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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

DESIGN &amp; DEVELOPMENT OF NANOELECTRONIC AOI &amp;
OAI DEVICES BASED ON CMOS AND QCA (QUANTUM-DOT
CELLULAR AUTOMATA) NANOTECHNOLOGY
S. Devendra K. Verma1 &amp; P. K. Barhai2
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology is derived from the evolution of microelectronics towards miniaturization. CMOS Technology
has been targeted to integrate more and more Devices per unit area of Silicon-substrate, but there is limitation
in scaling-down CMOS Circuits/Devices. Like Nanotechnology, QCA (Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata) is
another alternate Technology having ability to reduce the Device-sizes beyond the CMOS Devices. The QCA
enables the Moore’s law to double the Devices every 18 months. The continued improvements in
miniaturization, speed and power reduction in information processing devices, sensors, displays, logic devices,
storage devices, transmission devices, communication devices, etc. will bring another Technical Revolution,
which will change our life. The Design Strategies focus on CMOS Technology (&lt;50 nanometer) and QCA
Nanotechnology to achieve low power consumption, low voltage operation, high operating frequency, minimize
number of transistors/gates/devices, reduced fabrication cost, high speed communication, flexibility,
programmability, and service efficiency. In our Research Work, we would like to focus on Design &amp;
Development of Nanoelectronic AOI &amp; OAI Devices based on CMOS and QCA (Quantum-Dot Cellular
Automata) Nanotechnology as Building Blocks for constructing more complex Circuits/Devices, defining FiniteState-Machines and Binary Decision Trees for Features/Functionalities and monitoring Status of
WiMAX/WiFi/Satellite and other Wireless Communication Systems.

INDEX TERMS: Nanotechnology; Nanoelrctronic; Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS); VLSI; MOSFET; NMOS;
PMOS; CMOS; BiCMOS; QCA; AOI, OAI; WiMAX; WiFi;

I.

INTRODUCTION

Evolution of microelectronics towards miniaturization is one of the main motivations for
NANOTECHNOLOGY. The famous empirical Moore’s Law states that number of Transistors per
chip doubles every 18 months. The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has developed a
Roadmap for continued improvements in miniaturization, speed and power reduction, to overcome
CMOS Technology’s scaling limitations. Specifying Nanostructures (Transistors) within the size of 150 nanometers for simulation of Nanotechnology Devices, based on CMOS Technology and QCA
Technology will be the initial approach, followed by enhancements/refinements.
Rapid advancements in Nanotechnology, such as Nanomaterials, Nanometer CMOS Devices,
Nanoelectronic, Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS), Nanophotonic Devices, etc. are going to
bring radical changes in the society and particularly in Wireless Communication, where small, smart
and speedy systems are everyone’s first choice. This is possible as application of Nanotechnology is
taking place in WiMAX/WiFi/Satellite and other Wireless Communication systems, which is ‘Stateof-the-Art’ Technology at the moment. [4], [5], [7].
CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–Semiconductor) is a technology for constructing integrated
circuits. CMOS technology is used in Microprocessors, Microcontrollers, Static RAM, and other

