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Aا عمليات الحفر لللآبار النفطية .pdf



Original filename: Aا عمليات الحفر لللآبار النفطية.pdf
Title: 1
Author: Mohammed Helu

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‫‪ً 1‬ظام الحفر )‪:(Drilling Method‬‬
‫‪ 1.1‬هقذهت عاهت عي العىاهل التي تقين عولياث الحفر‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ 1.1.1‬التقيين الٌىعي‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪1‬‬







:‫ التقيين الكوي‬1.1.2


(Drilling Rate or Rate Of Penetration
(ROP))
(Drilling Cost)



1.1.2.1


2




 dVm 

tB

dh
0 dt

Equation 1



Vmms=Hs/Ts (m/sec)

Equation 2



Vm=H/Td

Equation 3

(dt)

dh
Hs
Ts
Td
n

TD   t Bi
i 1

Equation 4

3



o p 

o p 

hB
t B  tm

Equation 5

H
TD  Tm

Equation 6

tm

Tm
n

Tm   Tm i
i 1

Equation 7
N


Vtechnical 

30 x 24 x H
720 x H

(m / month)
(Tm  TD  Tc.c )
Tp

Equation 8
Tp

4



Vc  720 H / (Tp  Tn )
Vc  720 H / Tc

Equation 9
Tn

Tc

1.1.2.2

100

10

5



1000

1000



(30-35%)
4















6











20
80
100
(30-35%)

29
12

35
11

10


10-15%








7










(Cement Bond Log (CBL))
(Schlumberger)
(200000-300000 US$)

8

(1-3%)



(150000-200000 sp)

Cw 

C m  C D  CC C  C p
H

Equation 10

9

(Syrian Pound/m)

Cw

(sp)

Cm
(sp)

Cd

(sp)

Ccc

(sp)

Cp
H
(Cd)

n

CD 

C
i 1

Bi

 TD  Tmr  Cr

Equation 11

H

(sp)

CBi

(h)

TD

(h)

Tmr
Cr

(1000 5000sp)
(sp/h)

C

C B  t D  t mr  C r
hB

Equation 12
hB
(C)

K1=Tp/Tc
10

K2=(TB+Tm)/Tp K3=Td/(Td+Tm)

‫)‪(Tc‬‬

‫‪K1‬‬
‫)‪(Tp‬‬

‫‪K2‬‬

‫)‪(Td+Tm‬‬

‫‪K3‬‬
‫)‪Vo=24 K3 Vm (m/h‬‬
‫)‪Vt=30 K2 Vo (m/h‬‬
‫)‪Vc=K1 Vt (m/h‬‬

‫‪C‬‬
‫‪C‬‬
‫‪Cr‬‬
‫‪a  r ;a  B‬‬
‫‪o‬‬
‫‪K 3 m‬‬
‫‪hB‬‬

‫‪Equation 13‬‬

‫‪Cm  a ‬‬

‫‪Vm‬‬

‫‪ 1.2‬العىاهل التي تإثر على السرعت الويكاًيكيت سلباً أو ئيجاباً‪:‬‬
‫‪Vm‬‬
‫‪Vm‬‬

‫‪ 1.2.1‬الشروط الطبيعيت للظخىر‪:‬‬

‫‪200m‬‬

‫‪4000m‬‬
‫‪3000m‬‬

‫‪ 1.2.2‬خىاص رؤوش الحفر (الخىاص الفيسيائيت والهٌذسيت لرؤوش الحفر)‪:‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪ 1.2.3‬هجوىعت هي العىاهل التقٌيت التي تتعلق بطريقت الحفر الوتبعت واألجهسة الوستخذهت‬
‫(هجوىعت العول)‪:‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ً 1.3‬ظام الحفر‪:‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

:)‫ تأثير الىزى الوطبق على رأش الحفر (الحول‬1.3.1
(Vm=F(w))

(Vm)

1.3.1.1

(WOB)

LCollars 

WOB
qc C b

Equation 14



(Surface Dislocations)
(OA)

(30 Ton)

13

m
C3

Q
3

C2

Q
C1

2

Q
1

2
B

1

A

O

Po

WOB

PB



(Volume Dislocation)
(BC)
 2  1

14

(1,000,000 SP)



(Failure Dislocation)

(AB)

(Failer Dislocation)
(C)
15

(C)
(Critical Load)

(C)

(BC)

  a ( P  Po )

Equation 15


(BC)

Po

K
(4)

16

(3)

(2)

(1)

(K)
0.6

K



1

2

3

4

P

17

1.3.1.2
(W, tB)




18



D

o   1 1 3
0
 , , , ......
o
4 2 4
4
(mm)
(mm)

(3/4)

(1/2)

Equation 16

o



(1/4)

19



30 ton




20

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ 1.3.2‬تأثير عذد الذوراث على عول رأش الحفر‪:‬‬

‫)‪(n= 40-200 rpm‬‬
‫)‪(n=400-600 rpm‬‬

‫‪1.3.2.1‬‬

‫‪21‬‬

P=f (w, t)

Equation 17

(200rpm)





  n
(0.4-0.8)

22

Equation 18







n  20
n  15
n  10
n  5

n

23

dD
 a1n  a2 n 3
dt

Equation 19

a2 a1

dD
dt

n

24

a2x104
1.088
0.870
0.653

A1
2.5
2
1.5

0.522

1.2

0.392
0.283
0.212

0.9
0.65
0.5

Sdd
s.medi
Medi
Mhma
Mha
H
Ha
Medium

Hard

S

:‫ تأثير غسارة سائل الحفر وسرعت خروجه هي الفاالث‬1.3.3
1.3.3.1

(Q)

