cardinal chronology .pdf

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I¿Zn\mƒ tPmk^v ]mtd°m´n¬: Hc\pkvacWw
1969 am¿®v 28˛mw XobXnbmWv {it≤bamb B PohnXw Bcw`n°p∂Xv {ioi¶cs‚
P∑tZiamb ImeSn°SpØp≈ InSßqcn¬ \n∂mWv. 1912 G{]n¬ H∂n\mWv C´nb®≥ F∂
A]c\maØm¬ Adnbs∏´ncp∂ I¿Zn\mƒ P\n®Xv. C´ocm Geoiz ZºXnIfpsS \memasØ
]p{X\mbn´mbncp∂p At±lØns‚ P\\w. A¶amen thßq¿, aqfn°pfw F∂o ÿeßfn¬
{]mYanI hnZym`ymkw \n¿hln®Xn\ptijw A¶amen sk‚ v tPmk^vkv anUn¬ kvIqfnepw
Bephm sk‚ v tacokv sslkvIqfnepw ]T\w ]p¿Ønbm°n. 1930˛¬ FdWmIpfw XncplrZb
s]‰nskan\mcnbn¬ tN¿∂p ]ptcmlnX ]T\w Bcw`n®p. 1933 P\phcnbn¬ Im≥Un t]∏¬
skan\mcnbn¬ Abbv ° s∏´p ssZhimkv { XØnepw XXzimkv { XØnepw {]ikv X hnPbw
Icÿam°n 1939˛BKÃp amkw 24˛mw XobXn Im≥Unbn¬ h®p sshZnI\mbn A`ntjIw
sNøs∏´p.
sshZnI\mbn BZyw tkh\w sNbvXXp Rmd°¬ ]≈nbnse AknkvtX¥n Bbn´mWv.
1941˛¬ At±lw Im≥Unbnte°v D]cn]T\m¿∞w t]mbn. AhnsS tUmIvStd‰p {]ikvXambn
Icÿam°nbXn\p tijw ]dhq¿ AknkvtX¥nbmbpw NpWßpwthen, amdºn≈n F∂o
CShIIfnse hnImcnbmbpw s]cpam\q¿ ]≈nbpsS NpaXeIƒ \n¿hln®psIm≠p Xs∂
{]ikvXamw hn[w _n.F _ncpZw t\Sn. 1947˛¬ kXyZo]w ]{Xm[n]cmbn \nbanX\mbn. tIcf
ss{Ikv X hcpsS {]nbwIcamb {]kn≤oIcWambn kXyZo]w amdnbXp I¿Zn\mfns‚
]{Xm[n]XyImeØv BWv. kXyZo]w ]{Xm[n]¿ Bbncn°ptºmƒ BWv At±lw sa{Xm≥
ÿm\tØbv°v Db¿Øs∏Sp∂Xv. 1953 HIvtSm_¿ 28˛\p ]uckvXy XncpkwLØns‚ A∂sØ
sk{I´dnbmbncp∂ I¿Zn\mƒ Sn cmMvv tIcfw kμ¿in® 1953 \hw_¿ 11 \p BWv ]mtd°m´n¬
sa{Xm\mb hnhcw {]Jym]n°s∏´Xv. 1953 \hw_¿ 30˛\v sk‚ v B≥{Uqkns‚ Xncp\mfn¬
I¿Zn\mƒ Sn cmMv ]mtd°m´nens\ sa{Xm\mbn hmgn®p. ""\o Iev]n°p∂Xp sNøphm\p≈
A\p{Klw XctW'' F∂ hn. AKkvXot\mkns‚ hmNIw ap{ZmhmIyambn Xncs™SpØpsIm≠v
ssZhØn\p Xs∂ kpºq¿Wambn ka¿∏n°pIbmWv At±lw sNbvXXv.
FdWmIpfw sa{Xmt∏meoØmbpsS klmb sa{Xm≥ F∂ \nebn¬ At±lw B¿®p_nj]v
AKÃn≥ I≠Øn¬ Xncpta\nbpsS hnizkvX klNmcnbmbn. hnImcn P\d¬ F∂ \nebnepw
]n∂oSp I≠Øn¬ Xncpta\n A¥cn®t∏mƒ AUvan\nkvt{S‰¿ F∂ \nebnepw {]h¿Øn®p
_nj]v ]mtd°m´nens\ 1956 Pqsse 20 \p FdWmIpfw AXncq]XbpsS sa{Xmt∏meoØ Bbn
]{¥≠mw ]obpkv ]m∏ \nban®p.
tIcf k`m Ncn{XØnse ]e kp{][m\ kw`h߃°pw At±lØns‚ `cWImew km£yw
hln®n´p≠v. IpSntb‰°mcmb ae_mdnse k`mwK߃°pth≠nbp≈ Xet»cn cq]Xm ÿm]\w,
Nß\mt»cn AXncq]XbpsS sXt° AXr¿Øn I\ymIpamcn hsc hnIk∏n°¬, Xr»q¿
cq]XbpsS ]cn[nbn¬ tImbºØq¿ Xq]Xm {]tZißfpw Xet»cn cq]XbpsS AXrØnbn¬
ssakq¿ awKem]pcw cq]Xm {]tZi߃ Dƒs∏Spج F∂nh FSpØp]dtb≠hbmWv.
Nß\mt»cn cq]Xsb AXncq]Xbmbn Db¿ØnbXpw FdWmIpfw AXncq]Xsb hn`Pn®p
tImXawKew cq]Xbv°p P∑w \¬InbXpw Cu ImeL´Øn¬ Xs∂bmWv.
]mtd°m´n¬ ]nXmhns‚ ImeØv AXncq]XbneqS\ofw PmXnaXt`Zat\y At\Iw
kmaqly{]h¿Ø\߃ \S∂n´p≠v.1965˛apX¬ AXncq]Xbn¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂ tkhv F ^manen
]≤XnbneqsS At\Imbncßsf Zmcn{ZyØn¬ \n∂p IcIb‰m≥ km[n®n´p≠v. 25 Bip]{XnIfpw
11 Unkvs]≥kdnIfpw ÿm]n®psIm≠p s]mXp P\ßfpsS BtcmKy kwc£WImcyØn¬
I\Ø kw`mh\bmWv FdWmIpfwAXncq]XbpsS Cu kmcYn \evInbn´p≈Xv.

