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RealGasJT4 blck powdr .pdf


Original filename: RealGasJT4-blck-powdr.pdf
Title: Friction Effect in Real Gas Flow
Author: otis p armstrong p.e.

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Multi Stage Gas Valve Field Trial Part 3A What is Black Powder (BP)?
Heather to fore, BP was considered exclusively an issue for “product pipelines”. This test, with a raw gas
pipeline, shows BP can exist in other parts of a gas system. The following quote is from www.Wiki “Black
Powder Gas Pipeline”, Dec.09/2012
“Black powder is a solid contamination in finished product pipelines. The material may be wet and have a
tar-like appearance, or dry and be a very fine powder, sometimes like smoke. Black powder can cause a
range of problems, including product contamination, erosion wear in compressors, instrument and filter
clogging and equipment contamination for product consumer, erosion and sealing problems for valves, and
flow reduction. Black powder may be mechanically mixed or chemically combined with any number of
contaminants such as water, liquid hydrocarbons, salts, chlorides, sand, or dirt. Chemical analyses of the
material have revealed that it consists mainly of a mixture of iron oxides and iron sulfides.” The following
slide details upstream testing showing BP in gas pipelines exists from wellhead to final gas product lines.

Forms of Black Powder in Gas pipeline

71

Multi Stage Gas Valve Field Trial Part 3B What is Black Powder?
Black powder is a solid contamination in natural gas pipelines. The median average particle diameter is
about 45 m. Separation of a sludge sample into water and oil components, indicates the darker brown BP
results from water phase, whilst the tar portion of sludge was far darker. The water constituent of this
sludge sample had iron as the predominate (50%) non oxygen element. The hydrocarbon portion was more
black with 87% carbon. The oil fraction contained significant silica and sulfur.
The abrasiveness of this fine powder can be seen in the eroded valve trim and cage, plus the erro0ded
compressor seal. The tested high friction valve trim has a more convoluted flow pattern, as opposed to
straight flow path and larger diameter holes in a conventional valve. The high friction valve trim was
rapidly plugged off due to convoluted flow pattern and small opening diameter of ports.

Vendor A CFD Real Gas Model Results

72


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