Legaliseringsguiden, genomgång av narkotikapolitiken, argument för en tillåtande narkotikapolitik och faktagranskning av de påstådda skadorna från cannabis och psykedeliska droger (legaliseringsguiden_v1.pdf)

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Legaliseringsguiden Genomgång av narkotikapolitiken Argument för en tillåtande narkotikapolitik Faktagranskning av cannabis och psykedeliska drogers påstådda skadeverkningar. Magiska Molekyler 2013 Legaliseringsguiden Version 1 (2013-06-01) Den senaste versionen finner du hos Magiska Molekyler: http://www.magiskamolekyler.org/legaliseringsguiden/ DETTA ÄR EN GRATIS E-BOK. DU FÅR KOPIERA OCH SPRIDA DEN FÖRUTSATT ATT DEN BESTÅR I SIN ORIGINALFORM (= EJ ÄNDRAD ELLER NEDKLIPPT). OM DU CITERAR LEGALISERINGSGUIDEN, VAR VÄNLIG ATT LÄNKA TILL: http://www.magiskamolekyler.org/legaliseringsguiden/ THIS IS A FREE E-BOOK. YOU MAY COPY AND SPREAD IT AS LONG AS IT REMAINS IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM (= NOT CHANGED OR WITH REMOVED SECTIONS). IF YOU QUOTE LEGALISERINGSGUIDEN, PLEASE INCLUDE A LINK TO: http://www.magiskamolekyler.org/legaliseringsguiden/ Magiska Molekyler 2013 2 Innehållsförteckning Förord ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Allmänt om förbudspolitiken........................................................................................ 12 Svensk förbudspolitik ............................................................................................................................................................ 13 Är den Svenska drogpolitiken framgångsrik?........................................................................................................ 13 En jämförelse av drogdödligheten.............................................................................................................................. 19 Debattklimatet .................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Den svenska förbudspolitikens historia ............................................................................................................ 24 Förbudet mot kaffe....................................................................................................................................................... 24 Nykterhetsrörelsen och omröstningen om alkoholförbud ......................................................................... 24 Förbudet mot narkotika ............................................................................................................................................. 25 Framväxande narkotikamissbruk.......................................................................................................................... 28 Försöken med en legal förskrivning av droger ................................................................................................ 29 Bejerots ideologi blir rådande ................................................................................................................................. 30 Ett narkotikafritt samhälle........................................................................................................................................ 31 Lagen om att förstöra droger som inte är förbjudna ..................................................................................... 33 Tidskurva, narkotikapolitiken ................................................................................................................................. 33 Tidskurva alkoholpolitiken ...................................................................................................................................... 35 Antidrogorganisationer .............................................................................................................................................. 38 FMN .................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Hassela .............................................................................................................................................................................. 38 RNS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 CAN ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Carnegieinstitutet ......................................................................................................................................................... 39 ENS 2000 / Stiftelsen Ett Narkotikafritt Sverige ............................................................................................. 40 Scientologerna ............................................................................................................................................................... 40 ECAD................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Faktakällor som används av svenska förbudsförespråkare .................................................................. 42 Jan Ramström ................................................................................................................................................................. 42 Pelle Olsson ..................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Thomas Lundqvist ........................................................................................................................................................ 46 Internationell förbudspolitik ............................................................................................................................................ 56 Bibelns syn på berusning .................................................................................................................................................... 56 Napoleon förbjuder cannabis ............................................................................................................................................ 57 Opiumkrigen............................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Opiumkonventionerna ......................................................................................................................................................... 58 3 Västvärlden lägger ansvaret på U-länderna ................................................................................................................ 60 Amerikansk förbudspolitik ................................................................................................................................................ 61 Tidigt användande av cannabis ........................................................................................................................................ 61 Tidigt 1900-tal ......................................................................................................................................................................... 62 Rasism och fördomar i propagandan mot cannabis............................................................................................ 63 1930-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 1940-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 67 1950-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 67 1960-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 68 1970-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 68 1980-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 69 1990-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 71 2000-talet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 71 Konsekvenser av dagens narkotikapolitik ................................................................................................................ 73 Når man målet om det narkotikafria samhället?....................................................................................................... 73 Dödsfall .................................................................................................................................................................................. 77 Prisutvecklingen ................................................................................................................................................................ 78 Kan ökade straff/repressiva åtgärder leda till att målet uppfylls? .................................................................... 81 Vad kostar det att sträva efter det narkotikafria samhället? ............................................................................... 83 Vilka tjänar pengar på förbudet och vad får det för konsekvenser ................................................................... 86 Kriget mot droger skapar många dödsoffer ........................................................................................................... 89 Andra Nackdelar med att skapa en svart marknad .................................................................................................. 90 Nya droger med hög skadeverkning, varför existerar dom? ........................................................................... 90 Miljöförstöring .................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Medias roll i propagandan................................................................................................................................................... 93 Media, en maktfaktor som styr vad som är politiskt korrekt............................................................................... 93 Snyftreportage och dödsdroger, vad säljer?................................................................................................................ 94 Rapporteringen om vissa droger överskuggar andra ............................................................................................. 94 Faktarutor och källhänvisningar...................................................................................................................................... 