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Diabetes .pdf

Original filename: Diabetes.pdf
Title: Microsoft Word - Diabetes
Author: G

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What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from
defect in insulin secretion, or its action, or both.

What Causes diabetes?

Insufficient production of insulin
Production of defective insulin or
The inability of cells to use insulin properly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia (increased blood
sugar level) and diabetes.

What is Insulin?
- Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells (beta cells) of the pancreas. (The pancreas is a
deep-seated organ in the abdomen located behind the stomach.)



In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of
glucose in the blood.
After a meal, the blood glucose level rises. In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas
normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood
glucose levels after a meal.
When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin release from the pancreas is turned down.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Excessive thirst
Excessive hunger
Unexplained weight loss
Increased urination
Delayed wound healing

What are the risk factors?
1. Obesity
2. Sedentary life style
3. Unhealthy eating habits
4. Family history and genetics
5. Increased age
6. High blood pressure and high cholesterol
7. History of Gestational diabetes

Test for diagnosis of diabetes
1. Fasting blood sugar (FBS): Diabetes is diagnosed if fasting blood sugar is more than 126mg/dl (2 times)
2. Hemoglobin A1C tests (HbA1C):
Normal: less than 5.7%
Pre Diabetic: 5.7 – 6.4%
Diabetic: More than 6.4%

3. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): Diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is more than 200 mg/dl
after 2 hours.

Complications of Diabetes

Cardiovascular diseases (Related to heart and arteries )
Kidney diseases (Diabetic nephropathy )
Eye diseases (Diabetic retinopathy )
Nerve diseases (diabetic neuropathy )

Management of Diabetes
1. Food

Eat healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, fish, lean meats, chicken or turkey without the skin, dry
peas or beans, whole grains, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.
Keep fish and lean meat and poultry portions to about 3 ounces (or the size of a deck of cards). Bake,
broil, or grill it.
Eat foods that have less fat and salt.
Eat foods with more fiber such as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.

2. Exercise
● At least 30 minutes walking for 5 days in a week or 15 minutes jogging

3. Medication

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