2
km¿h{XnI k`bpsS hf¿®bv°p I¿Zn\mƒ ]mtd°m´n¬ \n¿hln®n´p≈ tkh\w
Ncn{XØn\p ad°m≥ Ignbn√. temIØns‚ Xs∂ `mhn°p cq]w \evInb c≠mw hØn°m≥
Iu¨knen¬ ]s¶SpØp [ocamb {]kvXmh\Iƒ sNbvXpsIm≠p Xs‚ km∂n≤yw {]ISam°n.
1969 am¿®v 28˛m\p I¿Zn\mƒ ÿm\tØbv°p Db¿Øs∏´t∏mƒ ]mtd°m´n¬ ]nXmhn\p
BtKmf k`bpsS KXnhnKXnIƒ \nb{¥n°p∂Xn¬ `mK`m°mI\p≈ Ahkchpw e`n®p.
am¿]m∏amsc Xncs™Sp°m\p≈ tIm¨t¢hn¬ c≠p {]mhiyw ]s¶Sp°m\pw At±lØn\p
Ahkcap≠mbn. c≠mw hØn°m≥ Iu¨knens‚ cq]tcJ Xømdm°nb {]nt∏m´dn IΩoj\wKw,
]uckvXy k`IfpsS s]m¥n^n°¬ IΩoj≥ AwKw, kotdm ae_m¿ k`bnse sa{Xmt∏meoØ
F∂ \nebn¬ A¥¿t±iob _nj]vkv kn\Unse ÿncmwKw, ]uckvXy XncpkwLØns‚
I¨kƒ´¿, bqWn‰n sk{I´dntb‰v AwKw, Hmdnbs‚¬ Im\m≥ tem IΩoj≥ AwKw, ]uckvXy
Im\≥tem IΩoj≥ {]knU‚ v F∂o At\Iw ÿm\ßfn¬ Ccp∂p kvXpXy¿l tkh\w
A\pjvTn°m≥ I¿Zn\mƒ ]mtd°m´nen\p km[n®n´p≠v.
tIcf _nj]vkv tIm¨{^≥kv {]knU‚ v kotdm ae_m¿ _nj]vkv tIm¨{^≥kv
{]knU‚ v, AJnte¥ym _nj]vkv tIm¨{^≥kv {]knU‚ v F∂o \neIfnse√mw `mcXk`bpsS
\bcq]nIcWØnepw \n¿amW {]h¿Ø\Ifnepw I¿Zn\mƒ \evInb kw`mh\Iƒ Ncn{XØn\p
ad°m\mhp∂X√.
I¿Zn\mƒ ]mtd°m´n¬ P∑\m Hcp FgpØpImcm\mbncp∂p. Hcp kmlnXyImcs‚
klrZbXzhpw Hcp \ncq]Is‚ hna¿i\ NmXpcnbpw At±lØns‚ FgpØpIfn¬ sXfn™p
ImWmw. At±lw FgpXnbn´p≈ CSbteJ\߃, Ip™p߃°p≈ IØpIƒ, ktlmZco
am¿°p≈ IØpIƒ, sshZnI¿°p≈ IØpIƒ F∂nhsb√mw kmlnXyckw Xpfpºp∂hbmWv.
""Rms\s‚ ZrjvSnbn¬' F∂ t]cn¬ I¿Zn\mƒ aq∂p hmeyßfnembn FgpXnb BflIY aebmf
kmlnXyØnse BflIYm imJbn¬ A]q¿hamb Hcp krjvSnbmWv. 1984 G{]n¬ H∂mw XobXn
IYm]pcpj≥ FdWmIpfw AXncq]XbpsS ÿm\w Hgn™t∏mƒ FgpXm\pw hmbn°m\pambn
Xr°mIcbnep≈ hntPm`h\mWv Xncs™SpØXv. 1987 s^{_phcn 20˛mw XobXn I¿Zn\mƒ
tPmk^v ]mtd°m´n¬ Xs‚ Hm´w hnPbIcambn ]q¿Ønbm°n ssZhk∂n[nbntebv°p
bm{Xbmbn.
^m. Ipcymt°mkv ap≠mS≥


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