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8/4/2011

Course Overview
Introduction to Cloud Computing

Introduction for Mapua

Outline for Today
 Introduction

to Cloud Computing

What is Cloud Computing?
 Benefits and Limitations of Cloud
Computing
 Cloud Computing Risks and Issues


What is Cloud Computing?
Introduction for Mapua

Behind the Hype…

1

8/4/2011

Origin of the term “Cloud Computing”

What is the Cloud?







“Comes from the early days of the Internet where we
drew the network as a cloud… we didn‟t care where the
messages went… the cloud hid it from us” – Kevin Marks,
Google
First cloud around networking (TCP/IP abstraction)
Second cloud around documents (WWW data
abstraction)
The emerging cloud abstracts infrastructure complexities
of servers, applications, data, and heterogeneous
platforms

6

Introduction for Mapua

A Working Definition of Cloud Computing


Cloud computing is a model for enabling
convenient, on-demand network access to a
shared pool of configurable computing
resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
applications, and services) that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider
interaction.



This cloud model promotes availability and is composed
of five essential characteristics, three service models,
and four deployment models.(based on NIST)
7

Access to shared computing resources

© NetSuite 2010
8

2

8/4/2011

Just Plug In

Available on Demand, Pay-as-you-Use like
Billing

Connecting People to Data…
and People to other People

Enabling anywhere access

3

8/4/2011

Enables Distributed Work to Happen Easily

At Dramatically Lower Cost

5 Essential Cloud Characteristics

Common Cloud Characteristics

 On-demand

 Cloud

self-service
 Broad network access
 Resource pooling


computing often leverages:

Massive scale
 Homogeneity
 Virtualization
 Resilient computing
 Low cost software
 Geographic distribution
 Service orientation
 Advanced security technologies


Location independence

 Rapid

elasticity
 Measured service

15

16

4

8/4/2011

Possible Deployment Models:

Deployment Model cont…

Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is owned
or leased by a single organization and is
operated solely for that organization.

Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is owned
by an organization selling cloud services to the
general public or to a large industry group.

Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is
shared by several organizations and supports a
specific community that has shared concerns
(e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and
compliance considerations).

Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a
composition of two or more clouds (internal,
community, or public) that remain unique entities
but are bound together by standardized or
proprietary technology).

Introduction for Mapua

Introduction for Mapua

Cloud Computing Types

The Cloud Changes Everything
BUSINESS SERVICES

CONSUMER SERVICES

• NetSuite
• Globe
• PLDT

• eBay
• Amazon
• Islandrose
• Buyanihan

PERSONAL SERVICES

Introduction for Mapua

• Facebook
• Twitter
• Friendster

5

8/4/2011

Benefits/Motivators To Cloud
Users
 Outsource,

focus on core competencies
initial investment, invest more as
business grows, no amortization issues,
pay-as-you-go, elasticity, transference of
risk
 No provisioning issues for spikes in traffic
 Provide flexibility in modes of
access/payment/provisioning/etc.
 Small

Cloud Service Options

Benefits/Motivators To Cloud
Providers
 Leverage

existing hardware and
software systems, investments
 Share resources/realize greater
utilization efficiencies
 Save costs
 Make money

The „-as-a-Service‟ Options
Your Role

Most Common
Applications

Primary Benefit
Case

Primary Issue

Software as a
Service

Setting up
parameters and
using

Personal
productivity, nonmission-critical

Substitute service
for internal IT

Breadth of
service, credibility
of supplier

Platform as a
Service

Maintaining
application
images for
platform

Business apps
extending a local
middleware
framework

Specific
application
support and
hybrid
applications

Matching platform
to application
needs

Infrastructure as a
Service

Maintaining full
machine images

Development,
offload, all others

Most flexible,
general

Managing
machine images

Image credit:
http://blogs.msdn.com/b/seliot/archive/2010/03/04/what-the-heck-is-cloud-computing-anotherre-look-with-pretty-pictures.aspx

6

8/4/2011

Cloud Spectrum

The NIST Cloud Definition Framework
Hybrid Clouds

 One

extreme: Close to hardware, cloud
users can design entire software stack

Deployment
Models

Hard for cloud providers to offer scalability
and redundancy
 Example is Amazon EC2

Service
Models



Software as a
Service (SaaS)

Public Cloud

Platform as a
Service (PaaS)

