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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

CHARACTERIZATION OF INCINERATED MEDICAL WASTE
RESIDUES USING BATCH LEACHING
N. Nagendra Gandhi1, P. Arunraj2, and R. Thirumalai Kumar3
1

Professor and Head, 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. Tech., Anna University,
Chennai, India
3
Department of Oil and Gas Engineering, All Nations University College, Koforidua-Ghana,
West Africa

ABSTRACT
The hospital wastes produced during the course of health-care activities pose a threat to public health and
environment than any other type of wastes. In the present paper physiochemical properties of the incinerated solid
waste sample such as sampling, batch test operation, sequential extraction and chemical speciation have been
studied. The results show that the concentration of heavy metals decreases with increase in L/S ratio. Batch test
analyse shows the static view of leachate produced by the ash and sequential extraction shows the potential
mobility of heavy metals. Chemical speciation and distribution of heavy metals varied greatly this trend was due
to the higher ion exchange capacity of the extractants and formation of anionic metal species, leading to more
metal species leaching out of each chemical fraction.

KEYWORDS: Medical Waste, Batch Leaching, Waste Residue, Incineration

I.

INTRODUCTION

Hospital is one of the complex institutions, which is frequented by people from every walk of life in the
society. Waste is always a sensitive topic for public, health-care waste is especially so. The medical
wastes are increasing in its amount and type over a period of time due to increased inhabitants and
advances in science and technology. In pursuing their aims of reducing health problems and eliminating
potential risks to people’s health, health care services inevitably create waste that may itself be
hazardous to health. Technically solid waste is any waste which is not discharged into the air and hence
the term can be applied to liquids. Solid waste comprises the largest percentage of hospital generated
waste and includes such waste types as general office trash, food service waste and even the fastest
growing waste type, recyclable waste. The impact of rare earth elements from medical waste incinerated
ash residues. Crust normalized patterns indicated medical wastes were enriched with Ce and La. DTPA
and EDTA extraction tests revealed rare earth elements were generally low in bioavailability.
Sequential extraction studies revealed that the leaching of heavy metals depends upon composition of
calcium evaluated the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly
ash.
The potential release of Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cu in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was
investigated by batch leaching experiments using sodium acetate solution as the extractant. The
concentrations of heavy metals decreased against the increase of liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio with the
exception of Zn. The slag obtained from incinerated hospital waste. The sources of health care waste
can be classified as major or minor according to the quantities produced. The major sources are listed
below: university hospital, general hospital, district hospital. Other health care’s establishments like
emergency medical care services, health care centre’s dispensaries, obstetric and maternity clinics,
outpatient clinics, first-aid and sick bays, long term health care establishments and hospices, transfusion

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
centers and military medical services. Thirdly related laboratories and research centre, medical and
biomedical laboratories biotechnology laboratories and institutions, medical research centre. Finally
blood banks, blood collection services and nursing home the elderly.

II.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Sampling
The residual ash samples are obtained from the Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Facility
(CBMWTF) located near Padappai (Chennakuppam)-Chennai. This facility has a treatment capacity of
15,000 beds. At present, 157 healthcare units have registered with this facility to supply wastes of only
2400-3100 beds per day. This unit is located 60 km away from the city, 3 km away from the habitats.
Incineration and autoclaving are the main processes in these facilities. The residual ashes were first
identified and an adequate sampling period (two months) was presumed for collection of samples due
to temporal variability in the ash. The point of generation was determined, as for bottom ash the
collection was at grate siftings and combustion chamber. The increments are obtained by falling stream
and stationary stream which are likely to produce representative samples. Primarily about 12 increments
of 5kg increments were collected from the stream. They are sub sampled to obtain a 2 kg lot from which
about 0.5 kg was obtained for analysis. The spacing of the increments was varied, as the sampling was
collected at different discharge. The sampling devices used are shovel and bucket.

2.2. Graduation Analysis
The sieve analysis test is used to determine the size distribution of the aggregates and is a suitable
method for bottom ash. The grain size distribution gives the percentage by weight of different sizes of
the particles, which are used to assess other physical properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity,
permeability. The grain sizes were determined using varying sieves. The following mesh sizes 10, 30,
60, 100, 200 are used to obtain the residues at various fractions.

