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Title: G‡KvqvW© BwgDb †Wwdwm‡qwÝ wm‡Ûªvg ms‡‡c GBWm&-GBPAvBwf fvBivm Øviv msµwgZ GKwU e¨vwa hvi Kvh©Ki †Kvb wPwKrmv AvR ch©š— Avwe®‹…
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KmwgK †_ivwc

Wvt gynv¤§` dRjyj Bmjvg

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KmwgK †_ivwc

Wvt gynv¤§` dRjyj Bmjvg

cÖ_g cÖKvkt gvP©, 2010Bs
MÖš’Kvi KZ…©K me©¯^Z¡ msiw¶Z

cÖKvkKt
nhiZ kvnRvjvj (int) dvD‡Ûkb
wm‡jU, evsjv‡`k|

Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úvRt
‡gvt Av‡bvqvi †nv‡mb
‡UKweg
409, dwi` c-vRv, wR›`vevRvi
wm‡jU, evsjv‡`k|

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KmwgK †_ivwc
m~PxcÎ

cÖ_g Ask t ZË¡xq (Theoretical)

c„ôv bs

1. ag© I gnvKvk weÁvb: gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I biK Avwe®‹vi
2. ag©, gnvKvk weÁvb I wPwKrmv weÁvb: KmwgK †_ivwci g~jm~Î

4
22

wØZxq Ask t e¨envwiK (Practical)
1. KmwgK †_ivwci e¨envi I Kvh©KvwiZv

32

2. mKj e¨vwai wPwKrmv I ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vi Dbœq‡b
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

32

3. GBWm& cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©‡j KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

33

4. cwi‡ek wech©q †iv‡a I wek¦ `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvP‡b KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

36

5. RvwZmsN I wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi j¶¨ ev¯—evq‡b KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

39

6. evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq mgm¨vejx mgvav‡b KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

40

7. KmwgK †_ivwci A_©‰bwZK ¸i“Z¡

42

8. KmwgK mvRv©wi

44

Z_¨m~Î

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3

f~wgKv
fviZe‡l© cÖvPxb Kv‡j eû bex ev AeZv‡ii Avwef©ve h‡U‡Q| fviZe‡li© cÖvPxb agx©q MÖš’ gnvfviZ,
ivgvqY I cyiv‡Y Ag„‡Zi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq| †h Jla cvb K‡i gvbyl ARi, Agi I wbivgq nq Ges
wPi †hŠeb jvf K‡i ¯^‡M© cÖ‡ek K‡i Zv‡K e‡j Ag„Z| †`eZv I Amyi mnmª ermi mgy`ª gš’b K‡i
Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvb| Ag„Z GBW&m, K¨vÝvi I ü`&‡ivM mn hveZxq ‰`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa
cÖwZ‡iva I wbivgq K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^v¯’¨Ki Avevm I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki
AwMœKzÛ †_‡K gy³ K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© wb‡q †h‡Z m¶g| gnvfvi‡Z Ag„‡Zi DrcwË m¤ú‡K©
ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, Amyi‡`i m‡½ µgvMZ hy‡× †n‡i †`eZviv Zvu‡`i kw³ nvwi‡q †d‡jb| †mRb¨ Zvuiv
weòzi Kv‡Q kw³ I AgiZ¡ cÖv_©bv K‡ib| weòz †`eZv‡`i Dc‡`k †`b †h, mgy`ª gš’b K‡i Ag„Z
msMÖn Ki| ‡`eZv I Amyi mnmª ermi mgy`ª gš’b K‡i Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvb, †hwU c‡i nvwi‡q hvq|
c„w_exi †Kvb †`k ev ms¯’v AvR ch©š— GB Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvqwb| eZ©gv‡b ag© I weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK
M‡elYv Øviv gnvKvk gš’b K‡i Avgiv Ag„‡Zi m~ÎwU D`&NvUb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ, hv gnvfvi‡Z
D‡j-wLZ Ag„‡Zi gZ Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i| gnvKvk M‡elYv Øviv D™¢vweZ GB e¨e¯’v I g‡nŠla‡K Avgiv
KmwgK †_ivwc e‡j AwfwnZ K‡iwQ| KmwgK †_ivwci m~ÎwU GLv‡b Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv|
RvwZmsN, wek¦¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’v, c„w_exi †h †Kvb †`k, AvÂwjK ms¯’v, miKvix I †emiKvix cÖwZôvb GB
e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i gvbe Kj¨v‡Y M„nxZ j¶¨ I Kg©m~Px mg~n AwZ `ª“Z, mn‡R I ¯^í Li‡P ev¯—evqb
Ki‡Z m¶g n‡e e‡j Avgiv g‡b Kwi| ‡h †Kvb e¨w³MZ, ¯^v¯’¨MZ, cvwievwiK, mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK,
A_©‰bwZK Ges RvZxq I Avš—R©vwZK msKU mgvav‡b I wek¦`vwi`ª¨ we‡gvP‡b GB e¨e¯’v we‡klfv‡e
Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i| GB e¨e¯’v GBW&m, K¨vÝvi I ü`&‡ivM mn hveZxq RwUj I `~iv‡ivM¨ e¨vwa wbivgq
K‡i mK‡ji Rb¨ ¯^v¯’¨ wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| GB e¨e¯’v mKj cÖKvi Ava¨vwZ¥K e¨vwai mywPwKrmv c&ªavb
K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© wb‡q †h‡Z m¶g| ZvB Avgiv Avkv KiwQ GB e¨e¯’v
c„w_exi me©Î M„nxZ n‡e, gvby‡li `ytL-Kó `~i n‡e Ges gvbyl my‡L kvwš—‡Z emevm Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Wvt gynv¤§` dRjyj Bmjvg

