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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
This is a brief to clarify an ambiguity presented previously under title; The Balfour
Century, (TBC), July 2012. In that title it was implied that four generations could be
equated to either 400 or 430 years. Addition study, since then, indicates the four
generations of Genesis 15 can only apply to the mentioned 400 year time span, or
100 years per generation. A recap of TBC is given in Appendix 1, below.
The 430 year time span, of Exodus 12, marks a retro time from the Exodus
backwards to, „that very day‟. The 400 year time span starts with Abraham‟s
children (possibly after his death). It then ends after the descendents are no longer
travelers in a land that is „not their own‟. This return is marked by Israel having
possession of Canaan. Such is consistent with the Judgment/Redemption
generation time span being 100 years, as indicated by the story of Noah.
Footnote 2 of TBC stated; „The 400 year or 435 years is taken not of necessity of
total time in Egypt. The equating of 400 years to 4 generations is specifically
provided in the same bible passage. This equating is consistent with most other
reviews of Genesis, chapter 15, which place the four generations running cocurrently with the 400 year time span.
The TBC method of date numeration is thusly accomplished:
Seven Days, of 1000 years each, account for „Determined Time‟ of The Creator‟s
dealings with fallen mankind. These days are numbered as: two (2) days of
darkness or promise, two days of old covenant time or confirmation, two days of
new covenant or Kingdom time, and one (1) day of rest or dominion time.
Demarcation of TBC time uses a start point of Jesus Baptism by John in river
Jordon at Jesus age of about 30 years. TBC takes the year of this event at 27AD
for a birth year of 4BC. “The Law and Prophets were until John, since that time, the
Kingdom of God is preached”. The year 27 AD corresponds, by some accounts, to
the 70 weeks of determined time, as given by Daniel, see Appendix 2.
Two thousand years prior to “John‟s Baptism” is the start of the old covenant given
to Abraham when he was age 75. Two thousand years prior to Gen12:4, marks the
beginning of darkness when man fell from grace and a promise of redemption
given. Three thousand years after John‟s Baptism of Jesus, marks the end of Sin
when the devil is eternally bound and time ends.
There is a simple way to see why the four hundred years and four generations of
Genesis 15 cannot be the same time span as “430 years to that very day”. The 400
years must end with return into Canaan in the 4th generation, see appendix 5. This
return to Canaan is more than 40 years after the Exodus. The 430 years looks
backward from the day of Exodus. These arrangements are diagramed in the 3
charts of Appendix 3. Selection of Exodus year is arbitrary for the diagrams of
Page 1 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
appendix 3. The starting date for these charts may be changed to fit any
reasonable sequence. „The Balfour Century‟ epochs are fixed to Jesus Baptism by
John. The baptism event is viewed to start a 2000 year epoch of the new covenant.
The baptism of Christ also marks the end of 2000 years of old covenant. The 2000
years of old covenant is separated from 2,000 years of Darkness Time with the
calling of Abraham at age 75, which allows dating of Israel‟s entry into Egypt.
Table 1
Results for Possible Exodus Date & 1st Temple Completion date based on
Alternatives for 430 year start date and year of Jesus Birth by TBC Timeline

The time from Abe‟s 75th year unto Israel‟s entry into Egypt is established by
scripture. The Genesis account tells of: 1) Abraham‟s covenant calling at age 75
and death at age 175; 2) Abe at age 100 sired Isaac who died age 180 and; 3)
Isaac sired Jacob at age 60, Jacob enters Egypt at age 130 in 9th year after Joseph
appointment as Grand Master at age 30, & Jacob died age 147. When Jacob
arrived in Egypt, he was accompanied by 70 people including Levi and Kohath.
Isaac is not listed as entering Egypt. These are the fixed criteria given by Moses.
Appendix 4 shows how Israel‟s year of entry into Egypt corresponds to the Exodus
year using the TBC method of Epochs. The results for the most likely parameters
are tabulated in Table 1, above, as extracted from Appendix 6.
Page 2 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
The use of I-Kings 6 criteria for Solomon‟s Temple completion, 487 years after
Exodus, allows a cross check for the calculated year of Exodus. References to
dating Solomon‟s Temple are provided in Appendix 9. Babylonian history can date
the approximate year of the Temple destruction. Destruction matches well with
others review of Solomon‟s temple era around 972BC.
Summary of Findings (See also Index):
 The 400 year time span, encompassing 4 generations, was shown by the diagrams
of Appendix 3 to be a separate time span from the 430 year time span. This is
because the 400 year time span must end with Israel’s entry into Canaan. This entry
is more than 40 years after the Exodus. While the 430 year retro-time span starts at
Exodus, ending at ‘Covenant Confirmation’.
 Both the 240 and 300 years in Egypt appear to fit and explain all necessary criteria.
Key criteria are: 1: Life spans of listed four generations must over lap within
specified 430 years; 2: The specified time span of 430 years starts the very day of
Exodus, Exod.12:40-41; 3: the 400 year time span must end on or after Israel’s entry
to Canaan.