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
Digital Logic Circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several Analog Circuits such as Image
Sensors (CMOS sensor), Data Converters, and highly integrated Transceivers for many types of
communication. CMOS circuits use a combination of p-channel and n-channel Metal–oxide–
semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement Logic Gates. CMOS also allows a
high density of logic functions on a chip. It was primarily for this reason that CMOS became the most
used technology to be implemented in VLSI chips.
WiMAX (World-wide Interoperability for Microwave access) will offer Broadband Wireless Access
at Data Rate of Multiple Mega Bits per Second to the End-user within a range of Several Kilometers.
WiMAX supports a variety of Wireless Broadband Connections: High-bandwidth MANS
(Metropolitan-Area Networks), Cellular Base Stations and Internet for WiFi. WIMAX is a
complement to Fixed, Portable and Mobile Access. The Multimode SMART WiMAX will allow End
User Devices to support New High-speed Services in many Different Network Environments. This
can be achieved with Nanotechnology based WiMAX/WiFi Devices/Components. A Wireless
Communication System can be upgraded and deployed as ‘Mobile Ad Hoc Access Wireless System’
and ‘Portable Internet’ with Nanotechnology based WiMAX/WiFi Communication System. [10],
[17], [21], [22].
WiMAX opens the Door to thousands of Applications to connect People together. With the high Data
Rate, Applications will include Video Transfer, Voice Calls, and many other Service. Development of
Communication Devices based on NANOTECHNOLOGY and its Applications is one of the Grand
Challenges for this Century. Devices developed for IT, Data Storage and Wireless Communications
will have Potential Applications in Defence, Aerospace, Automotive, Consumer Technologies,
Business, Education, Research and many more areas.
The Paper is organized as follows, Section 2: CMOS &amp; QCA Technologies; Section3: Methodology;
Section 4: AOI &amp; OAI; Section 5: Simulation Setup &amp;Tools; Section 6: Simulation Models; Section
7: Simulation Results; Section 8: Conclusion; Section 9: Future Work; and Section 10: References.

II.

CMOS &amp; QCA TECHNOLOGY

2.1 CMOS Technology
CMOS Logic is a combination of NMOS and PMOS Logic. The MOS Process is categorized as
NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS. The basic Devices in MOS Processes are the p-channel and n-channel
MOSFETs. The p-channel MOSFETs are not as attractive as those of n-channel MOSFETs because
the mobility of p-type material is poorer than of the n-type material. In CMOS (Complementary
Metal-oxide Semiconductor) Technology, both N-Type and P-Type Transistors are used to realize
Logic Functions. It is the dominant Semiconductor Technology for Microprocessors, Memories and
Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). CMOS has advantages over NMOS and Bipolar
Technology, as it has smaller power dissipation only when Circuit switches. It consumes very little
power, particularly for Mobile Communication. This allows integration of many more CMOS Gates
on an IC than NMOS or Bipolar Technology and fabricating VLSI Circuits with much better
performance. [9], [12], [16].

2.2 QCAT Technology
QCA was first introduced in 1993 by Lent et al. It represents an emerging Technology at the
Nanotechnology level. QCA uses Quantum Wells with 4 Quantum-Dots having 2 mobile Electrons to
represent Logic States. The Electrons can move to different Quantum-Dots in the QCA Cell by means
of Electron Tunnelling and its position is determined based on the Columbic Force, positioning one
electron from the other one in diagonally located Quantum-Dots. The Electrons are able to tunnel
between the Dots. Based on the Electrons’ positions, there are two possible Polarizations -1 or +1,
indicating Binary 0 and Binary 1. The Polarization of each Cell depends upon the Polarization of its
previous neighboring Cell. The QCA Cell Architecture is shown in Fig. 1.

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Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 336-345

International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

Fig. 1: QCA Cell Architecture

A Binary Wire and Inverter Chain is shown in Fig. 2. The Binary Wire is known as Logic Signal
Transmission Channel, where the Cells transmit information in Coded form (0 or 1) from one Cell to
another without any current flow. Polarization of each Cell depends upon the polarization of its
previous neighboring Cell only. In the Inverter Chain, the Code of the previous neighboring Cell is
inverted and thus the transmission of Code takes place. In QCA, the Information propagates along a
line of Cells due to Columbic Charge interaction, compared to conventional Electronic Current in
CMOS Devices. The Columbic Force is responsible for all the Logic Operations and transfer of the
States from one location to another.