Infrastructure as a
Service (IaaS)

On Demand Self-Service
Essential
Characteristics

 Other

extreme: Very high level, offering
specific services


Community
Cloud

Private
Cloud

Example is NetSuite and Google Apps

Common
Characteristics

Broad Network Access

Rapid Elasticity

Resource Pooling

Measured Service

Massive Scale

Resilient Computing

Homogeneity

Geographic Distribution

Virtualization

Service Orientation

Low Cost Software

Advanced Security
26
Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor - http://ornot.wordpress.com

Security is the Major Issue

Cloud Computing Risks and Issues

CLOUD COMPUTING
SECURITY
27

28

7

8/4/2011

Analyzing Cloud Security
 Some


General Security Advantages
 Shifting

key issues:

trust, multi-tenancy, encryption, compliance

 Clouds

are massively complex systems
can be reduced to simple primitives
that are replicated thousands of times
and common functional units
 Cloud security is a tractable problem


There are both advantages and challenges

public data to a external cloud
reduces the exposure of the internal
sensitive data
 Cloud homogeneity makes security
auditing/testing simpler
 Clouds enable automated security
management
 Redundancy / Disaster Recovery

29

30

Security Relevant Cloud
Components

General Security Challenges
 Trusting

vendor‟s security model
 Customer inability to respond to audit
findings
 Obtaining support for investigations
 Indirect administrator accountability
 Proprietary implementations can‟t be
examined
 Loss of physical control








31

Cloud Provisioning Services
Cloud Data Storage Services
Cloud Processing Infrastructure
Cloud Support Services
Cloud Network and Perimeter Security
Elastic Elements: Storage, Processing,
and Virtual Networks
32

8

8/4/2011

Provisioning Service

Data Storage Services


 Advantages



Rapid reconstitution of services
 Enables availability









Provision in multiple data centers / multiple
instances




Advanced honey net capabilities



Impact of compromising the provisioning
service

Data fragmentation and dispersal
Automated replication
Provision of data zones (e.g., by country)
Encryption at rest and in transit
Automated data retention

Challenges


Isolation management / data multi-tenancy
Storage controller



Exposure of data to foreign governments



 Challenges


Advantages



Single point of failure / compromise?

33

Cloud Processing Infrastructure

Cloud Support Services

 Advantages


34

 Advantages

Ability to secure masters and push out
secure images



 Challenges

On demand security controls (e.g.,
authentication, logging, firewalls…)

 Challenges

Application multi-tenancy
Reliance on hypervisors
 Process isolation / Application sandboxes

Additional risk when integrated with
customer applications
 Needs certification and accreditation as a
separate application
 Code updates







35

36

9

8/4/2011

Cloud Network and Perimeter
Security

Cloud Security Advantages
Part 1


 Advantages



Distributed denial of service protection
 VLAN capabilities
 Perimeter security (IDS, firewall,
authentication)






 Challenges




Virtual zoning with application mobility


Data Fragmentation and Dispersal
Dedicated Security Team
Greater Investment in Security Infrastructure
Fault Tolerance and Reliability
Greater Resiliency
Hypervisor Protection Against Network
Attacks
Possible Reduction of C&A Activities
(Access to Pre-Accredited Clouds)

37

Cloud Security Advantages
Part 2

Cloud Security Challenges Part 1


 Simplification

of Compliance Analysis
Held by Unbiased Party (cloud
vendor assertion)
 Low-Cost Disaster Recovery and Data
Storage Solutions
 On-Demand Security Controls
 Real-Time Detection of System
Tampering
 Rapid Re-Constitution of Services
 Advanced Honeynet Capabilities

38

Data dispersal and international privacy laws


 Data









39

EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe
Harbor program
Exposure of data to foreign government and data
subpoenas
Data retention issues

Need for isolation management
Multi-tenancy
Logging challenges
Data ownership issues
Quality of service guarantees
40

10

8/4/2011

Additional Issues

Cloud Security Challenges Part 2
















Dependence on secure hypervisors
Attraction to hackers (high value target)
Security of virtual OSs in the cloud
Possibility for massive outages
Encryption needs for cloud computing
Encrypting
interface
Encrypting
Encrypting
Encrypting









administrative access to OS instances
access to applications
application data at rest



Suggested requirements for cloud SLAs
Issues with cloud forensics

Contingency planning and disaster recovery
for cloud implementations
Handling compliance