The two different time spans, of 430 and 400 years, may be used to estimate a year
for Israel’s first Passover and the Exodus date using the method of TBC, Appendix4.

 It is certain that the date for the start of Sabbath Years has been lost. This makes it
imprudent to use Jubile counts or year to pontificate eschatological events.
Appendix 7B & Table 2 do present some interesting coincidental dates.


The time period of Solomon’s Temple may be used as a marker to substantiate a
year range for the Exodus date, Table1.
 There is not a common consensus among scholars and archeologists for the precise
year of the Exodus and associated events. However, TBC method of epochs and
Jesus birth & baptism year is one way to biblically set an improved range of years
for Israel’s Exodus date. This is because the consensus for the year of Jesus birth has
less variance that the estimated date for Solomon’s Temple. However the Exodus
dates thusly obtained are at variance with some pontificators.
 The use of scriptural genealogical time spans, alone, does not provide enough data
to determine an accurate Exodus date. This fact has been well established to
provide ample fodder for vigorous debate amongst scholars. Thus it appears
prudent, to realize conclusions about faith may not always be validated by
prevailing historical understanding.
Page 3 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 1: Recap of Balfour Century Concept
“The following verse from Genesis equates four hundred years to four generations.
This equates to one generation being one hundred, 100 years, more or less. If one
takes the Exodus account, a generation equates to 107.5 years.
"And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a
land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred
years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall
they come out with great substance. And you shall go to your fathers in peace; you
shall be buried in a good old age. But in the fourth generation they shall come
hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full”. “Genesis, chapter 15:”
Now, the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred
and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty
years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went
out from the land of Egypt. Exodus 12:40-41
So is given that a generation by one biblical account is around 100 years. The end
of the last Diaspora was initiated November 1917. The significance of the two facts
was told by Jesus in Mark 13:28-30:
"Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putts forth
leaves, you know that summer is near: So ye in like manner, when ye shall see
these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. Truly I say unto
you, that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done."
Notice Jesus did not say, 'when the fig tree is mature', but rather, 'when it starts to
grow or put fourth'. Indicating the clock starts counting from the moment the event
is initiated. Some eschatological counts start from 1948. However by 1948, the
Diaspora-end was well underway, with substantial immigration to the holy land by
1948. The immigration was substantial enough for formation of militant groups to
resist Crown administration of Jerusalem, prior to 1948.
Additional clarification was added by Jesus when he stated, "This generation shall
not pass away until all these things be completed". Possibly the generation to
which he referenced are those born since the end of the Diaspora starting in 1917.
If so, then, counting places the end of the church age somewhere between 2017
and 2024.5 A.D. Arrived at by counting the length of a Genesis generation and
adding those years to the date of Balfour's declaration.” - return.P1 goP2 goP3 Page 4 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 2 Balfour Century Determined Times
Figure A

The birth of Jesus in Year 4BC fits within both historical and prophetic documentation. This is detailed
on the following chart, “Two Thousand Three hundred days” and Seventy (70) weeks of Daniel.
return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 5 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 2 Figure B

The birth of Jesus in Year 4BC fits within both historical and prophetic documentation.
return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 6 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 3: Alternatives for the 430 and 400 Year time spans
Appendix 3 Figure A The 215 Egypt Years

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 7 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 3B The 240 Egypt Years

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 8 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 3 Figure C The 300 Egypt Years

The 400 year time span of oppression and slavery is selected to start at Jacob’s birth and ends with Israel’s return to
Canaan. The 400 years include the 40 of oppression during the wilderness. The first 70 years of 300 years in Egypt are
omitted 400 years of oppression, as Israel suffered no oppression in Egypt under Joseph.
The 430 year time span of travel begins with the birth of Jacob and ends with Israel’s Exodus from Egypt.
The date of Jacob’s birth is determined by “The Balfour Century” method, thusly: Abraham is 75 years old in year
1974BC. Thus Abraham is born 75+1974=2049, Isaac was born when Abe was 100 and Jake born when Ike was 60 or
160 years after Abe’s birth. The Exodus is 430 plus 160 years after Abe’s birth or year 2049-590= 1459 BC; ‘elementary
my dear Dr. Watson’. There are published, a wide range of Exodus dates. Bishop Ussher gave a date of 1491, others
favor around 1445BC. A list of speculative Exodus dates is far too long to publish here, see appendix.
return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 9 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 4: Figures A, B, & C: Method of Finding Exodus Year
by TBC Method & Years from Abe‟s 75th to Start of 430 Period