Fig. 2: Binary Wire &amp; Inverter Chain

QCA is based on the encoding of Binary Information in the Charge configuration within QuantumDot Cells. QCA is implemented based on Majority Gate having three Input, one Output and one
Center (Device) Cells. If A, B, C are Inputs then Output = M(A,B,C) = AB+BC+CA. If the input
polarization of Control Input is fixed to +1 (logic 1), the OR logical operation is performed and in the
case of -1 (logic 0) the AND logical operation is performed. The NOT logical operation is performed
when the Cells are placed diagonally. The Majority OR, AND, and NOT Gates are shown in Fig.3.
[11], [13], [20], [3], [14], [18].
A multizone Clock mechanism is required for proper Data Propagation in the QCA Circuit. Four
Clock Signals having 90 degree relative phase difference with each other, are used for the operation of
the QCA Circuits. The four Clock Phases/States are identified as Switch, Hold, Release and Relax
States and the four Clocking Zones are identifies as Zone 0, Zone 1, Zone 2 and Zone 3. Each Cell in
a Clocking Zone is connected to one of four Phases of the QCA Clock. The polarization of the QCA
Cell is determined in the Switch and Hold States depending on the polarization of the neighboring
Cell. The Release and Relax States are unpolarized. Each Cell is latched and unlatched with the
changing of the Clock Signal. The Clock synchronizes and controls the flow of information as well as
supplies the necessary power to the Cells. The QCA Clock and QCA Clock Zones are shown in Fig.
4. [15],[1], [2], [6], [8].

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

Fig. 3: QCA Cell Logic Gate

Fig. 4: QCA Clock Signal

III.

METHODOLOGY

Our approach will be to design, develop and qualify a ‘Nanoelectronic AOI &amp; OAI Device’ to the
scale of &lt; 50 nanometer, based on CMOS Technology, using CADENCE Software Tool. Reduction
in the number of Components through integration and optimization of its performance is also
exercised in this Design Simulation. Depending on the facility available, it seems that the ‘Molecular
Nanoelectronics’ Technology and the ‘Top-down’ approach is more suitable for obtaining
Nanostructure within the size of 1-50 nanometers scale and Voltage &lt; 1.8V. A QCA Designer
Simulator is used to layout and verify QCA Logic Design for the AOI &amp; OAI Devices to the scale of
&lt; 20 nanometer QCA Cell size and powered with Clock Signal. [19].

IV.

AOI &amp; OAI

4.1 AND-OR-INVERT (AOI)
AOI Gate is suitable for SOP (Sum-of-Products) Function expressed as a Summation (OR) of
Products (AND) terms. An AOI Logic Function is one that implements the operations in the order
AND then OR then NOT (INVERT). As for example; X = ((a.b.c.d) + (e.f.g.h)).

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
4.2 OR-AND-INVERT (OAI)
OAI Gate is suitable for POS (Product-of-Sums) Function, expressed as a Product (AND) of
Summation (OR) terms. An OAI Logic Function is one that implements the operations in the order of
OR then AND then NOT (INVERT). As for example: y = ((a+b+c+d). (e+f+g+h)).
The inverting nature of CMOS Logic Circuits allows us to construct Logic Circuits for AOI and OAI
Logic Expressions using a Structured Approach.

V.

SIMULATION TOOLS &amp; SETUP

5.1 CADENCE SOFTWARE
Cadence Software Tool is an Electronic Design Automation Software, known as Cadence Analog and
Digital System Design Tools (GPDK46nm). It is used for CMOS Circuits Simulation. The Process
Geometries include scales of 45nm and 65nm for length and width of a Transistor.

5.2 QCADESIGNER
QCADesigner Tool is used for QCA Circuits Simulation. It has CAD capabilities which helps to
layout and simulate QCA Circuits constructed with QCA Cells. Each Cell is 20nm in size.
QCADesigner has three Simulation Engines to facilitate rapid and accurate simulation: a) Digital
Logic Simulation Engine, which determines Cells to be either null or fully polarized; b) Nonlinear
Approximation Simulation Engine, which determines the stable state of the Cells, depending on the
nonlinear cell-to-cell response function; and c) Two-State Simulation Engine, which forms an
approximation of the full quantum mechanical model. The control of the flow of information in QCA
Circuits is performed using four Clock Signals: Clock Zone 0, Clock Zone 1, Clock Zone 2 and Clock
Zone 3.

VI.

