greater part of his
life first studying and then teaching at the University of Paris. He was a very highly regarded
philosopher, who served twice as rector of the university, in 1327/8 and 1340. He was obviously
influenced by the logic and philosophy, but not by the theology and politics of William Ockham.
Indeed, he apparently made very conscious efforts, both in his administrative and professional
capacities, to shield what he regarded as sound logical and metaphysical doctrine in Ockham
from its “ideologically charged” ramifications. If this was indeed Buridan’s “tactic”, then it
worked: it is largely due to Buridan’s and his students’ and associates’ work that the nominalist
via moderna could emerge as a viable alternative way of doing philosophy in the later Middles
Ages, shaping much of the intellectual conversation of the renaissance and early modern period. 3
Buridan’s works are mostly the by-products of his teaching. As such, they for the most part
consist of commentaries on Aristotle, covering the whole extent of Aristotelian philosophy,
ranging from logic to metaphysics, to natural science, to ethics and politics. Besides running
commentaries on Aristotle’s texts, Buridan wrote particularly influential question-commentaries,
a typical genre of the medieval scholastic output, in which the authors systematically and
thoroughly discussed the most problematic issues raised by the text on which they were
lecturing. The question-format allowed Buridan to work out in detail his characteristically
nominalist take on practically all aspects of Aristotelian philosophy, using the conceptual tools
he developed in his works on logic. Of his logical works, which also comprise a number of
important question-commentaries on Aristotle’s logical writings, two works stand out for their
originality and significance: the short Treatise on Consequences, providing a systematic account
of Buridan’s theory of inferences, and the much larger Summulae de Dialectica, Buridan’s
monumental work covering all aspects of his logical theory.
Buridan’s influence in the late Middle Ages can hardly be overestimated. His ideas quickly
spread not only through his own works, but also through the work of his students and/or younger
colleagues, such as Nicholas Oresme, Marsilius of Inghen, or Albert of Saxony. They, in their
turn, became very influential themselves, and turned Buridan’s ideas into standard textbook
material in the curricula of many late medieval European universities.
Nevertheless, with the waning of scholasticism Buridan’s fame quickly faded. His name was
preserved only in the (phony) legends about his affair with the queen (immortalized in François
Villon’s famous ballad with the ironically fitting refrain about the snow of yesteryear) and about
the ass allegedly starving to death between two equal stacks of hay (rather unfortunately


The best modern discussions of the (rather sparse) sources we have on Buridan’s life are Faral, E. Jean Buridan:
Maître és arts de l'Université de Paris; Extrait de l’Histoire littéraire de la France, Tome XXXVIII, 2e partie. Paris:
Imprimerie Nationale, 1950, and Michael, B. Johannes Buridan: Studien zu seinem Leben, seinen Werken und zu
Rezeption seiner Theorien im Europa des späten Mittelalters. Vols. 1-2. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Berlin,
1985. A more detailed account of Buridan’s life in English can be found in an excellent recent study by Jack Zupko,
discussing Buridan’s work in the intellectual context of his own time. See Zupko, J. John Buridan: Portrait of a
14th-century Arts Master, Notre Dame University Press, 2002. In general, Zupko’s more historically oriented
approach provides a very useful complement to the more “analytic” approach I take in this study.