Appendix 4C
return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 10 of 32

Diagram for Dating of Exodus Year by Epochs of ‘Determined Time’
using “The Balfour Generation” method
Time Gap 1 is time From
Old Covenant start when
Abraham was age 75 until
Jacob Birth 85 years later
Gen. 12:4, 21:5, & 25:26

3974 BC

1974 BC
-25
-60
-430
1459 BC

O

1974 BC

Luke 16:16, 3:21-23 & Matt. 11:12-13

N End of New Covenant 1Th.4:16-18
E Eternity Future Start
Rev.20:1&7, &10; Rev.10:6

eX
1459 BC

CA
27 AD

N

3023.5 AD

1

CA Christ Anointing @30Yr, born 4BC

2023.5

A

C A O Old Covenant Gen. 12:4

2016.5 AD

Time Gap 2 is 430 years
From Law to Covenant
Confirmation with Jacob’s
Birth Ex. 12:40-41, 19:1 &
Gal.3:15-17

A Adamic Covenant Gen. 3:15

1Tim.1:4

2

E

3027 AD

04 BC Jesus Birth alt

|<- 7k years total - From A to CA, 4,000 years, & O to CA, 2,000 years, & CA to E 3,000 years ->|
Total Determined Time is Comprised of 1000 years of Rest and 6,000 years of Labor
* Year of Completion for Solomon’s Temple, 1459 – 487 = 972 BC 1Kgs.6:1&:38

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 5: Generational Charts based on 1459 BC exodus Year
Appendix5A
item

BC

Year of
Exodus

1459

Abraham
75 yrs
old

1974

Solomon
temple
complete

972

2000 YR
prior to
Christ
Baptism

1974

item

AD

Year Christ 30
years old

27.+-

return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 12 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 5: Generational Charts based on 1459 BC exodus Year
Appendix5B

item

BC

Year of
Exodus

1459

Abraham
75 yrs
old

1974

Solomon
temple
complete

972

2000 YR
prior to
Christ
Baptism

item

1974

AD

Year
27.+Christ 30
years old
return.P1 goP2
goP3
Page 13 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 5: Generational Charts based on 1459 BC exodus Year
Appendix5C

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 14 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 5: Generational Charts of Exodus
Appendix5D

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 15 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 6: Matrix of Exodus Year Ranges with Calculation Details

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 16 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 7A: Jubile Count and Selected Jubile Years for Considered Alternatives
Sabbath & Jubile year
counting should start
from Exodus Year. For
the Passover was kept
every wilderness year,
also by Joshua and other
Judges forward. This was
stated by both of Moses
accounts
(Numbers
9.1:5 & v11 & Ex 40:17).
The book of Joshua,
Chapter 5 does not say
the Passover was not
kept in wilderness, it
merely states that those
born in wilderness went
uncircumcised due to
the burden of travel.
The word of the count
start date was lost some
time after Solomon’s
temple completion.
It is my view that Jubile
system ended with
Christ.
For the new
covenant says the Law was nailed to the Cross & Jesus said, ‘For the Law and the Prophets were Until John’ after John the Kingdom of God
is declared. Again, whosoever seeks justification by the law makes Christ of no avail, & if Christ (our Passover) was not crucified and raised
from the dead, we of all men are the most to be despised. return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 17 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 7B: Jubile Count and Selected Jubile Years for Considered Alternatives
Review of Coincidental Sabbath Years for 4BC Birth, 27AD Baptism 240 Egypt Years for 1519BC Exodus

.
return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 18 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 8: Scripture references

return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 19 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers: Table A
Summary Table of Internet source data for Exodus & Temple Dates
Years Sol's
temple
n
BCE
Egypt