41

Privacy impact assessments

Using SLAs to obtain cloud security


access to the cloud resource control

Public cloud vs internal cloud security
Lack of public SaaS version control

Issues with moving PII and sensitive data to
the cloud




FISMA
HIPAA
SOX
PCI
SAS 70 Audits

42

Computing Timeline
1950 – 1980
Timesharing

1980 – 2000
Client/Server

2000 – ?
Cloud Computing

Server
Mainframe

Evolution of Cloud Computing

Terminal

Introduction for Mapua

11

8/4/2011

Distributed system, distributed
computing

Foundational Elements
of Cloud Computing
Primary Technologies








Distributed Computing
Internet and Broadband
Networks
Open Standards and
Open Source Software
Browser as a platform
Virtualization
Grid technology
Service Oriented
Architectures

Other Trends

A

distributed system is a collection of
independent computers, interconnected
via a network, capable of collaborating
on a task.
 Distributed computing is computing
performed in a distributed system.

• Autonomic Systems
• Web 2.0
• Web application
frameworks
• Service Level Agreements
• Commoditization of IT
• Service orientation

45

2004-2005 (T2)

Examples of Distributed systems

Client-Server Computing - Lecture 1

46

Internet Design Goals and Principles
In order of importance:
0

 Network

of workstations (NOW): a group
of networked personal workstations
connected to one or more server
machines.
 An intranet: a network of computers and
workstations within an organization,
segregated from the Internet via a
protective device (a firewall).
 The Internet
2004-2005 (T2)

Client-Server Computing - Lecture 1

Connect existing networks


1.

Survivability
-

ensure communication service even with
network and router failures

6.

Support multiple types of services
Must accommodate a variety of networks
Allow distributed management
Allow host attachment with a low level of effort
Be cost effective

7.

Allow resource accountability

2.
3.
4.
5.

47

initially ARPANET and ARPA packet radio
network

CSci5221:
Internet Design

48

12

8/4/2011

Why distributed computing?

Software Trends

 Economics:

distributed systems allow
the pooling of resources, including CPU
cycles, data storage, input/output
devices, and services.
 Reliability: a distributed system allow
replication of resources and/or services,
thus reducing service outage due to
failures.
 The Internet has become a universal
platform for distributed computing.
2004-2005 (T2)

Client-Server Computing - Lecture 1

scale
Multi-tier
Server-side
Grid Computing











Object-oriented
programming

Application
complexity

Structured
programming

1970
49

2004-2005 (T2)

1980

1990

2000

Time (years)

Client-Server Computing - Lecture 1

50

Why Grid?

Distributed parallel processing across a network
Natural evolution of distributed systems and the
Internet.
Key concept: “the ability to negotiate resource-sharing
arrangements”
Characteristics of grid computing


Client-server
Classes
monolithic

Grid Computing


Component
programming




Coordinates independent resources
Uses open standards and interfaces
Quality of service
Allows for heterogeneity of computers
Distribution across large geographical boundaries
Loose coupling of computers




51

What can the grid do that existing technology cannot
do?
Grid infrastructure and application architecture form a
global computing framework facilitating sharing of
resources and schedulability of jobs by matching their
needs with available pool of compute and storage
resources.
Compute cycles can be tapped on demand from
sources other then yours.
Wasted cycles from idle sources can be utilized for
use in needed application.
Grid is molding computing into an utility similar to
utilities we are used to: electricity and telephone.

2004-2005 (T2)

Client-Server Computing - Lecture 1

52

13

8/4/2011

Platform Virtualization










Logical representation of resources not
constrained by physical limitations

Host operating system provides an abstraction
layer for running virtual guest OSs
Key is the “hypervisor” or “virtual machine
monitor”

►One

Enables guest OSs to run in isolation of other OSs
Run multiple types of OSs

Increases utilization of physical servers
Enables portability of virtual servers between
physical servers
Increases security of physical host server

►Many

Why are Organizations moving to Grid Computing & Virtualization ?