(Vm)
(Q)
(Vm)
(Q)

25

(Vjet)
(Vm)

(Vjet)
(Vjet)

m %

 jet

26

(h>6do)
(do)
(h<6do)
(500-700atm)

(200atm)





A
xis
Nuzzles
h

27








1.3.3.2
(Q,Vm)


N hB  PB Q

Equation 20
PB

B 

1 

 2 2g
2
jet

Equation 21

f




 hB 

0.92-0.98

1
2
2
 f Q jet
 f (Q,V jet
)
2
2 g

(Vm)

(Vjet)

Equation 22
(NhB)
(NhB)

(Vm)

28

m %

1200-1600m
1600-1800m
1800-2000m
2000 2300m
2300-2600m

N hB

29

(Vm)
NhB=f(Q,Vjet)


(x)

(Vjet)

A
xis

N
uzzles

30



h   f Q (V jet1  V jet2 )

Equation 23
F

Q
Vjet1
Vjet2
(Vjet1)

(Vjet2=0)

(Vjet1)

(Vjet2)
Vjet

h   Q V jet

Equation 24

(Ih)

(Vm)

Q V

(Ih)

(Vm)
(Q Vj)

:‫ تأثير خىاص سائل الحفر على السرعت الويكاًيكيت‬1.3.4
1.3.4.1



31

P1
P2
P3, P4
(P1)

1 

fH

Equation 25

10
(P1)



(P2)
(P2=Pf)

(P2=Pf÷P1)
P2,P1

(P2=P1)

(Pf-Pc) (Vm)
(Vm)

(Vm)



32



1

2
3

(3)

(1)
(3)

(2)

1.3.4.2

(P1)
33

(P2)

1.3.4.3

o

La min ar

34



Turbulent

1.3.4.4



35

1.3.4.5



SiO3

1%


36

:‫ اختيار عٌاطر ًظام الحفر وخظائض سائل الحفر‬1.4
(Vm, Q, W, n, Mud properties)

:(Drilling Fluids Properties) ‫ خظائض سائل الحفر‬1.4.1

1.4.1.1

(Drilling Fluid Specific Weight)



(Overbalanced Driliing)

f  (

 .h
10

)  0.04

Equation 26
(0.04)


(Balanced Drilling)

37

(Pwell<Pfrom)
(Pw=Pf)
(Pf=Pw)

(Underbalanced Driliing)

(DF Viscosity)

38



1.4.1.2

(Vm)

(30-40sec)

(1-3cp)

(Filtrate Loss)

1.4.1.3

(30-35cm3/(1/2hour))
(3-5 cm3/(1/2h))

:‫ العٌاطر الهيذروليكيت‬1.4.2




1.4.2.1
39

(No)


(Nc)



(NhB)
N o  N c  N hB

Equation 27
(No)

N hB  N o  N c

(NhB)
Equation 28

 Po Q  Pc Q

:Po
Q
Pc
c  (1 L   2 ) f Q 2
N hB  o Q  (1 L   2 ) f Q3

Equation 29
Equation 30
(NhB)

q

d hB
 o  3 (1 L   2 )  f Q 2  0
dQ
 o  3 (1 L   2 )  f Q 2  0
QO b t i m u m 

Po

3 

Equation 31
Equation 32
Equation 33

f

(Qopt)
(Qopt)
(Po)

40





o  3 (1 L   2 )  f Q 2  0
o  3Pc  0  Pc 

1
Po
3

Equation 34
Equation 35

1
PB  Po  Pc  PB  Po  Po
3
2
PB  Po
3

1 2
B  2

 2g
V jet 

2 g B

Ao3 

f

Q
 jet

Equation 36

f

Equation 37

.Q

Equation 38

1.4.2.2

41

Fh   Q V j
2 gPB

Vj 



Q

f

2 gPB

Fh   Q 





 2 Q2
2  Q2

2g



Equation 39

f

Q 2 ( Po  Pc )

f

Po Q 2  (1 L   2 ) 

f

Q4

(Fh)
q

(Fh)

2 Po  4 ( 1 L   2 ) Q 3 f
dFh
A
; A  2 2 
2
4
dQ
2 Po Q  ( 1 L   2 ) Q  f
 2 Po  4 ( 1 L   2 ) Q 3 f  0

Equation 40

 Po  2 ( 1 L   2 ) Q 2  f  0
Qopt 

Po
;   ( 1 L   2 )
2  f

(Ph)

(Qopt)

Po  2 PC  0
1
1
PC  Po  PB  Po
2
2

Equation 41
(Vj)

1 2
PB  (  ) Po
2 3

42

Equation 42

(Q, Vj)

f1  f (r,  f )



F2  f ( f ,  )





a 

Q
AAnnulas

(Aa)

Equation 43

(Va)

43

‫)‪(0.04-0.06 l/sec‬‬

‫)‪(1 cm3‬‬

‫)‪(0.06‬‬

‫‪ 1.4.3‬العٌاطر الويكاًيكيت‪:‬‬
‫)‪(W, n‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪44‬‬



Vo 

24 hB
(t d  t m )

Equation 44



Cmin 

C B  Cr (t B  t min )
hB

Equation 45








45

















46

‫مع حتيات املهندس رشيد اخلويل‬
‫‪E-mail:rsh.kli.2000@gmail.com‬‬

‫‪47‬‬


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