reference link

article info

Year BC
Exodus

http://goo.gl/EcG3I

based on Joshua & Caleb

1626

http://goo.gl/FXjPl

exodus

1552

http://goo.gl/fvZJY

Joshua & Caleb + temple

1538

http://goo.gl/RkUty

Ussher

1491

http://goo.gl/4elgI

Solomon Temple finish BC

1491

1004

http://goo.gl/HY5NK

Solomon Temple finish BC

1462

973

http://goo.gl/wgj2i

Solomon Temple finish BC

1452

964

http://goo.gl/wl4q6

archaeological record disputed

1450

http://goo.gl/Sh1ln

Solomon Temple & Sabbaticals

1446

http://goo.gl/2AHKR

Seder Olam Rabbah

1313

215

http://goo.gl/amorw

Exodus 2491 anno mundi

1513

270

http://goo.gl/UDT9a

archaeological record

1225

http://goo.gl/VXni0

1200

http://goo.gl/Igdtt

temple complete anon
c.a.
time n Egypt 400 - 215 YR

http://goo.gl/2eUHz

time n Egypt 400 - 215 YR

968

1000

Range of others
dating of Exodus:
1200 BCE to 1626
BCE. This wide
range of dates
gives low certainty.
The most common
accepted
date
seems to be about
1445 BCE. The
average of the 15th
century numbers is
1465. The average
Exodus date of all
numbers is 1424
BCE. The average
of all values for
temple completion
is 973 BC.

215

The Year of the
Exodus arrived at
400+
http://goo.gl/4DfoV
by the Balfour
Yalad ?
430
Century Method is
http://goo.gl/jS1JE
Seder Olam
1459 BCE. The
430
Years by age??
http://goo.gl/H8BmO
time in Egypt
Yalad speculations
http://goo.gl/6cWeS
selected for this
953
Sol's
temple
complete
BC
http://goo.gl/5LajM
analysis is 300
949
years. The date of
Sol's temple complete BC
http://goo.gl/vkAJO
Solomon’s Temple
1461
300
974
Jesus born 5/14/6 B.C
http://goo.gl/bFAAB
completion is 972
BC, calculated from Exodus year of 1459. The last table entry results (using calendar
counting) are exactly 2 years prior to the Balfour Century method. Were his method to
select 4BCE as year of Jesus birth, the results of both methods would be identical. Both
these methods indicate a tribulation start date of on or before 2017. return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 20 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9B: Other Writers Considerations
The 400 and 430 year periods serve the purpose of bridging the gap between the time of
Abraham and the Exodus (of the children of Israel from Egypt).
Many have advanced various theories or solutions to the twin periods of 'four hundred
years' and 'four hundred and thirty years', but when one considers these theories carefully
they do not completely satisfy the stated requirements. The verses which mention these
periods are as follows.
400 YEARS
Gen 15:13 Then He said to Abram: "Know certainly that your descendants will be strangers
in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred
years. :14 And also the nation whom they serve I will judge; afterward they shall come out
with great possessions."
Acts 7:6 But God spoke in this way: that his descendants would sojourn in a foreign land,
and that they would bring them into bondage and oppress them four hundred years.
7:'And the nation to whom they will be in bondage I will judge', said God, 'and after that
they shall come out and serve Me in this place'.
430 YEARS
Exod 12:40 Now the sojourn of the children of Israel, who lived in Egypt, was four hundred
and thirty years.:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years on that very same day - it came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the
land of Egypt.
[ Literal = Exod 12:40 And dwelling of sons/builders of Israel, which dwelt in Egypt, thirty
year and four of hundreds year. :41 And is becoming from end of thirty year and four of
hundreds year and is becoming very of the day this they went forth all of hosts of Yahweh
from land of Egypt.]
The rendering 'sojourn' is questionable. The Hebrew word according to Strong's means
"a seat; figuratively, a site; abstractly, a session; by extension an abode (the place or
time); ..."
return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 21 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
Gal 3:15 Brethren, I speak in the manner of men: Though it is only a man's covenant, yet
if it is confirmed, no one annuls or adds to it. Now to Abraham and his seed were the
promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one,:17 And this I say,
that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant
that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect.
(My note: The “confirmed before” is taken to be the birth of Jacob. Jacob was chosen
(confirmed) by grace, for by birthright the privileges of covenant should have passed to
the 1st born, Esau. This is the election by grace. After this election was confirmed, all 12
sired offspring of Jacob were counted as heirs of the promise. Abraham & Isaac had many
children but each had only 1 heir to promise. But with Israel forward, all were counted as
heirs of the covenant)
In addition to these verses it is necessary to also consider the period of
450 years.
NIV Acts 13:16 Standing up, Paul motioned with his hand and said: "Men of Israel and you
Gentiles who worship God, listen to me! :17 The God of the people of Israel chose our
fathers; he made the people prosper during their stay in Egypt, with mighty power he led
them out of that country,:18 he endured their conduct for about forty years in the
desert,:19 he overthrew seven nations in Canaan and gave their land to his people as their
inheritance. :20 All this took about 450 years.:21 After this, God gave them judges until
the time of Samuel the prophet.
NKJV Acts 13:19 And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He
distributed their land to them by allotment. :20 After that He gave them judges for about
four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.
The NIV rendering associates the 450 years with the period between Exodus and the
overthrow of the 7 nations. The NKJV rendering associates the 450 years with the period
between the overthrow of the 7 nations and the arrival of Samuel.
The translations utilize two different received texts:
NIV - "About years four hundred and fifty. And after these He gave judges until Samuel
the prophet"
return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 22 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
NKJV - "And after these about years four hundred and fifty He gave judges until Samuel
the prophet."
The text used by the NKJV mentions the 450 years following 'And after' so initially
indicating association with the judges period, but it also mentions the 450 years
immediately following the word 'these' and the word 'these' refers to the prior mentioned
events.
This NKJV received text does seem to carry a degree of ambiguity, which could have been
removed by a few extra words, e.g.
- And after these which took about years four hundred and fifty, He gave judges until
Samuel the prophet. Or - And after these, about years four hundred and fifty passed
during which he gave judges until Samuel the prophet.
It is interesting to note that the NKJV translation moves the word 'judges' forward in their
translation. The NKJV translation chooses to mention 'judges' prior to the mention of the
450 years. In doing they remove any ambiguity and depict only the latter meaning.
However, despite concerns over which received text is reliable and issues over translation,
God's intended meaning becomes quite clear when one considers 1Kings 6:1. 1Kings 6:1
states that a period of 480 years passed from the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon.
Hence a period of 450 years from the defeat of the 7 nations to Samuel is clearly seen as
being far too long! To equate with the duration of the 1Kings 6:1 period, one would have
to add at least 47 years to the start (wilderness + defeat of 7 nations) and 20 + 40 + 40
years to the end (Samuel, Saul and David).So the 450 years would become at least 597
years and therefore be in excess of 117 years over the defined 1 Kings 6:1, 480 years.
So in conclusion the 450 years in Acts chapter 13 must be referring to the period between
the Exodus and the defeat of the 7 nations.
The NIV translation correctly identifies the events associated with 450 years and the KNJV
translation does not. Upon reflection the structure of the period of 450 years is suggested
to be:
return.P1 goP2 goP3
Page 23 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
Choosing of the Fathers to the Exodus
Wandering in the wilderness
Destroying of the seven nations