95 Exempel på snedvridna artiklar ....................................................................................................................................... 96 Debattklimatet har förbättrats ......................................................................................................................................... 96 Exempel på överambitiös propaganda......................................................................................................................... 98 Fungerar skräckpropaganda? ........................................................................................................................................... 98 Svensk propaganda..............................................................................................................................................................100 Blandade citat...........................................................................................................................................................................106 4 Argument för legalisering eller dekriminalisering ...................110 Rätten till medicinskt bruk ...............................................................................................................................................111 Är medicinsk cannabis farligt för patienterna? .......................................................................................................111 Stigmatiseringen av patienter som använder cannabis .......................................................................................112 Motståndet mot medicinsk cannabis ...........................................................................................................................113 Seriös forskning hindras av förbudet...........................................................................................................................117 Cannabis medicinska historia fram tills förbudet ...................................................................................................118 Några citat om medicinsk cannabis ..............................................................................................................................122 Medicinska användningsområden för Cannabis...................................................................................................123 Alzheimers...............................................................................................................................................................................124 Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) ..................................................................................................................................126 Kronisk smärta ......................................................................................................................................................................127 Diabetes ....................................................................................................................................................................................128 Dystoni ......................................................................................................................................................................................128 Fibromyalgi .............................................................................................................................................................................129 Besvär i Mag-tarmkanalen ................................................................................................................................................130 Cancer........................................................................................................................................................................................131 Hepatit C ...................................................................................................................................................................................132 Humant immunbristvirus (HIV) & AIDS .....................................................................................................................133 Huntingtons sjukdom .........................................................................................................................................................133 Högt blodtryck (hypertoni) ..............................................................................................................................................133 Inkontinens .............................................................................................................................................................................134 Meticillinresistenta stafylokocker (MRSA) ................................................................................................................134 Multipel Skleros (MS) .........................................................................................................................................................135 Benskörhet (Osteoporos)..................................................................................................................................................136 Klåda / allergi.........................................................................................................................................................................136 Ledgångsreumatism (Reumatoid artrit).....................................................................................................................137 Sömnapné ................................................................................................................................................................................138 Tourettes Syndrom ..............................................................................................................................................................138 Glaukom (Grön starr) .........................................................................................................................................................138 Epilepsi .....................................................................................................................................................................................139 Övrigt .........................................................................................................................................................................................139 Medicinska användningsområden för psykedeliska droger .........................................................................145 Psykedeliska droger mot dödsångest ..........................................................................................................................145 Psykedeliska droger mot klusterhuvudvärk .............................................................................................................146 Harmin/Harmalin ................................................................................................................................................................147 Ibogain ......................................................................................................................................................................................147 Ketamin ....................................................................................................................................................................................148 5 LSD..............................................................................................................................................................................................149 MDMA ........................................................................................................................................................................................150 Psilocybin (magiska svampar) ........................................................................................................................................152 Rätten till rekreationellt bruk ........................................................................................................................................154 Argument från förbudsförespråkare............................................................................................................................155 Synen på personlig frihet ..................................................................................................................................................157 Övrigt .........................................................................................................................................................................................160 Definitioner av en tillåtande narkotikapolitik ......................................................................................................162 Kriminalisering......................................................................................................................................................................162 Dekriminalisering.................................................................................................................................................................162 Legalisering.............................................................................................................................................................................164 Harm reduction .....................................................................................................................................................................166 Positiva konsekvenser av en tillåtande narkotikapolitik ...............................................................................169 Samhällseffekter ...................................................................................................................................................................169 