# Instruction Manual.pdf

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Definitions\$and\$Background\$Preparation:\$

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Circuit!–!a!complete!and!closed!path!around!which!a!circulating!electric!current!can!flow.!
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Voltage!–!a!differential!measurement!of!the!electric!potential!to!move!charged!particles!
from!one!point!to!the!other!point!that!is!being!measured!and!is!measured!in!Volts!(V).!
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Current!–!the!flow!of!charged!particles!through!a!conducting!material.!It!is!measured!in!
Amperes!or!Amps!(A).!!
Current!is!usually!labeled!I.!The!convention!for!current!flow!is!the!direction!that!
positively!charged!particles!would!flow!within!a!given!electric!field,!or!simply!put!
from!a!higher!potential!node!to!a!lower!potential!node!if!the!circuit!element!the!
current!is!flowing!through!is!a!passive!element!–!that!is!it!does!not!provide!power!to!
the!circuit,!it!dissipates!power!from!the!circuit.!A!common!analogy!is!to!think!of!the!
current!as!water!and!potential!to!be!the!same!type!of!potential!that!gravity!is!in!
regards!to!height!away!from!the!earth’s!center!of!gravity.!Looking!at!Figure!6,!Node!
2!is!at!a!higher!potential!than!Node!3!with!respect!to!R1,!so!the!current!flowing!
through!R1!is!in!that!direction!(from!left!to!right)!and!is!labeled!with!an!arrow!and!I.!
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Node!–!any!point!in!a!circuit!that!connects!2!or!more!circuit!elements.!!
The!voltage!along!any!node!is!same!anywhere!along!that!node.!That!means!that!if!a!
wire!is!connecting!2!elements,!anywhere!on!that!wire,!the!voltage!potential!is!the!
same.!
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Passive!element!–!any!circuit!element!that!does!not!provide!power!to!the!circuit.!!
The!resistors!in!this!case!are!the!passive!elements!and!are!labeled!R1!and!R2.!
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The!nodes!have!been!labeled!and!the!
current!direction!shown.!!
Note:!the!+!and!–!signs!indicate!relative!
potential!felt!by!each!circuit!element.!

Figure\$6:\$Schematic\$of\$simple\$resistive\$circuit\$

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Ohm’s!Law!states!that!there!is!a!directly!proportional!relationship!between!the!voltage!and!
the!current!in!a!circuit!with!the!resistance!being!the!constant!of!proportionality.!
! = ! ∙ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&quot;#\$%&amp;'(!1!
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Kirchhoff’s!Voltage!Law!(KVL)!states!that!the!voltages!summed!around!a!closed!loop!equals!
zero.!The!sum!of!all!the!voltage!drops!equals!the!sum!of!the!voltages!supplying!power!to!
the!circuit.!
Voltage!supplied = Node!1!V + Node!2!V + Node!3!V!
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