400
40
10
--450 Years

In summary, the main points concerning the twin periods of 400 years and 430 years can
be listed as follows:
400 YEARS 1) Encompasses sojourning and bondage (AND affliction, which stopped at the crossing
into the ‘promised land’ or ‘bring back’or return.

2) Involves Abraham's descendants, Gen 15:13
3) Ends with the Exodus, (entry to their promised land) Acts 7:6-7 & 13:17-20
4) Begins with the choosing of the fathers! (Thy seed, or possibly Abe’s death)
(NB: The 400 year period initiates the longer 450 year period and since the 450 years
starts with the choosing of the fathers, then the choosing of the fathers must also be the
event which begins the 400 years.)
430 YEARS –
1) Encompasses some time in Egypt
2) Ends with the Exodus, Exodus 12:40
3) Begins at Passover (at the same time of the year that Israel left Egypt,
Exod. 12:41 'that very same day')
4) Begins when the Abrahamic covenant was 'confirmed' Gal 3:17.(by Jacob birth)
If both the 400 and 430 year periods end at the Exodus, then apparently their starting
points are 30 years apart. Unfortunately, with this knowledge, determining the events
which initiate the 400 and 430 year periods is still difficult.
However, rather than at this point entering upon a lengthy analysis, for the sake of
brevity the starting points are simply stated.
return.P1 goP2 goP3

Page 24 of 32

The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
400 YEARS - *** The Birth of Jacob ***
The 'chose our fathers' in Acts chapter 13 is a reference to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The
'descendants' mentioned in Gen 15:13 and Acts 7:6 were Isaac and Jacob. The selection of
Jacob occurred at his birth, Gen 25:23. (At this time Isaac was 60 years old and Abraham
was 160 years old; Gen 25:26, 21:5.)