ZvwiL t 10.03.2010Bs

4

KmwgK †_ivwc
cÖ_g Ask t ZË¡xq (Theoretical)

ag© I gnvKvk weÁvb

gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I biK Avwe®‹vi
wek¦RM‡Zi Aš—iv‡j ‡h gnvmZ¨ weivRgvb †mwU cix¶v, wbix¶v I M‡elYv Øviv D`&NvUb K‡i Zvi
mywbw`©ó I wbfy©j e¨vL¨v `vb Kiv weÁv‡bi KvR| ag© n‡jv A`„k¨ GK gnvkw³i Aw¯—Z¡ ¯^xKvi Kiv, †h
kw³ we‡k¦i mgy`q Kvh©µg I NUbvejx wbqš¿Y K‡i| weÁvb KZK¸‡jv mvaviY wbqg ev ZË¡ I m~Î
Øviv RMZ‡K e¨vL¨v K‡i| gnvKl© ZË¡, Av‡cw¶K ZË¡, weeZ©bev`, cigvYyev` BZ¨vw` eû ˆeÁvwbK I
MvwYwZK ZË¡ I m~Î Øviv weÁvb RM‡Zi NUbvejx e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Q| G mKj ZË¡ I m~·K GKwU gvÎ
gnvm~Î- Avj-vn ev Ck¦i ZË¡ bv‡g ag© hy‡M hy‡M cÖPvi K‡i Avm‡Q| mg¯— ˆeÁvwbK wewa, m~Î ev AvBb
a‡g©i GKwU m~‡Î G‡m GKvKvi n‡q ‡M‡Q| e¯‘i Aš—wb©wnZ inm¨ ev we‡k¦i Kvh©KviY e¨vL¨vq weÁvbxiv
†h mKj m~Î I wewa Avwe®‹vi K‡i‡Qb, †m¸‡jv‡K GKwU gvÎ wewai AvIZvq aviY K‡i ag© Avj-vn ev
Ck¦i bv‡g AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q|1-3

wPÎ bs - 1 t wek¦ cÖK…wZ

5

Avj-vn me©kw³gvb| e¯‘ RM‡Z hZ cÖKvi ej I kw³ wµqvkxj Zv‡`i Drm Avj-vn| wZwb wPi¯’vqx
wPiÄxe m‡PZb mËv ev gnvgb, hvi B”Qv I cwiKíbv Abyhvqx RM‡Zi mKj e¯‘ I MwZ ev cigvYyi
wµqv I wewµqv cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡”Q| Avj-vn we‡k¦i mªóv I cwiPvjK, mKj Áv‡bi Avavi,
me©Á, me©Î weivRgvb gnvb mËv| wZwb RM‡Zi mKj NUbv I Kv‡h©i KviY I wbqvgK|4 GKwU Av‡cj
†Kb gvwU‡Z c‡o?Ñ Gi e¨vL¨vq weÁvb gnvKl© Z‡Ë¡i K_v e‡j‡Q| wKš‘ ag© GwU‡K e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Q
Avj-vn ZË¡ Øviv|5 A‰Re c`v_© †_‡K ˆRe †hŠM ev GK †Kvlx Rxe †_‡K eû †Kvlx Rx‡ei DrcwË
wKfv‡e nq?Ñ Gi e¨vL¨vq weÁvb weeZ©b ZË¡ Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ ag© GwU‡K e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Q Avj-vn
ZË¡ Øviv|6 weÁv‡bi †Kv‡bv ZË¡ ev m~·K ag© A¯^xKvi K‡i bv| wKš‘ mKj ZË¡, m~Î ev wbq‡gi mªóv I
cwiKíbvKvix‡K ag© Avj-vn ev Ck¦i e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q| ˆeÁvwbK m~Î I ZË¡¸‡jv Avj-vni weavbÑ
‡h weavb Avj-vni kw³ I B”Qvbyhvqx wbqwš¿Z nq|1-3

