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Process Control Fundamentals.pdf


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Table of Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................... 1
Performance Objective ............................................................................................................................. 1
The Importance of Process Control ............................................................................................................... 1
Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 1
The Importance of Process Control................................................................................................................. 2
Process...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Process Control ........................................................................................................................................ 2
Reduce Variability ............................................................................................................................. 2
Increase Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 3
Ensure Safety ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Control Theory Basics .................................................................................................................................... 4
Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 4
The Control Loop............................................................................................................................................. 5
Three Tasks...............................................................................................................................................5
Process Control Terms ....................................................................................................................................6
Process Variable.......................................................................................................................................6
Setpoint .....................................................................................................................................................6
Measured Variables, Process Variables, and Manipulated Variables.....................................................7
Error .........................................................................................................................................................7
Offset.........................................................................................................................................................8
Load Disturbance .....................................................................................................................................8
Control Algorithm.....................................................................................................................................8
Manual and Automatic Control ................................................................................................................9
Closed and Open Control Loops ..............................................................................................................10
Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology ...................................................................................... 11
Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 11
Control Loop Equipment and Technology....................................................................................................... 12
Primary Elements/Sensors........................................................................................................................ 12
Transducers and Converters..................................................................................................................... 13
Transmitters.............................................................................................................................................. 13
Signals ...................................................................................................................................................... 14
Pneumatic Signals ............................................................................................................................. 14
Analog Signals................................................................................................................................... 14
Digital Signals ................................................................................................................................... 15
Indicators.................................................................................................................................................. 15
Recorders.................................................................................................................................................. 16
Controllers................................................................................................................................................ 16
Correcting Elements/Final Control Elements .......................................................................................... 18
Actuators................................................................................................................................................... 18

Fundamentals of Control

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