2.3. Loss of Ignition (LOI)
Loss of ignition (LOI) has been used to provide an indication of the degree of burnout achieved during
combustion or the combustion efficiency. LOI is determined by the weight loss of the residual ash
samples, previously dried for 24 hours at 105ºC after exposure to 550ºC in a muffle furnace for
sufficient time to achieve a constant weight. Typically the results are expressed as a percentage of the
dried sample weight. LOI was calculated using the equation (1).
LOI =

𝑊𝐷𝐴 −𝑊𝑀𝐴
𝑊𝐷𝐴

× 100…………………. (1)

where; WDA = weight of ash dried at 105ºC in grams,
WMA = weight of ash muffled at 550ºC in grams.

2.4. Experimental Methodology for Batch Test
Two different types of batch tests were developed to characterize the leaching potential associated with
the incinerated residues: contact time tests and sequential extraction tests. The contact time test provides
an estimate of the time necessary to mobilize minerals from solid wastes. This test also provides insight
into the sequence of dissolution, allowing for the identification of readily soluble species, thus providing
a static view of the interaction between the leachant and the waste material. The sequential extraction
test provides a dynamic view of the material’s behavior as it encounters fresh leachant at regular time
intervals. This test allows for simulation of the sequential changes in leaching mechanisms that occur
as fresh water interacts with the waste material.
2.4.1. Batch Test Optimization
Preliminary batch tests were conducted to optimize the liquid to solid (L/S) mass ratios of distilled water
to ash and the duration of the contact intervals. The first study focused on determining the contact time
intervals necessary for diffusion to occur, while providing adequate volume to conduct leachate
characterization tests. The leachates from the preliminary batch tests were characterized and the data

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
from these initial tests was used to develop a final protocol for the testing of the incinerated residue
samples.
2.4.2. Preliminary Contact Time Tests
The preliminary batch tests, designed to determine the contact time requirements of the ash and the
leachant were conducted using an L/S ratio of 10. This ratio L/S = 10, the waste can be considered
100% solid and any residual water in the material can be disregarded in the calculation of leachant waste
relationships. The ash samples were placed in individual bottles and distilled water was added until an
L/S ratio of 10 was reached based on an average density of 1 g/mL for distilled water. The contact times
ranged from 24 to 48 hours. At the end of the assigned time interval, the leachate was removed and
tested for pH.
2.4.3. Preliminary Sequential Extraction Tests
The second set of this test is used to assess difference in leaching based on the L/S ratio. As before, the
removed leachate was tested for a limited number of parameters. However, upon removing the leachate
at the end of 48 hours, an equal amount of distilled water was used to replenish the leachant, thus
maintaining a constant L/S ratio in the bottle but increasing the total L/S ratio over time. The L/S of 2,
4 and 6 did not provide sufficient leachate for analysis. Based on this information, the actual batch tests
were based on an L/S value of either 8 or 10. The results from the preliminary batch tests were used to
set basic parameters for the contact time and sequential extraction batch tests. The establishment of
equilibrium at approximately 48 hours influenced the time intervals used in both types of batch tests.
The L/S =10 was determined to be the best option since sufficient leachate was produced for analysis
and the solid required no pre-treatment.
2.4.4. Contact Time Tests
The contact time batch test was designed to yield a static view of the interaction between the waste
material and the leachant. The initial set-up for all batch tests was identical; 125 mL HDPE bottles were
pre-cleaned by soaking in an acid bath of 1% nitric acid for 24 hours. The bottles were then rinsed five
times with distilled water and allowed to air dry for two to three days. Once completely dried, the bottles
were placed on an analytical balance, tarred, and approximately 10grams of ash were added to each
bottle. The exact mass was recorded and sufficient distilled water was added to achieve an L/S = 10.
The volume added was usually slightly more than 10 ml, which completely fills the bottle, eliminating
headspace. At the end of each time interval, the three bottles were removed from the incubator and the
leachate was removed by filtration. The leachate was divided into three volumes, one for immediate
testing and the other two were preserved for chemical characterization.

