5 chemistry part II (PDF)

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Title: The Chemistry of Life
Author: Edward Terzian, Jr.

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The Chemistry
Part II

Biological Molecules
 Carbon is the most important
element to living things
 Why is the carbon backbone
present in all of the biological

 Has 4 electrons in its outer energy level
 Can form covalent bonds with up to 4 other atoms
 Can form chains or rings with single, double, or
triple bonds

Monomers and Polymers
 Monomers are small molecules that can be
linked together
 By forming covalent bonds between the
monomers, larger molecules-called Polymersare formed.

4 Types of Monomers
1. Fatty Acids
 Long chains of Carbon,
Hydrogen, with a few
Oxygen atoms.
 Can be linked together with covalent bonds
to form Lipids
 Do not dissolve easily in water

Examples of Lipids
 Oil made by plants for energy
 Fat made by animals for energy storage,
protection and insulation.
 Phospholipids found in the membranes of all

4 Types of Monomers (cont.)
2. Sugars- monosaccharides
 Short chains or rings
 Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in the ratio
of (CH2O)n Ex. Glucose C6H12O6

 Can be linked together with covalent bonds
to form a Disaccharide (2 sugars) or
Polysaccharide (many sugars) aka

Examples of Carbohydrates
 Starch in plants for energy
 Glycogen in animal muscle and
liver for energy storage
 Cellulose provides support for
plant cell walls

Examples of Carbohydrates
 Chitin for support and protection
in the exoskeleton of insects and
 Small sugars such as glucose,
sucrose, fructose and lactose for
energy storage

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