Completion Report .pdf

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Wes!Petree!
Embedded!Systems!United,!Inc.!
123!South!St.!316!!
Norman,!OK!73019!
owpetree@esu.com!
405C308C7412!

!

November!30,!2011!
Mobile!Systems,!LLC!!
I.!Needshelp!!
345!Oak!Road!!
Pleasanton,!CA!94588C2708!
!
Dear!Mr.!Needshelp,!
!
Embedded!Systems!United!is!happy!to!report!that!the!HC11!musical!memory!game!
that!was!contracted!has!been!completed.!Attached!you!will!find!a!completion!report!
of!the!entire!project.!
!
We,!at!Embedded!Systems!United,!would!like!to!thank!Mobile!Systems!for!the!
opportunity!to!design!and!develop!this!device.!!
!
Please!feel!free!to!contact!me!to!answer!any!and!all!of!your!questions!you!may!have!
in!regards!to!any!part!of!the!project.!
!
!
Sincerely,!
!
!
Wes!Petree!
Engineering!Project!Manager!

Embedded!Systems!United,!Inc.!
123!South!St.!316!!
Norman,!OK!73019!
405C598C2135!

!

!

!

!

!

!
EXECUTIVE!SUMMARY!

!
Embedded!Systems!United!is!reporting!the!completion!of!the!design!and!development!of!
the!HC11!musical!memory!device!as!contracted!by!Mobile!Systems.!The!project!was!
divided!into!two!phases!–!hardware!and!software.!
!
The!hardware!phase!was!completed!on!November!26th,!one!day!ahead!of!schedule.!All!
components!were!chosen!and!the!circuit!was!tested.!One!issue!arose,!but!not!until!the!
software!phase!was!completed.!A!debounce!issue!with!the!buttons!surfaced.!The!choice!
was!made!to!solve!the!problem!with!software,!instead!of!adding!additional!hardware.!This!
solution!was!the!most!cost!effective!approach!with!no!added!cost!in!components.!
!
The!software!phase!was!completed!on!November!29th.!When!the!software!was!completed!
and!tested,!the!only!issue!to!be!found!was!the!debounce!issue.!!
!
!
!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS!
!
Embedded!Systems!United!would!like!to!thank!Mobile!Systems!for!the!opportunity!to!serve!
in!the!capacity!of!the!design!of!the!HC11!musical!memory!game.!!
!

2!
!

!
!

Table&of&Contents&
!
Background!.............................................................................................................................................!4!
Problem!Statement!..............................................................................................................................................................!4!
Methods!....................................................................................................................................................!4!
Main!Sections!of!Data!...........................................................................................................................!5!
Hardware!.................................................................................................................................................................................!5!
Software!....................................................................................................................................................................................!5!

Management!Plan!.................................................................................................................................!6!
Results!......................................................................................................................................................!7!
Conclusions!.............................................................................................................................................!8!
Appendix!1!–!Schematic!......................................................................................................................!9!
!
!

Table&of&Figures&
!
Chart!1:!Project!Management!Timeline!and!Completion!Dates.!...........................................!6!
Table!1:!Budget!Summary!..................................................................................................................!7!
!

!

3!
!

!

Background&
Embedded!Systems!United!has!developed!a!musical!memory!game!based!off!Freescale’s!
HC11!microprocessor!as!contracted!by!Mobile!Systems.!!
!
The!game!is!a!handheld!musical!memory!game!that!requires!the!user!to!replicate!an!
increasing!random!sequence!of!notes.!As!the!user!successfully!replicates!the!sequence!by!
pressing!the!appropriate!buttons,!a!new!note!is!added!until!the!sequence!has!reached!25!
notes,!at!which!point!the!user!has!won.!
!
The!project!was!divided!into!two!phases.!Phase!one!included!the!design!and!construction!of!
the!hardware!that!was!used.!The!second!phase!dealt!with!developing!the!software!to!
control!the!chosen!hardware!and!make!decisions!based!on!the!input!of!the!user.!
!
Problem&Statement&
The!requirements,!as!set!forth!by!Mobile!Systems,!were!to!be!able!to!play!four!tones!at!
three!different!waveforms!–!sine!wave,!sawCtooth!wave,!and!square!wave!–!and!to!be!able!
to!play!a!25!note!random!sequence!that!the!user!must!replicate!to!successfully!complete;!
beginning!with!one!tone!and!gradually!increasing!to!25!by!the!addition!of!a!new!tone!with!
each!successful!attempt.!
!
Each!of!the!four!tones!were!able!to!be!played!with!one!of!the!above!mentioned!waveforms!
and!had!one!LED!correspond!to!each!–!a!total!of!12!switches!and!LEDs!consisting!of!4!
colors!with!three!of!each.!
!