2.5. Sequential Extraction (SE)
2.5.1. Exchangeable fraction
40mL of 0.11molL acetic acid was added to 1.0 g of dry residues in a 50-mL polypropylene tube. The
mixture was shaken for 16 hr then the extract was separated from the solid phase by centrifugation at
3800 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant liquid was decanted into a100-mL beaker and then covered with
a watch-glass. The residue was washed by adding 20mL of double-distilled water, shaking for 15 min,
and then centrifuging. The second supernatant liquid was discarded without any loss of residue.
2.5.2 Iron and Manganese oxides fraction
Metals bound to iron and manganese oxides were extracted by adding 40ml of 0.1molL hydroxyl
ammonium chloride (adjusted to pH2 with 2molL nitric acid) on to the residue from the first step. After
shaking the mixture for 16 h it was centrifuged for 15 min, and then decanted into a beaker. Using 20
mL of distilled water, the residue was washed, centrifuged, and the supernatant was preserved.
2.5.3 Organic Matter Fraction
10mL of 8.8molL hydrogen peroxide as carefully added in small aliquots to the residue in the centrifuge
tube. The tube ingredients were digested at room temperature for 1h with occasional manual shaking.
The procedure was continued for 1h and the volume reduced to a few millilitres by further heating in a

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
water bath. A second aliquot of 10mL of hydrogen peroxide was added to the residue and the digestion
procedure was repeated. The solution was heated to near dryness, and 50 mL of1.0molL ammonium
acetate solution (adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid) was added to the moist residue. The samples solution
was shaken and centrifuged, and the extract was separated as described above.
2.5.4 Residual Fraction
The analysis of the residue was performed using aqua regia for metals insoluble in the previous steps.
For this purpose, 6 mL of distilled water and then aqua regia solution in a sequence of 15 and10mL
were added to the remaining residue. After adding each aqua regia solution, the residue was evaporated
to near dryness on a water bath. The extract was filtered through filter paper by adding 1 mol litre
HNO3 solution in small amounts on the last residue in the centrifuge tube. The tube walls were carefully
washed with the same acids solution and then collected in a beaker.

2.6 Chemical Speciation
A total of 1M sodium acetate was used as the leachant in these batch leaching experiments. Five L/S
ratios, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25, were chosen to determine the releasing behaviour of heavy metals from the
bottom ash. Other batch leaching experiments were conducted with a series of solutions with a pH range
from 2 to 12 when the L/S ratio was fixed at 10. For each leaching experiment, the first 10 g of bottom
ash was placed in a bottle, and then the leaching solvent was added in the appropriate L/S ratio.
Subsequently, the container was closed and then shaken in a horizontal shaker for 8 h at room
temperature. The samples were allowed to settle for approximately 16 h. After pH values were
measured, the solutions were filtered, and then analyzed. The raw sample was acid digested using
(HNO3 + HCl) and the heavy metals concentration were determined. Three replicates were developed
to identify the heavy metals concentration. The heavy metals were measured using Atomic Absorption
spectrometer (AAS).

III.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1 Gradation Analysis
The presence of glass, wood and unburned solid residues are separated to obtain uniform sized particles.
These individual fractions are further utilized for physical and chemical characterization. These
gradation analysis are helpful to segregate the particles (&lt;1mm) by which the chemical speciation of
metals are studied further.

Figure 1. Particle size distribution of bottom ash residues

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
3.2 Loss of Ignition (LOI) of Bottom Ash

Figure 2. Bottom Ash LOI as function of particle size

From the figure 2 it can be seen, there is a maxima, at a larger particle size (mesh size #60 for sample
1 and mesh #30 for sample 2) which is uncombusted material. The other tends to be at very small
particle sizes and reflects the fact that very fine materials in bottom ashes can be organic materials.