wPÎ bs - 2 t †mŠiRMr|
m„wói ci ‡_‡K Avj-vn Zvui evYx I evZv© †evaMg¨ fvlvq gvby‡li Kv‡Q †cÖiY K‡ib| gvbyl m„wói †miv
Rxe| gvby‡li †P‡q wbæZi Rxe ev Roe¯‘i Kv‡QI Avj-vn Zvui wb‡`©kvejx †cÖiY K‡ib|7 Avj-vn& eª²v,
weòz I wke| wZwb mKj kw³i Drm| we`y¨r kw³, Pz¤^K kw³, Zvc, Av‡jvK I AvYweK kw³ BZ¨vw`
mKj cÖKvi kw³ cÖK…Zc‡¶ GKB gnvkw³i wewfbœ iƒc| G gnvkw³i AwaKvix Avj-vn Zuvi
gnvcwiKíbv wb‡q RM‡Zi me©Î weivRgvb| Qvqvc‡_i MÖn-b¶Î †_‡K ¶y`ªvwZ¶z`ª cigvYy ev B‡jKUª‡b
hvi kw³ I cwiKíbv wµqvkxj wZwb Avj-vn|3-5 Avj-vn ALÛ GK gnvmËv I †R¨vwZ whwb mgMÖ RM‡Z
`xßgvb| wZwb we‡k¦i AvZ¥v ev cigvZ¥v| wZwb ¯’vb I Kv‡ji D‡aŸ©| wZwb hLb e‡jb nI ZLb †mwU
wbav©wiZ wbq‡g n‡q hvq| Avj-vni mgK¶ I cÖwZØ›Øx †Kv‡bv kw³i Aw¯—Z¡ RM‡Z ‡bB| gnvwe‡k¦ †h
my›`i wbqg I k„•Ljv weivRgvb †mwU Zvi cÖgvY enb Ki‡Q|7-8
6

eZ©gv‡b c„w_ex‡Z cÖPwjZ me¸‡jv cÖavb ag© Ck¦i, ¯^M© I bi‡Ki K_v cÖPvi K‡i| wn›`y, †eŠ×, cvm©x,
Bn~`x, L„÷ I Bmjvg ag© Avj-vn ZË¡ I ci‡jvK m¤úwK©Z wek¦v‡mi wfwˇZ cÖPvwiZ n‡q‡Q| hw`I
Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b ag© mg~‡ni A‡bK Z_¨ nvwi‡q †M‡Q ev weK…Z n‡q c‡o‡Q, Z‡e GK_v mZ¨ †h, cÖwZwU
a‡g©i g~jK_v GK Avj-vni Avivabv Ges g„Zz¨i ci ¯^‡M© ev bi‡K Mgb Kiv|9,10