SIMULATION MODELS

We have developed two Simulation Models: a) CMOS Model and b) QCA Model for the AOI &amp; OAI
and the Simulation Results are analysed accordingly.

6.1 CMOS MODEL
Using CADENCE Software Tool, a Model of the AOI &amp; OAI is simulated and its performance is
analysed. A Model of AOI Logic Circuit is shown in Fig. 5. The Model has two AND Gates, each
having four inputs, and the outputs of the AND Gates are inputs of the OR Gate, and the output of the
OR Gate is input to an INVERT Gate. A Model of OAI Logic Circuit is shown in Fig. 6. The Model
has two OR Gates, each having four inputs, and the outputs of the OR Gates are inputs of the AND
Gate, and the output of the AND Gate is input to an INVERT Gate. These Gates are detailed with
CMOS Circuits.

Fig. 5: AOI - Logic Circuit

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Fig. 6: OAI - Logic Circuit

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
A Models of AOI – CMOS Circuit and OAI – CMOS Circuit are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8. The
Models are simulated using CADENCE Software Tool (for 1.8V and 45 nanometer scale). The
Models are analysed with two sets of Inputs and the Transient Responses are recorded accordingly.
The Transient Responses for AOI – CMOS Circuit are recorded as shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. The
Transient Responses for OAI – CMOS Circuit are recorded as shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.

Fig. 7: AOI – CMOS Circuit

Fig. 9: AOI – Transient Response-A

Fig. 11: OAI – Transient Response-A

Fig, 8: OAI – CMOS Circuit

Fig. 10: AOI – Transient Response-B

Fig. 12: OAI – Transient Response-B

6.2 QCA MODEL
The QCA Models of the AOI &amp; OAI are simulated and its performance is analysed. The Model of
AOI Logic Circuit has two AND Gates, each having four inputs, and the outputs of the AND Gates

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
are inputs of the OR Gate, and the output of the OR Gate is input to an INVERT Gate. The Model of
OAI Logic Circuit has two OR Gates, each having four inputs, and the outputs of the OR Gates are
inputs of the AND Gate, and the output of the AND Gate is input to an INVERT Gate. These Gates
are detailed with QCA Circuits. The AOI – QCA Logic is shown in Fig. 13 and the OAI – QCA Logic
is shown in Fig. 14.
The AOI - QCA Logic is defined as follows:
QCA AND Logic 1: x1 = m(a,b,c,d,0) = m(1,1,1,1,0) = 1; QCA AND Logic 2: x2 = m(e,f,g,h,0) =
m(1,1,1,1,0) = 1
QCA OR Logic 1: x = m(x1,x2,1) = m(1,1,1) = 1; QCA INVERT Logic 1: z = x’ = 0.
The OAI - QCA Logic is defined as follows:
QCA OR Logic 1: x1 = m(a,b,c,d,1) = m(1,1,1,1,1) = 1; QCA OR Logic 2: x2 = m(e,f,g,h,1) =
m(1,1,1,1,1) = 1
QCA OR Logic 1: x = m(x1,x2,0) = m(1,1,1) = 1; QCA INVERT Logic 1: z = x’ = 0.

Fig. 13: AOI – QCA Logic

Fig. 14: OAI – QCA Logic

Using QCADesigner Simulator, the Simulated Models of the ‘AOI – QCA’ and ‘OAI – QCA’ are
developed (&lt;20 nanometer) and the Simulation Results are analysed. The as shown in Fig. 15 &amp; Fig.
16. The Simulation Results for AOI – QCA Simulated Model are shown in Fig. 17 and Fig. 18, and
for OAI –QCA Simulated Model are shown in Fig. 19 and Fig. 20.

Fig. 15: AOI – QCA Simulated Model

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Fig. 16: OAI – QCA Simulation Model

Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 336-345

International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963

Fig. 17: AOI – QCA Simulation Result Part-A

Fig. 19: OAI – QCA Simulation Result Part-A

VII.