430 YEARS - *** The Intended Sacrifice of Isaac *** (not agree this section)
This event was a type of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which also occurred at Passover.
Following the willingness of Abraham to offer his son God made the prior promises to
Abraham unconditional!
Gen 22:16 ... "By Myself I have sworn, says the LORD, because you have done this thing,
and have not withheld your son, your only son,:17 in blessing I will bless you, and in
multiplying I will multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand
which is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the gate of their
enemies.:18 In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have
obeyed My voice."
Consider also; Exod 32:13,'You swore by Your own self'- Heb 6:13, because He could
swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself'.
[ NB: The circumcision covenant, which is described in chapter 17 of Genesis, did not
cause the promises to Abraham to be unconditional. ] Although not dated this event
would have occurred when Abraham was 130(160-30) years old! (Really? Looks like
guessing) Isaac about 30 years of age, an adult!!
The common, but ill-conceived, portrayal of the intended sacrifice
falsely views Isaac as a child.
SACRIFICE OF ISAAC COMMENTARY
I cannot concur this section: 1) Date guessing 2) Adulthood listed as
age 20 and up by Numbers 32:11-12 and thirdly the trial of Isaac was
only one part of the confirmation. Otherwise no need for election by
grace of Jacob over Esau later. 4) Moses said: ‘to the very day’ – no
guessing- this is only possible by using the stated ages for birth of
Jacob & Isaac. Possibly both 430 and 400 years reference same start
point – birth year of JACOB / ISRAEL see charts page 8 & 9
return.P1 goP2 goP3
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
COMMON MISTAKES
1) Failing to recognize that the affliction suffered in Egypt never spanned the entire
period. We only know for certain that the Israelites were afflicted the last 80 years (length
of life of Moses prior to the Exodus).
2) Not noticing that the length of the stay in Egypt could not have exceeded 350 years (80
yrs + 137 yrs + 133 yrs). Moses at the time of the Exodus was 80 years old. Exod 7:7 And
Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty three years old when they spoke to
Pharaoh.
The father of Moses was Amram, who lived 137 years. Exod 6:20 Now Amram took for
himself Jochebed, his father's sister, as wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. And the
years of the life of Amram were one hundred and thirty-seven.
The father of Amram was Kohath, who lived 133 years. Exod 6:18 And the sons of Kohath
were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. And the years of the life of Kohath were one
hundred and thirty-three.
Kohath had already been born when Jacob entered Egypt. Gen 46:8 now these were the
names of the children of Israel, Jacob and his sons, who went to Egypt: ...:11 the sons of
Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
3) Placing too much emphasis upon the text of Exodus 12:40-41, without moderating it
with the teaching of Galatians 3:17. In Exodus 12:40 the 'who lived in Egypt' statement
should be considered a side comment and therefore not a clause which defined the period
of 430 years. In Exodus 12:40 there appears to be two further aspects which would initially
indicate a quite different timing.
1) 'Children of Israel' the word 'Israel' may be thought to refer to Jacob and this would
lead to views which would try to allow at least two children of Jacob to be born before the
430 years began. Such an approach runs into difficulty with the above maximum
allowance of 350 years in Egypt as Jacob entered Egypt being 130 years old and did not
have any children 80 years earlier, (i.e. before turning 50 years old). Therefore, rather than
being a reference to Jacob, 'Israel' in Exodus 12:40 has to be a reference to the spiritual
nation of Israel (i.e. sons/builders of the Promises).
2) 'Dwelling of the children of Israel' if this indicated a dwelling in one place, then that
would be in Egypt. However, once again the maximum time of 350 years in Egypt would
be a problem and not allow any interpretation which would desire a full 430 years in
Egypt. While at first not obvious quality translations show the word 'was' as in 'was four
hundred and thirty year' has been added. One may at first wonder why the Hebrew
sentence would not indicate the 'was' as the verse does require it. Looking back to the
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Strong's meaning of the Hebrew word for 'dwelling' we can notice that in the definition, if
used in an abstract manner, it could indicate abode not in a place, but abode in time. This
seemingly would provide the necessary link to the 430 year time period without the need
for a 'was'. So the meaning would be 'abode in time ... 430 years'.
3) Another common oversight maybe to try and decide on an interpretation of Exodus
12:40 without considering the impact on the derivation of a credible biblical chronology.
Whether Israel actually spent between 200-300 years in Egypt or 430 years in Egypt
makes a huge difference to any compiled chronology. While biblical chronology may not
be a subject studied in depth by many bible students it should be a factor considered
before reaching a conclusion upon the meaning of the Exodus 12:40 verse.
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers - An example of „endless or indeterminate genealogies‟