wPÎ bs - 3 t GKwU cigvYy g‡Wj|
wn›`y ag© eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ ag©mg~‡ni g‡a¨ me‡P‡q cÖvPxb| Gi AZxZ BwZnvm A‡bKvs‡k A¯úó I
weK…Z n‡q c‡o‡Q Ges wbwðZfv‡e ejv m¤¢e bq †h, KLb GB ag© cÖPvwiZ nq| Gi ‡Kv‡bv HwZnvwmK
cÖeZ©K Av‡Qb e‡j Rvbv hvq bv| wn›`y a‡g©i wek¦vm I gZev` †e‡` ewY©Z n‡q‡Q hv cÖvq 1600 L„÷
c~e©v‡ã wjwce× nq| GB a‡g©i Avi GKwU cÖavb Drm Dcwbl`& hv cÖvq 800 L„÷ c~e©v‡ã wjwce×
nq|10
‰ew`K a‡g©i cÖavb wek¦vm n‡jv g„Zz¨i ci AvZ¥v GK D”PZi I myLgq RMZ ¯^‡M© Mgb K‡i hv
c„w_ex‡Z Avi KL‡bv wd‡i Av‡m bv| cÖvPxb †e‡` Kg©ev` I cybR©‡b¥i aviYv AZ¨š— A¯úó| G `ywU
gZev` hv ci¯ú‡ii m‡½ Ir‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ Dcwbl‡` D™¢e n‡q‡Q| wn›`y ag©MÖ‡š’ wek¦‡K wZb fv‡M
wef³ Kiv n‡q‡QÑ ¯^M©, gZ©¨ I cvZvj| cvZv‡j GKzkwU bi‡Ki Ae¯’v‡bi D‡j-L Av‡Q| FM&‡e` I
A_e© †e‡` ¯^M© I bi‡Ki we¯—vwiZ weeiY i‡q‡Q|9,10
eZ©gv‡b cªPwjZ wn›`y a‡g©i aviYv I wek¦vm AZ¨š— A¯úó| wn›`y a‡g© G‡Kk¦iev` I eû‡`eev‡`i aviYv
QvovI HwZnvwmK e¨w³‡Z¡i Dci †`eZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i Zvu‡K Ck¦‡ii AeZvi e‡j ¯^xK…wZ †`qv n‡q‡Q|
G ai‡bi mKj g‡Zi mg_©‡bB wn›`y agx©q MÖš’mg~‡n we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbv i‡q‡Q| Z‡e eû wn›`y ag©Á
cwʇZi g‡Z wn›`y ag© cÖK…Z c‡¶ eû Ck¦iev` bq, eis GK AwØZxq mªóvi wewfbœ ¸Yvejx eû KvíwbK
†`eZv I Ck¦‡ii Dci Av‡ivc K‡i cÖKvk ‡c‡q‡Q gvÎ|10
7

gnvgwZ †MŠZg fviZe‡l© †eŠ× gZ cÖPvi K‡ib| wZwb L„÷c~e© 567 m‡b †bcv‡ji Kwcjve¯‘‡Z
Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| †MŠZg ey× eûKvj mvabv I a¨v‡bi ci Áv‡bi Ggb GKwU ¯—‡i ‡cŠQ‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb
†hLv‡b †Kvb `ytL, Kó I †e`bv †bB| Kg©ev` I wbe©vY GB a‡g©i g~j wk¶v| Awnsmv Ges mZ¨ Áv‡bi
gva¨‡g cybR©b¥ Z_v wbe©vY gZev` wZwb cÖvq cuqZvwj-k eQi cÖPvi K‡ib Ges Avwk eQi eq‡m Bnavg
Z¨vM K‡ib| †MŠZg ey‡×i cÖPvwiZ a‡g©i evYx I wk¶v Zvui RxexZve¯’vq wjwce× nqwb, Zvui g„Zz¨i
Pvik eQi ciI wjwce× nqwb| d‡j ey‡×i evYx wewfbœ RvwZ, †Mvôx I †`‡k wfbœ wfbœ avivq I
wew¶ßfv‡e cÖPvwiZ n‡q‡Q|10
†eŠ× a‡g© ¯^‡M©i wZbwU ¯—i h_vÑ Kg©‡jvK, iƒc‡jvK I Aiƒc‡jvK Ges eû bi‡Ki D‡j-L Av‡Q, h_vÑ
mÄxe, Kvjm~Î, msnZ, †iŠie, gnv‡iŠie, Zvcb, gnvZvcb BZ¨vw`| bi‡K i‡q‡Q AwZ DËß AwMœKy‡Êi
e¨e¯’v| Clr kvw¯— I cÖPÊ VvÛv bi‡Ki K_vI †eŠ× m~‡Î Rvbv hvq|9
cvm©x ag© mgªvU mvBiv‡mi ivRZ¡Kv‡j cvi‡m¨i gnvgwZ Riv_y÷ª KZ…©K cÖPvwiZ nq| BwZnv‡m GB
gnvgvb‡ei Rb¥ I wk¶v AZ¨š— A¯úófv‡e wjwLZ n‡q‡Q| Av‡e¯—v GB a‡g©i g~j MÖš’| Z‡e m¤¢eZt
GB MÖ‡š’i mvgvb¨ Ask Riv_y÷ª-Gi evYx wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡q _v‡K| GKZ¡ev`x a‡g©i g‡a¨ m¤¢eZt
GwU GKwU cÖvPxbZg ag©| Gi g‡Z Avûiv gvR`v wek¦RM‡Zi mªóv| fvj I g›`Ñ AvZ¥vi GB ˆØZ
gZev` G a‡g©i g~j K_v| fvj K‡g©i cwiYvg ¯^M© I g›` K‡g©i cwiYvg biK| fvj gvby‡li AvZ¥v ¯^‡M©
Av‡ivnY K‡i Ges g›` †jv‡Ki AvZ¥v bi‡K Mgb K‡i| ci‡jv‡K ¯^M© I biK e¨ZxZ AviI GKwU
RM‡Zi Aw¯—Z¡ i‡q‡Q †hLv‡b fvj I g›` mgvb Ggb AvZ¥viv Ae¯’vb K‡i _v‡K| Bnv c„w_ex I
b¶Î‡jv‡Ki gvSvgvwS †Kv_vI Aew¯’Z|9,10