3.3 Batch Leaching Tests
3.3.1 pH and alkalinity
Leachates from all ash samples had relatively high levels of pH regardless of source or leachate
extraction method. The pH values for the leachate produced using the CT test ranged from pH = 10.3
to 12.0 are presented in Figure 3. Alkalinity is a measure of the buffering capacity of a solution, and the
alkalinity results differ depending on the type of batch test used to produce the leachate and the source
of the ash.
14
12

pH

10
8
6

Series1

4
2
0
0

20

40

60

L/S ratio

Figure 3. Contact time batch test pH results for Bottom ash

3.3.2 Solubility and release as function of L/S Ratio

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

Concentration of metals (mg/L)

The concentrations of heavy metals decreased with an increase in the L/S ratio with the exception of
Zn at L/S ratio of 20 in sample 2. When the L/S ratio was higher than 20, the amounts of heavy metals
that leached out changed slightly. Because bottom ash contains large amounts of alkaline compounds,
it has strong acid buffering capability so that the heavy metals in the samples could not be easily released
into the leachate due to the low equilibrium concentrations. In the case of low L/S ratios, the
concentrations of Pb and Zn were relatively high. But in high L/S ratios, the total amounts of Pb and
Zn declined because of the dilution and neutralization processes that would result in the decrease of pH
value and the re-precipitation of heavy metals that dissolved previously.
25
20
15
Pb
10

Ni
Zn

5
0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

L/S ratio

Concentration of metals (mg/L)

Figure 4. Concentration of metals with respect to L/S ratio (sample1)

18
16
14
12
10

Pb

8

Ni

6

Zn

4
2
0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

L/S ratio

Figure 5. Concentration of metals with respect to L/S ratio (sample 2)

3.3.3 Solubility and release as function of pH
The change of pH values would lead to different leaching patterns. The concentrations of heavy metals
declined along with the increase of initial pH of leaching solvent. When the pH value was higher than
6, the concentrations of Pb remained at a low level. The relationship between initial pH of the leaching

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

Concentration of metals (mg/L)

solvent and the leachate pH revealed that values greater than pH 6 shows gradual increase. This
corresponds the fact that higher L/S ratio does not influence the amount of heavy metals dissolved. The
concentration of lead declines with increase in pH. When the pH value is higher than 6, the
concentrations of heavy metals remained at low level.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Pb
Ni
Zn

0

5

10

15

pH

Concentration of metals (mg/L)

Figure 6. Concentration of metals with respect to pH (sample1)

60
50
40
30

Pb

20

Ni
Zn

10
0
0

5

10

15

pH

Figure 7. Concentration of metals with respect to pH (sample2)

3.3.4 Sequential Extraction
Chemical fraction distribution of each metal differed vastly as shown in Figure 6 and 7. About Pb was
present in F1, and the contents of F2 and F3 were less. Zn exhibited a similar distribution in that the
contents of F2. Ni concentrations were high in exchangeable fraction F1, whereas in F2 and F3
represented very less.

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Conc. of metal species (ppm)

International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Pb
Ni
Zn

0

2

4

6

Conc. of Ammonium acetate (M)

Con of metal species (ppm)

Figure 8. Concentration of metals bound to exchangeable fraction (F1)
3
2.5
2
1.5

Pb

1

Ni

0.5

Zn

0
0

2

4

6

Conc of acetic acid (M)
Figure 9. Contcentration of metals bound to carbonate fraction (F2)

Con of metal species (ppm)

3.5
3

2.5
2
Pb
1.5

Ni

1

Zn

0.5
0
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Conc. of NH2OH-HCl (M)
Figure 10. Contcentration of metals bound to Fe=Mn oxides (F3)

From the results it has been observed that Pb, Zn, are mainly present in the F1, Ni present almost in all
the fraction F1, F2, F3, with equal amount. Hence the leachability could be well controlled in natural
environment. But if there are sufficient amounts of reducing agents, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn
oxides (F3) would be gradually leached out, especially Pb and Zn. It is suggested that reducing
conditions could accelerate the leaching process of bottom ash and a serious risk would be brought to

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
the landfill sites. Heavy metals bound to organic compounds (F2) could be transported to the
environment slowly by reacting with complexing agents or oxidants, but they are not easily leached out
under normal natural conditions. Heavy metals in residual condition are usually incorporated into the
crystals, and thus the metals could not be dissolved even in destructive acidity conditions.

