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Process Control Fundamentals.pdf


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Table of Contents
ISA Symbology .................................................................................................................................................19
Symbols ................................................................................................................................................... 20
Pumps .............................................................................................................................................. 21
Piping and Connections .................................................................................................................. 22
Identification Letters............................................................................................................................... 23
Tag Numbers........................................................................................................................................... 23
ISA Symbology Review ........................................................................................................................... 26
Controller Algorithms and Tuning ...............................................................................................................27
Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................27
Controller Algorithms.....................................................................................................................................28
Discrete Controllers ................................................................................................................................28
Multistep Controllers................................................................................................................................29
Continuous Controllers ............................................................................................................................29
Why controllers need tuning?...........................................................................................................................31
Gain ..........................................................................................................................................................31
Proportional Mode ..........................................................................................................................................33
Proportional Gain ....................................................................................................................................33
Proportional Band ....................................................................................................................................33
Limits of Proportional action ...................................................................................................................34
Determining the Controller Output..........................................................................................................34
Proportional Action- Closed Loop........................................................................................................... 35 .
Integral Mode ................................................................................................................................................. 37
Integral Action ........................................................................................................................................ 37
Open Loop Analysis................................................................................................................................ 37
Closed Loop Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 38
Reset Windup .......................................................................................................................................... 39
Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 40
Derivative Mode .............................................................................................................................................. 41
Derivative Action .................................................................................................................................... 41
Rate Summary......................................................................................................................................... 44

Process Control Loops.....................................................................................................................................46
Learning Objectives..................................................................................................................................46
Single Control Loops .......................................................................................................................................47
Feedback Control .....................................................................................................................................47
Examples Of Single Control Loops..................................................................................................................48
Pressure Control Loops............................................................................................................................49
Flow Control Loops..................................................................................................................................49
Level Control Loops .................................................................................................................................50
Temperature Control Loops .....................................................................................................................51

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Fundamentals of Control
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