Methods&
The!switches!were!implemented!using!one!74HCT574!octal!D!flipCflop!and!one!74HCT541!
octal!buffer!controlled!with!two!Chip!Select!signals!and!the!Read/Write!signal.!The!flipCflop!
and!the!buffer!allowed!the!use!a!3!x!4!matrix!to!implement!the!12!switches!on!an!8!bit!
expanded!mode!data!bus.!The!program!would!write!a!one!to!one!of!the!columns!connected!
to!the!flipCflop!and!then!check!the!state!of!the!switches!by!the!buffer!and!moved!to!the!next!
column!if!no!switch!was!found!to!be!pressed.!
!
In!a!similar!fashion,!the!LEDs!used!one!74HCT574!octal!D!flipCflop!to!control!12!LEDs!in!
another!3!x!4!matrix.!!Once,!the!state!of!the!switches!was!known,!the!appropriate!value!
could!be!sent!to!the!flipCflop!to!light!the!corresponding!LED(s).!
!
There!were!two!MCP4261C103E!digital!potentiometers!that!were!implemented!using!the!
SPI!subsystem.!A!new!Slave!Select!signal!needed!to!be!generated!for!the!second!
potentiometer!chip.!Port!A!bit!7!was!used!to!generate!the!required!signal.!Three!output!
4!
!

!
compare!interrupt!routines!were!used!to!write!the!appropriate!value!to!the!potentiometers!
from!three!different!lookCup!tables!–!one!for!sine,!saw,!and!square.!The!actual!OC!pin!on!
Port!A!was!used!to!drive!one!pin!of!the!potentiometer!high!while!the!other!pin!was!tied!to!
ground.!This!assured!that!when!the!interrupt!routine!was!turned!off,!the!signal!would!stop.!!
!
One!74HCT14!Quad!inverter!was!used!to!invert!the!R/W*!signal!on!the!buffer!to!activate!it!
when!called!by!the!software.!One!74HCT08!Quad!AND!gate!chip!was!used!for!the!logic!to!
enable!the!flipCflops!when!called!by!the!software.!One!LM324!quad!opCamp!chip!was!used!
for!replicating!the!output!from!the!digital!potentiometers.!A!TDA7052A!audio/power!
amplifier!was!utilized!to!drive!a!two!inch!8!Ω!speaker.!
!
Also!utilized,!was!a!character!LCD!display!that!was!connected!via!the!expanded!mode!bus.!
!
!

Main&Sections&of&Data&
The!design!of!the!system!consisted!of!two!phases!–!hardware!and!software.!A!certain!
portion!of!the!hardware!needed!to!be!completed!before!the!software!could!begin.!
!
Hardware&
To!begin!the!hardware,!we!knew!we!would!need!a!way!to!implement!12!switches!with!
LEDs!corresponding!to!them,!as!well!as!a!digital!to!analog!converter!to!output!a!digital!
signal!to!a!speaker.!!
!
The!project!began!by!implementing!a!matrix!for!the!switches!and!LEDs.!This!was!needed,!
as!there!are!only!8!data!bits!available!from!the!HC11.!
!
The!next!task!was!to!design!a!digital!to!analog!converter.!The!decision!was!made!to!use!
digital!potentiometers!and!update!the!wiper!position!periodically!to!create!the!waveform.!
This!idea!was!chosen!over!an!RC2R!resistor!ladder!due!to!cost.!The!cost!of!the!
potentiometer!chip!was!approximately!30%!cheaper!than!implementing!an!8!bit!RC2R!
ladder!with!1%!resistors.!
!
Software&
Once!the!hardware!was!designed,!the!next!task!was!to!write!software!that!not!only!
controlled!the!hardware,!but!also!allowed!the!user!to!input!the!sequence.!!
!
The!software!also!used!an!8Cbit!linear!feedback!shift!register!to!create!the!random!
sequence.!It!was!decided!that!to!save!the!cost!of!additional!hardware!to!create!a!shift!
5!
!