wPÎ bs - 4 t ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Øvi|

8

Bû`x a‡g© AvZ¥vi AgiZ¡ I cybi“Ìv‡b wek¦vm Kiv nq| Iì †U÷v‡g‡›U ci‡jv‡K gvby‡li K…ZK‡g©i
wePvi Ges ¯^M© I bi‡Ki weeiY i‡q‡Q| Bû`x iveŸxMY †e‡nkZ‡K D”P Ges wbgœ GB `yB ¯—‡i wef³
K‡ib| †hLv‡b wek¦vmx‡`i Rb¨ eû Avevm wbg©vY Kiv n‡q‡Q| Zuviv †`vh‡Li `y‡Uv ¯—‡ii K_v e‡j‡Qb|
cÖwZwU ¯—i mvZ fv‡M wef³| cÖwZ fv‡M Qq nvRvi Avevm, cÖwZ Avev‡m Qq nvRvi cÖ‡Kvô Ges cÖwZ
cÖ‡Kv‡ô Qq nvRvi wc‡c wZ³ wel Av‡Q| †`vh‡Li MfxiZv GZ wekvj †h, wZbk eQi †nu‡U †M‡jI Zv
AwZµg Kiv hv‡e bv|9,10
L„÷ ag© A‡bKUv Bû`x a‡g©i gZB †hLv‡b cyivZb wbqg ev Iì †U÷v‡g‡›Ui wk¶v‡K ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqvi
m‡½ AviI PviwU Mm‡cj ev evB‡ej MÖnY Kiv n‡q‡Q| whï L„÷ wÎk eQi eq‡m Zuvi wgkb ïi“
K‡ib| hZUzKz Rvbv hvq whïi wk¶v eû eQi hveZ wjwce× nq bvB, Zuvi wkl¨M‡Yi RxweZKv‡jI
bq| Mm‡cj †jLKMY whïi Rxe‡bi wewfbœ HwZnvwmK NUbv I wk¶vi Dci GKgZ n‡Z cv‡ibwb
Ges Mm‡cj¸‡jv whïi g„Zz¨i eû eQi ci wjwce× n‡qwQj| GiB g‡a¨ L„÷vb m¤cÖ`vq wewfbœ agx©q
†Mv‡Î wef³ n‡q c‡owQj Ges L„÷ a‡g©I HwZnvwmKfv‡e A‡bK cwieZ©b G‡m wM‡qwQj|10,11
L„÷vbMY ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Ges g„Zz¨i ci cybi“Ìv‡b wek¦vm K‡ib| evB‡e‡j ewY©Z ci‡jv‡Ki
wewfbœ Avevm I NUbvejxi weei‡Yi m‡½ Iì †U÷v‡g›U I KziAv‡bi h‡_ó mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| L„÷ a‡g©
g„Zz¨i ci wePvi bv nIqv ch©š— ga¨eZx© GKwU RM‡Z wek¦vm Kiv nq, †hLv‡b AvZ¥v wePv‡ii Rb¨
A‡c¶v K‡i|9,10
eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ cÖavb ag© mg~‡ni g‡a¨ Bmjvg me©‡kl ag©| whï L„‡÷i Qqk eQi ci GB ag© cÖPvwiZ
nq| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) GB a‡g©i cÖeZ©K| Bmjv‡gi wek¦vm I wk¶v cweÎ KziAvb I nv`x‡m
wjwce× n‡q‡Q| cweÎ KziAvb ¯^qs Avj-vni evYx hv cÖavb ¯^M©xq `~Z wReªvBj (Av) KZ…©K gnvbex
nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Gi wbKU †cÖwiZ nq| Dnv `xN© †ZBk eQi mgqKv‡j 632 L„÷v‡ã nhiZ gynv¤§`
(m)Gi BbwZKv‡ji c~e© ch©š— AeZxY© nq| hLbB KziAv‡bi †Kvb Ask AeZxY© n‡Zv gnvbex Zuvi
wkw¶Z mvnvex‡`i Øviv Zv wjwL‡q wb‡Zb| G Qvov Zuvi Abymvix gymjgvbMY‡K cweÎ KziAvb gyL¯’
Kivi wb‡`©k w`‡Zb| d‡j GK`j gymjgvb m¤ú~Y© KziAvb gyL¯’ K‡i †d‡jb| G Qvov ¯^qs bex Kixg
(m)I cweÎ KziAvb cÖwZeQi ighvb gv‡m gyL¯’ D”PviY Ki‡Zb| gymjgvbMY Zv‡`i wbqwgZ bvgv‡Ri
mgq KziAvb gyL¯’ D”PviY K‡i _v‡Kb| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m)Gi BbwZKv‡ji ci Zuvi cÖavb
DËim~ix nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) Gi wb‡`©‡k hv‡q` Be‡b mv‡eZ (iv) KziAv‡bi GKwU c~Y©v½ cvÊywjwc
ˆZwi K‡ib| Zvici nhiZ Imgvb (iv) KziAvb msi¶Y I wjwce× Kivi Rb¨ AwfÁ mvnvex‡`i
mgš^‡q GKwU Kwgkb MVb K‡ib| Zuviv KziAv‡bi c~e©Zb cvÊywjwcmg~n hvPvB evQvB K‡i GKwU
cÖvgvY¨ cvÊywjwc ˆZwi K‡ib| hvi eû Kwc ZLbKvi Bmjvgx †K›`ª mg~‡n †cÖwiZ n‡qwQj| GB Kwc
9

