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Sternberg's Triarchic Theory .pdf

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people who haye expertise in a particular knowledge domain have well-developed schernas that
lacilitate encoding, retrieval ancl mental manipr.rlation of relevant information (Chi, Glaser, & Rees'
1982). people with a broad knowleclge base are likely to appear intelligent when talking about their
area of expertise because they have a ready r'vay of categorising and retrieving infbrmation, such
ilte jazz aficionado who can hear the
hearcl the particular piece or version of

':1:::.i:: :::' t :r -:

:-::::- :



":: ::


it before.





that corelates with many measures of intelli-eence is the ability to acquire mentai
strategies (ways of solving problems) and apply them to new situations. Cognitive strategies are
essential for many everyday tasks, fi'om remembering grocery lists to calculating a 15 percent public
holiday surcharge to a bill (e.g. taking l0 percent and then adding half that amount again to total

.\ third variable

i5 percent).
Efficient use of cognitive strategies distinguishes children from adults and individuals with difiering Ie levels from their peers. Fol example. children are less likely than adults to apply mnemonic
str.ategies (chapter 7) spontaneously. such as rehearsal in memorisin-e information (Flavell &
Wellrnan. 1976). Their performance improves considerably" however. if they are taught and
:ncouraged to use them (Best, 1993).

i ruT fl R E ftfE 5 Li ftoq F-€A ffiY
Tnformation-processing approaches to inteiligence attempt to describe and measure the specific cognitive proces.ses that underlie intelligent behaviour. They tend to be more interested in 'how' than

'how much' in studying intelligence. Three variables on rvhich people differ. and which correlate
uith IQ and achievemenr. are spee<l of processing, kttt;wltdgt tlrgsr, and the ability to learn and

*-r\FP{,Y-== i,}-

According to sorne ccr::
information process nE a::
inielligence, such as r<i':
we might expect a d re.: ":

between age and intel 9:other hand, other comP:-=
speed o{ processing. n

.,pply rnental strategies.


*a"-.- ',":" .. "In recent years. a r,er.v ditf-erent approach has expanded the scope of thinking about intelligence.
Iirtelligence tests may meirsure the kinds of intellectual abilities that foster success ir.r school, but
.r.hat about pracrical intelligence (the ability to pr-lt plans into action in real lif-e) or txe*fi*ntst
:;;1.,;{fige,;t.t: (the ability to read people's emotions and use one's own emotionill responses
.itlaptively) (Mayer & Salovev, 1997; Stelnberg. l985at')
A vieu, that fits this approach is Sternberg's (1988a) ls"i*ttltit t!:t;;;'y t{ i;tt*!!ii:t;t*e. Sternberg
.Llentified three aspects of intelligence: r"uptrittziiitl i:tttllzgtitr:E (the ability to cope with new
.ituations ancl rrer,v tasks. and to qr-rickly lelln lutotttatic responses to these novel problems)l


..ilit{extr.si$ iwtet'ligtt:te (the ability to make a considered response to a situation. depending on the
this aspect requires the ability to juclge what approach is going to be most eff'ective in
jifTering sitgations): ancl r*;:rp'*rstntir;! ie;;eili'g,twe (the ability to pLlt together the nrental
--.rocessing 'components' neecled r.vhen applying intelligence to a problem). These mental processing
metacomponents, pelfolmance components and knorvledgeJornponents fal1 into three groups
components provide the abilitl' to recognise a problem,
.,cquisition components.

jevise a strategy to solve it. irnplernent that strategy and

ther.r consider the resnlt.

More recenrly, Sternberg ( 1999b, 2000) has extencied his theory by identifying three further f'acets
anal-vtical intelligence. creative intelligence ancl practical intelligence. '4;txiy!furtl
rf intelligence
:;tlil{igenr:e is the type normaliy measured by IQ tests and is needed for success in an academic
:etting. {-rtri\i','+: j;;lefJjg*;:cer is the abilitl' to come up with new ideas and novel solutions to
..robiems. flrterfbs iwttiligentt is the ability to deal with everyday problems and find practical.
subconlponents of
-.ommonsense solr-rtions. Sternberg has theorisecl that each of the thlee
--omponential intelligence contribute to these three facets of
practical intelligence is Howard
Another vier.v of iltelligence
views intelligence as 'an
theory of nultiple intelligences


consequence in a
-,bility or set of abilities that is used to solve problems or fashion products that are of
p. 165). The fietrs:'.v *.f wcwftipit: i;#elfag*ta*:s
-rarticular-cnltur.al serting'(Walters & Gardner, 1986,

hypothesise an inverse
between intelligence



a': .
do you think t-: ':

between intelligence




Do people get more
they age, or is inteLl g:characteristic of the


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