Ekonomiska effekter ...........................................................................................................................................................171 Hälsoeffekter ..........................................................................................................................................................................174 Övrigt .........................................................................................................................................................................................177 Negativa konsekvenser av en tillåtande narkotikapolitik ..............................................................................180 En tillåtande politik gynnar bara kriminaliteten.....................................................................................................180 Brottsligheten försvinner inte.........................................................................................................................................180 Antalet missbrukare ökar .................................................................................................................................................184 Ohälsan kommer inte försvinna .....................................................................................................................................191 Kvaliteten kommer inte förbättras ...............................................................................................................................192 Vi har redan försökt med legalisering och det fungerade inte ..........................................................................192 Auktoriteter som protesterar mot den förda narkotikapolitiken ..............................................................193 Global Commission on Drug Policy ...............................................................................................................................193 LEAP ...........................................................................................................................................................................................195 David Nutt................................................................................................................................................................................196 Övriga ........................................................................................................................................................................................197 Rapporter som föreslår en tillåtande narkotikapolitik....................................................................................200 1943: La Guardia-kommitténs rapport (USA) ..........................................................................................................200 1972: National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse (USA) .................................................................201 1989: Research Advisory Panel (USA).........................................................................................................................202 2008: The Global Cannabis Commision, Beckley Foundation (Bok) ...............................................................203 2006-2009: Transform Drug Policy Foundation (England) ...............................................................................205 2009: Drugs And Democracy: Toward A Paradigm Shift (Latinamerika).....................................................206 2011: Global Commission on Drug Policy (Globalt samarbete) ........................................................................207 2012: The UK Drug Policy Commission (England) .................................................................................................208 2013: British Medical Association (England) ...........................................................................................................209 6 2013: All-Party Parliamentary Group on Drug Policy Reform (England).....................................................210 2013: The Drug Problem In The Americas (Latinamerika) ................................................................................212 Genomgång av länder med en tillåtande narkotikapolitik .............................................................................214 Analyser av argument mot cannabis och psykedeliska droger .................................................................................................................................................................................231 Alkoholjämförelsen ...............................................................................................................................................................232 Alkoholjämförelsens funktion i debatten ...................................................................................................................232 Om alkohol ..............................................................................................................................................................................232 Argument från förbudsförespråkare............................................................................................................................234 Forskarnas bedömning av riskerna med olika droger ..........................................................................................242 Aggressivitet ......................................................................................................................................................................248 Dödsfall ................................................................................................................................................................................250 Experters åsikter om cannabis vs alkohol .................................................................................................................251 Cannabis farlighet och förklaringar/motargument ............................................................................................255 Analys av förbudsförespråkarnas syn på forskning ..............................................................................................255 Är cannabis skadligt? ..........................................................................................................................................................257 Nils Bejerot om Hasch ........................................................................................................................................................257 Ett urval av uttalanden om cannabis farlighet genom tiderna ..........................................................................258 Cannabis och beroende ..................................................................................................................................................260 Argument från förbudsförespråkare .......................................................................................................................261 Definitioner av beroende och missbruk .................................................................................................................264 Hur många blir beroende? ...........................................................................................................................................267 Abstinens.............................................................................................................................................................................268 Jämförelse med andra droger .....................................................................................................................................275 Cannabis och schizofreni/psykoser ........................................................................................................................279 Argument från cannabismotståndare .....................................................................................................................281 Stöd för att cannabis orsakar psykoser ..................................................................................................................284 Stöd för teorin att cannabis orsakar schizofreni ................................................................................................286 Stöd för teorin att cannabis inte orsakar schizofreni .......................................................................................287 Genetiska orsaker till schizofreni/psykoser ...................................................................................................293 Kan självmedicinering vara förklaringen? .......................................................................................................295 Andra saker som skapar schizofreni/psykoser .............................................................................................298 Cannabis och dödsfall......................................................................................................................................................301 Argument från förbudsförespråkare .......................................................................................................................301 Cannabisrelaterade dödsfall .......................................................................................................................................303 Kan överdosering leda till döden? ............................................................................................................................308 Självmordsrisken .............................................................................................................................................................313 7


         





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