Fig. 18: AOI – QCA Simulation Result Part-B

Fig. 20: OAI – QCA Simulation Result Part-B

SIMULATION RESULTS

The CMOS Model is simulated and qualified for 1.8V and 45 nanometer scale. The QCA Model is
simulated and qualified for Cell size &lt;20 nanometer with Scale factor of ‘1’ for all Cells. The Clock
high 9.8e-22J and Clock low 3.8e-23J are recorded. It is verified that the QCA Circuits based on
Majority Logic are similar to the CMOS Circuits and it minimizes the complexity, delay and size
(comparing the number of Transistors and Cells and its sizes).

VIII.

CONCLUSION

In our Research Work, we have focused on Design &amp; Development of Nanoelectronic AOI &amp; OAI
Devices, based on CMOS &amp; QCA Nanotechnology as Building Blocks for Communication Devices,
and a comparative evaluation is performed. In CMOS Technology Transistors are used to construct
Gates/Devices while in QCA Technology Cells are used to construct Gates/Devices. Our objective is
to design and develop CMOS and QCA based Circuits/Devices as Building Blocks which can be used
for constructing more complex Circuits/Devices, defining/verifying Features/Functionalities and
monitoring Status of WiMAX/WiFi/Satellite and other Wireless Communication Systems.
Applications of CMOS &amp; QCA Nanotechnology in WiMAX/WiFi Wireless Communication will lead
towards Architectural Innovation &amp; Smart Devices, Value Added Services, Full Scale QoS (Quality
of Service) and Higher Reliability and Security. Our Research Work will help in addressing Long
term Technical Challenges pertaining to “Design, Development and Application of CMOS &amp; QCA

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
Nanotechnology in WiMAX/WiFi/Satellite and other Wireless Communication Systems,” and provide
feedback to ICs Designers/Managers, Wireless Standards Managers, Wireless and Internet Service
Providers and other Interest Groups.

IX.

FUTURE WORK

The Future Work will be focused on auto-layout design for both CMOS and QCA Circuits and its
comparative analysis and optimization. Further efforts will be on scaling down and low voltage
operation and functional verification. Also, defining/designing Finite-State-Machines and Binary
Decision Trees based on AOI and OAI Circuits to incorporate Features/Functionalities and
Monitoring Status for WiFi/WiMAX/Satellite and other Wireless Communication Systems/Services.

