Instruction Manual.pdf


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Notice!that!Node!1!is!the!reference!node.!That!means!that!the!voltage!at!that!node!is!zero!
and!is!tied!directly!to!ground.!This!simplifies!our!KVL!to!just!the!sum!of!the!voltage!drops!
across!the!2!resistors.!
12V = V!! + V!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'(!2!
!
Equivalent!resistance!is!the!combination!of!all!resistances!in!a!given!circuit.!There!are!
series!combinations,!parallel!combinations,!and!combinations!of!serial!and!parallel.!This!
experiment!deals!solely!with!series!resistances,!which!can!be!calculated!simply!by!the!
algebraic!sum!of!all!the!resistors!in!series.!
!!" = ! !! + !! + !! + ⋯ + !! !!!!!!"#$%&'(!3!
!
!

Theoretical$Calculations:$
!

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1. Use!equation!3!to!determine!the!equivalent!resistance!of!the!circuit!in!figure!6,!!
,
R1,=,220,Ω,and,R2,=,470,Ω.,Therefore,,Req,=,220,Ω,+,470,Ω,=,690,Ω.!!
2. Use!the!calculated!resistance!value!from!step!1!in!equation!1,!Ohm’s!Law,!to!
determine!the!theoretical!current!in!the!circuit.!!
,
Solving,for,I,,the,equation,becomes,! = !/!.,The,Voltage,supplied,to,the,circuit,is,
known,and,the,Resistance,has,been,calculated,,so,the,only,unknown,is,the,current,,I.,
Inputting,values,of,12,V,and,690,Ω,yields,the,theoretical,current,value,of,0.0174,A,or,
17.4,mA.!
3. Use!the!calculated!current!and!the!value!of!R1!in!equation!1,!Ohm’s!Law,!to!
determine!the!voltage!drop!across!R1.!
!
! = ! ∙ !! = !0.0174!A ∙ 220!Ω = 3.83!V!
!
Repeat!with!R2,!using!the!same!current!value.!
!
! = ! ∙ !! = !0.0174!A ∙ 470!Ω = 8.17!V!
!
4. Add!the!results!of!step!3.!Does!this!confirm!KVL!–!is!equation!2!satisfied?!

!
V!! + V!! = 3.83!V + 8.17!V = 12!V✔
Yes,,KVL,is,confirmed.,12,V,is,what,was,supplied,to,the,circuit,and,is,equal,to,the,sum,
of,the,voltage,drops,in,the,circuit.,,
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