• Operational costs far exceed the
budget for new hardware

change and adjust

54

Public
Internet/
Intranet
Clients

Simplify Server & Storage
Environment

Firewalls

Cost of I/T Support vs. Servers
Spending
(USB$)
$200

SSL Appliances

Web Servers

30

ERP
App
Sec

$160
25

$140

Routers
(Layer 3
Switches)

Layer 4-7
Switches

Installed Base
(M Units)
35

$180

$120

• Hardware and Software technology
now exists that dynamically allocates
servers & storage to applications ondemand

look like one

►Dynamically

53

• Existing computing capacity is highly
underutilized

look like many

20

Layer 2
Switches

File/Print
Servers

Caching Appliances

$100
15

$80
$60

10

SCM

$40
5

$20
$0
1996 ’97 ’98 ’99 2000 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08
New server spending (USM$) 3% CAGR

ERP

App

SCM
Gate
Gate
Gate

Gate

FS 7
WS
Mgmt
ERP
Web



Virtualization

FS

WS

Mgmt

ERP

Web

Sec
Storage
Fibre
Switches

Cost of mgmt. & admin. 10% CAGR

Storage
Fibre
Switches

Increases: Utilization of existing I/T assets.
Reduces: I/T Support Costs, Administrative Complexity
Improves: ROI, Quality of Service, Staff Productivity

Storage Area Network

*IDC – CEO Study; Customer Adoption of On-Demand Enterprises.

55

56

14

8/4/2011

Simplify Server & Storage
Environment

Public
Internet/
Intranet
Clients

Firewalls

SCM
Gate
Gate

ERP
App
Sec

SCM
Gate
Gate

Storage Area Network
Storage Storage Storage
Pool
Pool
Pool

Storage Virtualization

Routers
(Layer 3
Switches)

FS 7
WS
Mgmt
ERP
Web

ERP
App
Sec

Public
Internet/
Intranet
Clients

Routers
(Layer 3
Switches)

FS 7
WS
Mgmt
ERP
Web

Firewalls

Facilitate Data & Application
Movement

Storage Area Network

Benefits
 Reduce mgmt
costs
 Increase asset
utilization
 Enhance
security &
performance
 Shared access

57

Storage Storage Storage
Pool
Pool
Pool

Benefits
 Increase application
availability
 Simplify data
migration
 Flexibility & choice

Storage Virtualization

58

Utility Computing

Increase Business Resilience
Public
Internet/
Intranet
Clients

ERP
App
Sec

SCM
Gate
Gate

Routers
(Layer 3
Switches)

FS 7
WS
Mgmt
ERP
Web

Firewalls

Storage Area Network
SAN
Storage Storage
Storage Storage
Storage
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool

Storage Virtualization
Storage Virt

59

Benefits
 Lower disaster
recovery cost
 Reduce planned
outages
 Faster recovery
time

 “Computing

may someday be organized
as a public utility” - John McCarthy, MIT
Centennial in 1961
 Huge computational and storage
capabilities available from utilities
 Metered billing (pay for what you use)
 Simple to use interface to access the
capability (e.g., plugging into an outlet)
60

15

8/4/2011

Consumer Software Revolution

Web 2.0



Flickr combines a social network with user generated content.
Users can work together to collaborate on photo projects and use
each others’ tags to find new photos. Flickr also has an API for
web services to integrate photo collections with blogs and other
apps.

Is not a standard but an evolution in using the
WWW
Web 2.0 is the trend of using the full potential
of the web






Flickr is a social network for
sharing photos.

Viewing the Internet as a computing platform
Running interactive applications through a web
browser
Leveraging interconnectivity and mobility of devices
The “long tail” (profits in selling specialized small
market goods)
Enhanced effectiveness with greater human
participation

My contacts “tags”
are available to me
Flickr shows me
photos from my
network

61

Why Web 2.0?
• The original conception of the web (in this context,
labeled Web 1.0) comprised static HTML pages that
were updated rarely, if at all.
• The success of the dot-com era depended on a more
dynamic web (sometimes labeled Web 1.5) where
content management systems served dynamic HTML
(and .php and .asp etc) web pages
•The Internet and the web was seen as just another
channel or medium by which consumers and providers
can communicate, collaborate, and transact

16

8/4/2011

Enterprise Software Revolution

Software as a Service (SaaS)
HARDWARE

DESKTOP OS

SERVER OS

DATABASE

APPLICATION

LicenseDATABASE

License
APPLICATION

MaintainLicense
MaintainLicense
Maintain
Back-up License
HARDWARE
DESKTOP
OS License
SERVERMaintain
OS
DATABASE
APPLICATION
License
Patch Maintain
UpgradeBack-up
LicensePatch Maintain
LicensePatch Maintain
LicenseTune Maintain
License
License