REFERENCES
[1] Agrawal, D. and Ghosh, B., 2012, “Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Memories,” IJCA Journal, Vol. 46, No. 5, May
2012.
[2] Amiri, M. A., Mirzakuchaki, S., Mahdavi, M., 2010, “LUT-Based QCA Realization of a 4x4 S-Box,” Canadian Journal
of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010.
[3] Amlani, I. et al., 1999, “Digital logic using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata,” Science, vol. 284, pp. 289-291, Apr.
1999.
[4] Atakan, B. and Akan, O. B., 2010, Middle East Technical University, “Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanoscale Ad Hoc
Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2010, pp.129-135.
[5] Bourne, M., 2007, “A Consumer’s Guide to MEMS &amp; Nanotechnology,” Scottsdale, AZ., 2007.
[6] Chakrabarty, R., De, D., Ghosh, K. K., 2011, “Design and Analysis of Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Johnson
Counter,” IEMCON (collaboration with TEEE), Jan 2011.
[7] Ellenbogen, J. C., 1998, The MITRE Corp., “A Brief overview of Nanoelectronic Devices,” MITRE MSR Program,
Jan.
1998.
[8] Ganesh, E. N., 2010, “Implementation and simulation of arithmetic logic unit, shifter and multiplier in Quantum
cellular automata technology,” IJCSE Journal, Vol. 02, No. 05, 2010.
[9] Geppert, L., 2004, “Chip Making’s West New World,” IEEE Spectrum, May 2004, pp. 21-25.
[10] Ghosh et al., 2005, “Broadband Wireless Access with WiMAX/802.16: Current Performance Benchmarks and Future
Potential,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Feb. 2005, pp. 129-136.
[11] Ilanchezhian, P.and Parvathi, R. M. S., 2012, “Implementation of High Speed Reed Solomon Decoder using
Nanotechnology based Quantum Dot Cellular Automata,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 77, No. 1,
2012, pp. 158-164.
[12] Islam, M. A. and Waran, L., 2010, University of Califoria, Davis, “Nanotechnology Materials and Devices for Future
Communication Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2010, pp.112-120.
[13] Keikha, A. et al, 2011, “A Novel Design of a Random Generator Circuit in QCA,” IJCA Journal, Vol. 35, No.1, 2011.
[14] Lent, C. S. et al, 1993, “Quantum Cellular Automata,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1993, pp. 49-57.
[15] Lent, C. S. &amp; Isaksen, B., 2003, “Clocked Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata,” IEEE Transaction on Electron
Devices, Vol. 50, No. 9, Sept. 2003.
[16] Nirmal, Kumar, V., Jabaraj, S., 2010, “NAND Gate using FINFRT for Nanoscale Technology,” IJEST Journal, Vol.
2(5), 2010.
[17] Samee and Shukla S., 2006, “WiMAX: Latest Mobile
Technology,” Telecommunications, Jan-Feb. 2006, pp. 7783.
[18] Tougaw, P. D. &amp; Lent, C. S., 1994, “Logical Devices Implemented Using Quantum Cellular Automata,” Journal of
Applied Physics, Vol. 75, No. 3, 1994, pp. 1818-1825.
[19] Verma, S. Devendra K. and Barhai, P. K., 2012, “Design &amp; Development of Nanoelectronic Binary Decision Tree
Device based on CMOS and QCA (Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata) Nanotechnology,” IJCA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1,
2012.
[20] Vijayalakshmi, P. and Kirthika, N., 2012, “Design for Hybrid Adder using QCA with Implementation of Wallace Tree
Multiplier,” IJAET Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 2912.
[21] WiMAX Forum, 2006, “Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation,” May 2006.
[22] WiMAX Forum, 2006, “Mobile WiMAX – Part II: A Comparative Analysis,” June 2006.

BIOGRAPHIES
S. Devendra K. Verma BSc.EE (India), MSEE (USA), MBA (USA), MIEEE, FIEI. He has
BScEE (RIT Jamshedpur (now NIT), Ranchi University, India), MSEE (Columbia University,
NY, USA), and MBA (Fairleigh Dickinson University, NJ, USA). He is having 20+ years of
Technical/Management (R&amp;D Environment) Experience in ECE (Electronics and
Communication Engineering) and ICT (Information Communication Technology in USA (at
AT&amp;T Bell Lab., NYNEX Science &amp; Technology Inc. (R&amp;D), Bell Communication Research

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering &amp; Technology, Mar. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 2231-1963
(Bellcore), and United Technologies), and 10+ years in Industries and Teachings. He has two Patents with the
USA Government. Excluding internal publications, He has about 25+ Technical Publications (mostly in USA,
India, and a few in Europe and China). Research, Teaching and Management have been salient Features of his
responsibility. Since 2006, he is associated with the B.I.T. Mesra (a Deemed University), Ranchi, India, as a
Faculty (later Visiting Faculty) in the Dept. of E.C.E. He is a Sr. Member of IEEE (Communication Society), a
Fellow of the IEI, and actively involved in its Technical Activities.
P. K. Barhai M.Sc. &amp; Ph.D. (Dibrugarh University, India). He received the M.Sc. degree in
physics and the Ph.D. degree in Physical Sciences from Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, India,
in 1970 and 1975, respectively. He is Vice Chancellor of the Birla Institute of Technology,
Ranchi, India. He is also Dean, Sponsored Research &amp; Collaborative Projects &amp; Prof. and
Head, Dept. of Applied Physics, B.I.T. Mesra, Ranchi, India. He is a Visiting Scientist at the
University of Duisburg, Duisburg, Germany, working on the development of Nanocrystalline
Diamond Films for Field-Emission Applications under an Indo-German Project funded under
the Indo-German Bilateral Cooperation on Science and Technology.

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