The chart below is based on the date, Calculated from Biblical Jubilees, for the Exodus. It
is convenient to analyze the chronology of the Judges period in three sections: 1. The three hundred year period from the conquest of the land East of the Jordan river to
the judgeship of Jephtha.
2. The period from Jephtha to Solomon's fourth year, 480 years from the coming out of
Egypt.
3. Finding space for periods for which there is no clear or definite chronological data, such
as Samson's 20 year, Eli's 40 year judgeship and the length of Samuel's lifelong judgeship
(which extended into the reign of Saul). Other pieces of the jigsaw are Shamgar's
judgeship and the 40 year oppression by the Philistines. Explanatory notes: The first section, from the conquest of the land east of the Jordan to the time of Jephtha,
occupies 300 years ( Judges 11:26). This is not enough to accommodate consecutively all
the time periods given and still find enough time to allow, “for all the days of the elders
who outlived Joshua and who had seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for
Israel” (2:7). Joshua lived to be 110 and we read that it was, “a long time after that the
LORD had given rest unto Israel from all their enemies round about, that Joshua waxed
old and stricken in age” (Josh.23:1), so clearly there must be a sensible gap between the
granting by Joshua of the inheritance to Caleb aged 85, 45 years after the Exodus, and the
falling away of Israel after the death of the elders who outlived Joshua.
These elders, apart from Caleb, must have been less than twenty years old at the Exodus
or they would have perished in the wilderness with that unfaithful generation (Nu.14:2224, 29-33). They must also have been old enough to witness and appreciate God's great
works. We can therefore assume a minimum age for these later elders of, say, five years
at the Exodus (or even twelve years if they were to be held responsible for this witness).
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Thus, at the time Caleb received his inheritance, these elders would have been between
50 (or 57) and 64 years old. This puts an undefined yet sensible upper limit on the length of
their rule. There followed alternate periods of oppression by enemies and deliverance by
judges (2:14 -19).
All the Judges in this period up to Jephtha are given in consecutive order interspersed with
the oppressors - with the possible exception of the chapter following Deborah where
there is no linking “after” or “then” in the narrative (6:1). Thus, there is the possibility of an
overlap here. This has been incorporated in the chart so that the time following Deborah
and Barak's defeat of Sisera (Jabin's commander) in Ephraim when “the land had rest
forty years” (5:31), has been made concurrent with Gideon's forty years Judgeship of
Manasseh (8:28). This also requires that the 7 years oppression by Midian prior to Gideon's
deliverance must have occurred during the latter part of the 20 year oppression of Jabin
before Deborah and Barak's deliverance. This gives a 13 year space for Shamgar, who
followed Ehud, and was contemporary with Jael (who killed Sisera) while there was still
oppression in Ephraim (5:6-7) This compression leads to a 27 year period from the entry
into the land west of the Jordan to the falling away after the death of the last elder (who
could have lived to the age of 87 but no longer - except that Caleb would have been 108
had he survived that long).
These are sensible figures and allow for the full 80 years of Ehud's judgeship. This latter
figure has been questioned because of the need to compress the data in this 300 year
period (Whiston, in a footnote in his “Josephus”, suggests it should be eight years). There
is no justification for questioning the accuracy of the Biblical figure but there is the
possibility that the 80 year period can be interpreted differently - for example the time
from the entry to the land to Ehud's judgeship. There are other possible interpretations
which result in a range of values for the period to the first falling away of Israel after the
conquest.
The next period, 140 years from Jephtha to the fourth of Solomon, has to include the rest
of the judges, including Samuel, followed by the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon.
Based on Acts 13:20 (NIV), the chart puts Samuel's judgeship immediately after the last of
the judges - it appears that, apart from Eli, they were all consecutive following Jephtha.
Allowing for a 40 year reign for Saul, this results in a period of 25 years for Samuel's
judgeship, plus the number of years David and Solomon reigned concurrently. (1K.1).
Samuel also followed directly after Eli's 40 year judgeship, so Eli must have been
concurrent with other judges.
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix 9: Review of Other Writers
It is also convenient to consider his time to be concurrent with the 40 year oppression by
the Philistines, during which period we can probably also place Samson. The Philistines
were subdued all the time of Samuel (1 Sam. 7:13). It was when Samuel was old, that Israel
asked for a king (1 Sam. 8:1-5) so it is instructive to try to assess his age around this time.
Eli was a priest and, under the law, a priest officiated between the ages of 20 and 60 years
old. Eli was still officiating when Samuel had his message from the LORD. If we suppose
that Samuel was twelve years old (the age of responsibility) on this occasion, he must
have been at least 50 when Eli died at the age of 98.
Thus, according to the chart, Samuel would be at least 76 years old when Israel asked for a
king, an age which harmonizes with the Biblical record that he was an old man (1 Sam. 8:
5). One other piece of information, which has caused doubt concerning the Biblical record,
is the information that the ark abode in Kirjath-jearim twenty years (1 Sam. 7:2). Since it
was moved from there by David when he reigned in Jerusalem (at least seven years into
his reign), it has been said that a reign of 40 years for Saul, as testified by Paul (Acts
13:21), is impossible. However, according to the chart, the twenty years of 1 Sam. 7:2 fell
within Samuel's judgeship and we read later, “And Saul said unto Ahiah, Bring hither the
ark of God. For the ark of God was at that time with the children of Israel” (1 Sam.14:18).
This was while Saul was in Gibeah of Benjamin.
Therefore the ark had already been removed from Kirjath- jearim before the time of David
and must have been sent back in the intervening period. This fact removes the difficulty
alluded to. The chart throws up an interesting chronological synchronism with Egypt.
There is a unique and famous reference to Israel in a granite stela of Pharaoh Merenptah,
“Israel is desolated and has no seed...” Gardiner1 gives dates of c1224 - 1214BC for this
Pharaoh.
These dates agree well with the seven year period of oppression of Israel by Midian (1219 1212BC) where we read, “[the Midianites] destroyed the increase of the earth, till thou
come unto Gaza, and left no sustenance for Israel, neither sheep, nor ox, nor ass...And
Israel was greatly impoverished because of the Midianites;...” (Jud.6: 4-6). The term 'has
no seed' is a description used several times in Egyptian records for describing a defeated
and plundered people, so it appears that this reference to Israel was just describing their
current state of affairs in common with other parts of the land of Palestine (including
Gaza) referred to in the same stele.
(1) Egypt of the Pharaohs, Sir Alan Gardiner, OUP, 1961.
http://www.biblewitness.org/judges.htm
return.P1 goP2 goP3
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013