Replace PatchMaintain
Replace PatchMaintain
Replace PatchMaintain
Upgrade TuneMaintain
MigrateUpgrade
Back-up
ReplacePatch

ReplacePatch

Replace

SaaS

HARDWARE

DESKTOP OS

ReplacePatch

Replace

SERVER OS

UpgradeTune

Replace

DATABASE

Suite (ex: NetSuite)

is hosting applications on the
Internet as a service (both consumer and
enterprise)
 An offshoot or the evolutionary
descendant of the Application Service
Provider Model
 Salesforce.com and NetSuite early
pioneers of the model

Ecommerce

 SaaS

License
HARDWARE License
DESKTOP OS License
SERVER OS

CRM

Financials

On-Premise

Upgrade
Migrate

Upgrade

Migrate

APPLICATION
Subscribe

65

Three Features of
Mature SaaS Applications

Service Oriented Architectures

 Scalable


 Service

Handle growing amounts of work in a graceful
manner





 Multi-tenancy






Use of web services to compose complex,
customizable, distributed applications
 Encapsulate legacy applications
 Organize stovepiped applications into
collective integrated services
 Interoperability and extensibility

driven configurability

Instead of customizing the application for a
customer (requiring code changes), one allows the
user to configure the application through metadata

service requestors, service registry, service
providers



One application instance may be serving hundreds
of companies
Opposite of multi-instance where each customer is
provisioned their own server running one instance

 Metadata

Oriented Architectures

Model for using web services

67
67

68

17

8/4/2011

Service Level Agreements
(SLAs)

Web Services

 Contract

between customers and service
providers of the level of service to be
provided
 Contains performance metrics (e.g.,
uptime, throughput, response time)
 Problem management details
 Documented security capabilities
 Contains penalties for non-performance

• Web Services
– Self-describing and stateless modules that perform discrete
units of work and are available over the network
– “Web service providers offer APIs that enable developers to
exploit functionality over the Internet, rather than delivering
full-blown applications.” - Infoworld
– Standards based interfaces (WS-I Basic Profile)
• e.g., SOAP, WSDL, WS-Security
• Enabling state: WS-Transaction, Choreography

– Many loosely coupled interacting modules form a single
logical system (e.g., legos)

69

Autonomic System Computing





70
70

Web application frameworks


Complex computing systems that manage
themselves
Decreased need for human administrators to
perform lower level tasks
Autonomic properties: Purposeful, Automatic,
Adaptive, Aware
IBM‟s 4 properties: self-healing, selfconfiguration, self-optimization, and selfprotection
IT labor costs are 18 times that of equipment costs.

Coding frameworks for enabling dynamic web
sites






Supported by most major software languages
Example capabilities



The number of computers is growing at 38% each year.



71

Streamline web and DB related programming
operations (e.g., web services support)
Creation of Web 2.0 applications



Separation of business logic from the user interface
(e.g., Model-view-controller architecture)
Authentication, Authorization, and Role Based
Access Control (RBAC)
Unified APIs for SQL DB interactions
Session management
URL mapping
72

18

8/4/2011

Commoditization of IT

Free and Open Source Software
 External

„mega-clouds‟ must focus on
using their massive scale to reduce costs
 Usually use free software
Proven adequate for cloud deployments
 Open source
 Owned by provider


 Need


it is a transport mechanism – carries digital information.
it has more value when shared than when used in isolation.
Standardization – each stage in the evolution of IT has increased the
standardization and homogenization.
Highly replicable – the most pure commodity – bytes of data.
Perfect Delivery Channel – third party purchases similar to electric power
by purchasing fee based services “the grid.”

to keep per server cost low

Subject to rapid price deflation – Moore‟s Law.

Simple commodity hardware



IT has all the characteristics of a infrastructural technology.