!
register,!the!software!utilized!the!built!in!function!of!the!microprocessor!to!create!a!linear!
feedback!shift!register.!Although!the!cost!is!miniscule!for!one!unit,!in!mass!production,!the!
savings!are!tremendous.!
!
Four!modes!of!gameplay!were!implemented!into!the!system:!
• Easy!mode:!The!beginner!mode!played!only!the!square!waves!–!a!total!of!four!tones!
• Medium!mode:!The!medium!mode!played!all!available!notes!and!waveforms!–!a!
total!of!12!tones!
• Hard!mode:!The!hard!mode!plays!only!the!square!waves!like!the!easy!mode,!but!
without!the!LEDs!lighting!
• Just!Notes!mode:!Just!notes!mode!allows!the!user!to!push!the!buttons!and!play!the!
corresponding!tones!and!waveforms!without!having!to!play!in!a!game!mode.!
!
!

Management&Plan&
Included!is!a!Gantt!chart!that!shows!the!project!timeline!and!its!completion!and!the!project!
budget!summary.!
!
As!previously!reported,!there!was!one!week!of!dead!time!due!to!some!internal!issues!with!
accounting!personnel.!All!personnel!involved!have!been!relieved!of!their!employment.!!
!
The!schedule!has!completed!within!the!specified!deadline.!
!
Chart!1:!Project!Management!Timeline!and!Completion!Dates.!

11/6!

11/13!

11/20!

11/27!

HARDWARE!PHASE!
HARDWARE!DESIGN!
CIRCUIT!BOARD!DESIGN!
CIRCUIT!TESTING!
FBI!INVESTIGATION!
CIRCUIT!CONSTRUCTION!
SOFTWARE!PHASE!
SOFTWARE!DESIGN!
SOFTWARE!DEVELOPMENT!
SOFTWARE!DEVELOPMENT!CONT.!
SOFTWARE!TESTING!

!
6!
!

!
Table!1:!Budget!Summary!

!! !!
Personnel&
!! Engineering!
!!
!
Other&Direct&Expenses&
!! Travel!
!! Supplies!
!! Communication!
!! Computer!Services!
!!
!!
!
Overhead&
!!
!
Contingency&and&Profit&
!!
!!

!

!! !!
Senior!Engineer!
Hardware!Engineers!
Software!Engineers!
!!

!!
!!
!!
!!
!!
!!
!!
!!
Total:& !!
!!
!!
!!
!!
!!
Total:& !!

Budget&Summary&
!!
&&$90,232.00&
!!
!!
!$1,200.00!!
!$2,500.00!!
!$800.00!!
!$1,500.00!!
&$6,000.00&&
!!
&$74,562.00&&
!!
!$34,400.00&&
!!
!$199,194.00&&

!!
!!
!!
!Total:! !!

Engineering&Personnel&Detail&
!$22,978.00!!
$34,186.00!!
$33,068.00!!
&$90,232.00&&

!

Results&
The!design!of!the!hardware!began!with!choosing!the!components.!Once!the!parts!were!
chosen!and!assembled,!the!circuit!was!tested!to!ensure!that!it!was!able!to!communicate!
with!the!processor!as!designed.!No!issues!were!found!with!the!hardware.!
!
During!the!design!of!the!software,!it!was!discovered!that!there!was!a!debounce!issue!with!
the!switches.!Although,!there!was!no!issue!aurally!with!the!switches,!the!processor!was!
able!to!pick!up!multiple!pressing!of!the!switch,!although!it!was!pressed!only!once.!
!
This!problem!was!solved!with!software,!rather!than!by!hardware,!to!save!on!the!cost!of!
additional!components.!Again,!the!single!cost!of!the!additional!hardware!is!insignificant,!
but!the!mass!production!costs!would!grow!significantly.!A!small!delay,!unnoticeable!to!a!
human,!was!added!to!the!end!of!each!sequence!to!find!if!a!switch!was!pressed!before!
7!
!