Appendix 10: Logic of TBC Method

“Endless Genealogies” A.K.A.

Indeterminate Genealogies

Passover Dates, Day of Week, for likely year of Crucifixion & possible baptism year Table2

Easter, but more surely, Passover is set by a lunar-solar calendar system. Passover is the
1st full moon after the Spring Equinox. Kepler established a periodic table of golden
numbers, which allows this event to be determined for any future or past date. Bible
scholars were surveyed and found to favor either 30 AD or 33 AD as the most likely year.
This is likely due to proximity to the ‘1st day of the week’ to fulfill Christ’s resurrection on a
Sunday, ‘after three days’. For 30AD Passover of 03-April, Jesus baptism year would be
around 27AD. For 33AD Passover of 01-April, Jesus baptism year would be around 30AD.
Both dates correlate well with the selected dates of Table 1 for birth year and baptism at
about age 30. return.P1 goP2 goP3
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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013
Appendix Index return.P1 goP2 goP3

# & Link
A1
A2a
A2b
A3a
A3b
A3c
A4a
A4b
A4c

Index with Appendix Title
Recap of Balfour Century Concept
Balfour Century Determined Times Figure A
Daniel's 2300 Days Figure B
215 Egypt Years. Alternatives for the 430 and 400 Year time spans
240 Egypt Years. Alternatives for the 430 and 400 Year time spans
300 Egypt Years. Alternatives for the 430 and 400 Year time spans
06 BC Jesus Birth & Isaac - Example of Finding Exodus Year from Abe’s
75th to Start of 430 Period
02 BC Jesus Birth & Jacob - Example of Finding Exodus Year from Abe’s
75th to Start of 430 Period
04 BC Jesus Birth & Jacob - Example of Finding Exodus Year from Abe’s
75th to Start of 430 Period

A5a

300Y of Egypt, Jacob to Canaan - Generation Chart & Events Overlap

A5b
A5c
A5d
A6

300Year of Egypt - Generation Charts Overlap
400Year of Egypt Does Not Work- Generation Charts Overlap
215Year in Egypt w/Caveats- Generation Charts Overlap
Matrix of Exodus Year Ranges with Calculation Details
Jubile Count & Selected Jubile Years for Considered Alternatives -w/
Selected Jubile years
Coincidental Sabbath Years for 4BC Birth, 27AD Baptism 240 Egypt
Years for 1519BC Exodus
Compus Method of Easter Date for Proleptic Gregorian AD year
Scripture references
Other Writers: Table A Summary Table of Internet source data for
Exodus & Temple Dates
Considerations of other Writers w/ review
Logic of TBC Method
Table 2 Proleptic Gregorian date of Passover; Nisan 14th, 1st full moon
25-34 AD & Considered date of Jesus Baptism & Death

A7a
A7b
A7b1
A8
A9A
A9B
A10A
A10B

return.P1 goP2 goP3

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The Forth Generation Through Exodus: by O. P. Armstrong, June 2013

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