Handle failures in software
73

Service Oriented IT

Sprint to Commoditization
Information Technology

Generally

Electric Power Growth

160

Railway Growth



140

350

12000

120

80

60

40

300

railroad tracks in 1000s of kilometers

100

US generating capacity, in megawatts

Number of Host Computers on the Internet (in millions)

14000

Specifically

10000

250

8000
200



Are aligned to business needs
Promote an integrated, quality approach
 Meet service targets in a cost effective manner


100

4000



50

2000

20

0
1841

1846

1851

0

1856

1861

1866

1871

1876

Year

1889

1990

Set of disciplines for managing IT services that:

150

6000

0

Philosophies and practices used to manage IT
Services

1899

1992

1994

1902

1996 Year

1907

1912

1998

1917

2000

1920

2002

Year

19

8/4/2011

Google Cloud User:
City of Washington D.C.




Vivek Kundra, CTO for the District (now OMB e-gov
administrator)
Migrating 38,000 employees to Google Apps
Replace office software




Cloud Computing Case Studies



CLOUD COMPUTING CASE
STUDIES
AND SECURITY MODELS
77



“It's a fundamental change to the way our government
operates by moving to the cloud. Rather than owning the
infrastructure, we can save millions.”, Mr. Kundra



500,000+ organizations use Google Apps
GE moved 400,000 desktops from Microsoft Office to Google
Apps and then migrated them to Zoho for privacy concerns78



Case Study: Facebook‟s Use of Open
Source and Commodity Hardware (8/08)

vCloud Initiative



 Goal:




“Federate resources between internal IT and
external clouds”
 Application portability
 Elasticity and scalability, disaster recovery,
service level management


 vServices

Gmail
Google Docs (word processing and spreadsheets)
Google video for business
Google sites (intranet sites and wikis)



Jonathan Heiliger, Facebook's vice president of technical
operations
80 million users + 250,000 new users per day
50,000 transactions per second, 10,000+ servers
Built on open source software






provide APIs and technologies



79

Web and App tier:
Apache, PHP, AJAX
Middleware tier: Memcached (Open source caching)
Data tier:
MySQL (Open source DB)

Thousands of DB instances store data in distributed
fashion (avoids collisions of many users accessing the
same DB)
“We don't need fancy graphics chips and PCI cards," he
said. “We need one USB port and optimized power and
airflow. Give me one CPU, a little memory and one
power supply. If it fails, I don't care. We are solving the
redundancy problem in software.”
80

20

8/4/2011

Case Study: IBM-Google Cloud
(8/08)

Case Study: Amazon Cloud

 “Google

and IBM plan to roll out a worldwide
network of servers for a cloud computing
infrastructure” – Infoworld
 Initiatives for universities
 Architecture


Open source
Linux hosts
Xen virtualization (virtual machine monitor)
 Apache Hadoop (file system)

 Amazon

 New



Availability zones



Elastic IP addresses








IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager

Place applications in multiple locations for failovers
Static IP addresses that can be dynamically remapped to
point to different instances (not a DNS change)

81

82

Amazon Cloud Users:
New York Times and Nasdaq
(4/08)
Both companies used Amazon‟s cloud offering
New York Times









“open-source software for reliable, scalable, distributed
computing”

Features






cloud components

Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
 Simple Storage Service (S3)
 SimpleDB


Didn‟t coordinate with Amazon, used a credit card!
Used EC2 and S3 to convert 15 million scanned news articles to PDF
(4TB data)
Took 100 Linux computers 24 hours (would have taken months on NYT
computers
“It was cheap experimentation, and the learning curve isn't steep.” –
Derrick Gottfrid, Nasdaq

Nasdaq





Uses S3 to deliver historic stock and fund information
Millions of files showing price changes of entities over 10 minute
segments
“The expenses of keeping all that data online [in Nasdaq servers] was
too high.” – Claude Courbois, Nasdaq VP
Created lightweight Adobe AIR application to let users view data 83

Migrating to the Cloud
SECURE MIGRATION PATHS
FOR CLOUD COMPUTING
84

21

8/4/2011

The „Why‟ and „How‟ of Cloud Migration
 There

 Private

are many benefits that explain
why to migrate to clouds


Balancing Threat Exposure and
Cost Effectiveness
clouds may have less threat
exposure than community clouds which
have less threat exposure than public
clouds.
 Massive public clouds may be more cost
effective than large community clouds
which may be more cost effective than
small private clouds.

Cost savings, power savings, green
savings, increased agility in software
deployment

 Cloud

security issues may drive and
define how we adopt and deploy
cloud computing solutions
85

Cloud Computing Ecosystem

Introduction for Mapua

86

Growth

Introduction for Mapua

22

8/4/2011

End

Introduction for Mapua

23


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