!
looking!again,!which!solved!the!debounce!issue.!By!approaching!the!solution!with!software,!
rather!than!by!hardware,!there!was!no!additional!cost.!
!
!

Conclusions&
Mobile!Systems!contracted!embedded!Systems!United!for!the!design!and!development!of!
an!HC11!musical!memory!system.!The!system!was!to!utilize!12!switches!and!create!four!
tones!by!way!of!three!different!waveforms!–!sawCtooth,!sine,!and!square!waveforms.!A!
random!sequence!of!up!to!25!notes!was!to!be!played!requiring!the!user!to!replicate!that!
sequence.!
!
The!project!met!no!major!complications!that!threatened!its!completion.!Only!two!minor!
complications!arose!–!both!met!with!satisfying!results.!The!project!was!completed!on!the!
agreed!upon!date.!
!
The!HC11!musical!memory!game!system!has!completed!on!time.!All!of!the!required!
specifications!were!accomplished.!All!the!known!issues!from!testing!the!device!have!been!
solved!and!the!device!is!ready!for!production.!
!

8!
!

!

Appendix&1&–&Schematic&
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9

S10

S11

S12

U5

PC1
PC2
PC3
PC4

CS1

4

U3B
6

5

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1D
2D
3D
4D
5D
6D
7D
8D

1
11

OE
CLK

1Q
2Q
3Q
4Q
5Q
6Q
7Q
8Q

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12

74HCT574N

74HCT08
U4
R/W *
CS2

74HCT14
U1

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
11

PC5
PC6
PC7

OE1

12

OE2

1

A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

Y8
Y7
Y6
Y5
Y4
Y3
Y2
Y1

R10
R9
1kΩ
R1
1kΩ
1kΩ

74HTC541

R5
330Ω

R6
560Ω

R7
560Ω

R8
560Ω

LED1

LED2

LED3

LED4

LED5

LED6

LED7

LED8

LED9

LED10

LED11

LED12

Q1
U2

PC1
PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5
PC6
PC7
CS0
1

R/W *

2

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1D
2D
3D
4D
5D
6D
7D
8D

1
11

OE
CLK

1Q
2Q
3Q
4Q
5Q
6Q
7Q
8Q

74HCT574N

U3A

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12

BS170

Q2

BS170

3

74HCT08
Q3

BS170

!
9!
!

!
U5

SS*
SCK
M OSI

~CS
SCK
SDI
VSS
P1B
P1W
P1A

W AVE2
OC3

VDD
SDO
~SHDN
~WP
P0B
P0W
P0A

M ISO

MCP4261-103E

W AVE1
OC2

U6

SS1*
SCK
M OSI

~CS
SCK
SDI
VSS
P1B
P1W
P1A

VDD
SDO
~SHDN
~WP
P0B
P0W
P0A

M ISO

MCP4261-103E

W AVE3
OC5

!
U8A

11
3

W AVE1

R9

1
2

1kΩ

LM324N

4

R16

Ground:!!!
!!U5/U6!C!!
!!U7!C!! !
!!U8A,B,CC!!
5V:!
!!U5/U6!C!!
!!U7!C!! !
!!U8A,B,CC!

VSS!!
GRND1,!GRND2!
Pin!11!
VDD,!~SHDN,!~WP!
Vp!

Pin!4!

1kΩ
U8C

11
10

W AVE2

R10

9

LM324N

4

1kΩ
11

U8B

5

1kΩ

IN+

0.47µF

GND1
VC

R13
10kΩ

R17

W AVE3

Vp

8

1kΩ

R11

U7
C1

OUTn.c.
GND2

R15

Speaker

OUT+

TDA7052A

VCC
5V

7
6
4

LM324N

R14

50k

R18
1kΩ

!
30%

10!
!


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