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

1) The physical characterization of the incinerated medical wastes reveals that the properties of the solid
residues (bottom ash) depends upon composition of feed, type of incinerator used, and operating
conditions and so on.
2) The batch test developed for this work fell into two categories: contact time and sequential extraction.
The contact time test provided a static view of the leachate produced by the ash, since the leachant
remained in contact with the same material long enough to establish equilibrium. The readily soluble
materials leached out of the ash and become part of the leachate.
3) The sequential extraction test provided a dynamic view of the leaching properties of ash as fresh
leachant encountered the material.
4) The concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was rather low and decreased against the rise of
L/S ratio with the exception of Zn. In the case of low L/S ratios, the concentrations of Pb and Zn were
relatively high. A change in pH values led to different leaching patterns. The concentrations of heavy
metals declined along with the rise of initial pH of leaching solvent. When the pH value was greater
than 6, the concentrations of heavy metals remained at a low level. The leaching characteristics of heavy
metals could be well controlled through adjusting the pH in a desired range.
5) Chemical speciation and distribution of heavy metals varied greatly. Pb, Zn, and Ni were mainly
present in the F1 and F2 so that their leachability could be well controlled in natural environment. On
the whole, the extraction efficiency increased as the concentration of the extractant increased, but only
for the third chemical fraction. This trend was due to the higher ion exchange capacity of the extractants
and formation of anionic metal species, leading to more metal species leaching out of each chemical
fraction.

V.

FUTURE WORK

In future work carried out by comparative study of leachate composition and solid waste nature plot
using mat lab plots for the distribution analysis

REFERENCES
[1]. R.A. Rashid, G.C. Frantz, (1992) “MSW incinerator ash as aggregate in concrete and masonry”, J.
Materials in Civil Engineering 4, 353–368.
[2]. C.S. Kirby, J.D. Rimstidt, (1993) “Mineralogy and surface properties of municipal solid waste ash”,
Environmental Science and Technology 27, 652–660.
[3]. C.C.Wiles, (1996) “Municipal solid waste combustion ash: state-of-the-knowledge”, J. Hazardous
Materials, 47 325–344.
[4]. Yang, G.C.C., Tsai, C.M., (1998) A study on heavy metal extractability and subsequent recovery by
electrolysis for a municipal incinerator fly ash. J. Hazard. Mater, 58, 103–120.
[5]. Hsien Wen Kuo, Shu-Lung Shu, Chin-Chung Wu and Jin-Shoung Lai, (1999) “Characteristics of
medical waste in Taiwan”, J. Water, Air and Soil pollution, 114, 413-421.
[6]. Kyung-Jin Hong, Shuzo Tokunga, Toshio Kajiuchi, (2000) “Extraction of heavy metals from MSW
incinerator fly ashes by chelating agents”, J. Hazardous Materials, 75, 57-73.
[7]. Abbas, Z., Moghaddam, A.P., Steenari, B.M. (2003), “Release of Salts from Municipal Solid
Waste Combustion Residues”, Waste Management, 23, 291-305.
[10]. James Thomson, (2005). A Report on Alternative Treatment and Non-Burn Disposal Practices
Safe Management of Bio-medical Sharps Waste in India, Tata McGraw Hill, Chapter 4, pp. 64-

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ISSN: 2231-1963
67.
[11]. Xiao Wan, Wei Wang, Tummin Ye, Yuwen Guo, Xingbao Gao,(2005) “A study on the
chemical and mineralogical characterization of MSWI fly ash using a sequential extraction
procedure”, J. Hazardous Materials, 137, 197-201.
[12]. T. Jeremy and A. Honor( 2005) “The Health Effects of Waste Incinerators,” The 4th Report of
The British Society for Ecological Medicine Moderators.
[13]. S. V. Manyele, “Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Con-siderations for Air Pollution Control in
Process Indus-tries,” Educational Research and Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2008, pp. 137-147.
[14]. M.Y. Wey, K.Y. Liu, T.H. Tsai, J.T. Chou, (2006) Thermal treatment of the fly ash from
municipal solid waste incinerator with rotary kiln, J. Hazard. Materials. B137, 981–989.
[15] Jean-François Viel, Marie-Caroline Clément, (2008) “Dioxin Emissions from a Municipal Solid
waste Incinerator and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Population-based Case-control Study
with GIS-derived Exposure”, International Journal of Health Geographics
[16]. Kuen-ShengWanga, Kae-Long Linb, Ching-Hwa Lee (2009) “Melting of municipal solid waste
incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reaction”, Journal of Hazardous material (162)
338–343.
[17]. Jun Yao et.al, (2012) “Heavy metals and PCDD/Fs in solid waste incinerator fly ash in Zhejiang
province, China: chemical and bio-analytical characterization”, Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment , Volume 184, Issue 6, pp 3711-3720.
[18]. Tobias Walser, Ludwing.K limbach et.al (2012) “Persistance of engineered nano particles in
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[19]. Mingjiang Ni, Yingzhe Du, Shengyong Lu, Zheng Peng, Xiaodong Li,Jianhua Yan, Kefa
Cen,(2012) “Study of ashes from a medical waste incinerator in China: Physical and chemical
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Energy, DOI: 10.1002/ep.11649

AUTHORS
N. Nagendra Gandhi, Head and Professor in Chemical Engineering, A.C Tech Campus, Anna
University Chennai, India. So far published 40 plus papers in national and international
journals. He got several times best paper award. He is reviewer of many International Journals.
He carried academic responsibilities like Controller of Examinations, Nodal-Officer, TEQIPACT, Placement and Training officer, Co-ordinator, Counselling Cell for Higher Studies, Coordinator, Distance Education, Co-ordinator, NBA accreditation, Chief- Superintendent,
University Examinations, Co-ordinator, Entrance Exams for External Agencies, Anna
University. He is invited keynote lecturer for Hydrotropy- A novel and cost effective method of liquid-liquid
Extraction- Kyung Hee University-South Korea(2007), Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)-Kyung
Hee University-SouthKorea(2007),
Novel separation Techniques-Arunai
Engineering collegeTiruvannamalai(2008), Higher studies opportunities for chemical Engineers in India and Abroad, Sriram
Engineering College, Chennai(2010),Higher studies opportunities for Engineers and Technologists in India and
Abroad ,Sri Venkateswara Engineering College (2001).He is guiding several Phd and M.Tech students.

P. Arunraj was born on 1st July 1985 at Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. He received B.Tech in
Industrial Bio-Technology from Government College of Technology, Coimbatore in 2006.
From July 2006 - May 2007 he worked as Junior Research Fellowship in Alagappa Tech
Campus - Anna University Chennai. He graduated in M.Tech in Environmental Science &amp;
Technology during June 2007 - May 2009 from A.C Tech Campus - Anna University Chennai,
Tamil Nadu. After that (May 2009 - Jan 2010) he worked as Freelancer Consultant in Carbon

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©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
trading &amp; Environmental Auditing. From 2010 to now he is working as Associate in Cognizant Technology
Solutions, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
R. Thirumalai Kumar was born on 20th December 1982 at Shenkottai, (Mathalamparai-Home
Town) TN, India. He received B.Tech in Chemical Engineering at Adhiyamaan College of
Engineering, Hosur 2005. From July 2005 he has been worked as Senior Process engineer in
Kwality Milk Foods Limited. In the year 2007 he was joined M. Tech in Petroleum Refining
and PetroChemicals completed in the year 2009 from A.C Tech Campus-Anna University
Chennai, TN. After that (2009) he has been worked as Process Engineer-Project in C2C
Engineering, Chennai, India. From 2010 to till now he is working as Senior Lecturer in the
Department of Oil and gas engineering at All Nations University College, Koforidua (E/R), Ghana. West Africa.

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