eZ©gv‡b ZvmL›` I B¯—v¤^y‡j msiw¶Z Av‡Q| KziAv‡bi †h mKj cÖvPxb Kwc GL‡bv cvIqv hvq †m¸‡jv
eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ KziAv‡bi m‡½ mv`„k¨hy³| Kv‡RB GK_v HwZnvwmKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z †h, cweÎ ag©MÖš’
mg~‡ni g‡a¨ GKgvÎ KziAvb h_vh_fv‡e msiw¶Z n‡q‡Q|8 Z‡e KziAvb Zvi c~e©eZx© MÖš’ mg~n‡K
¯^xK…wZB ïay †`qwb, Zv‡`i evnKMY‡K Avj-vni imyj I bex e‡jI AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q|11

wPÎ bs - 5 t cyjwmivZ ev ¯^‡M©i c_|
cweÎ KziAv‡b cybi“Ìvb, †kl wePvi Ges ¯^M© I bi‡Ki weeiY QvovI g„Zz¨ I cybi“Ìv‡bi ga¨eZx©
GKwU RM‡Zi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq, hv‡K Avj‡g evihvL, Ke‡ii RMr ev Bj-xb I wm¾xb e‡j AwfwnZ
Kiv n‡q‡Q| Bj-xb ¯^‡M©iB GKwU Ask †hLv‡b g„Zz¨i ci wek¦vmx‡`i AvZ¥v Ae¯’vb K‡i| wm¾xb
bi‡Ki GKwU AwMœKzÛ hv c„w_exi me©wbgœ ¯—i ev Af¨š—‡i Aew¯’Z| g„Zz¨i ci Awek¦vmx‡`i AvZ¥v
wm¾x‡b Ae¯’vb K‡i kvw¯— ‡fvM K‡i| Bmjv‡g ¯^‡M©i AvUwU ¯—‡i wek¦vm Kiv nq †h¸‡jv AvKv‡k
Aew¯’Z| bi‡Ki mvZwU ¯—‡ii K_v KziAv‡b cvIqv hvq †hLv‡b cvcx‡`i Rb¨ AwMœi kvw¯—i e¨e¯’v
i‡q‡Q| KziAv‡b kvw¯—i Rb¨ cÖPÊ VvÊv GKwU RM‡Zi D‡j-L i‡q‡Q| cweÎ KziAvb I nvw`m kix‡d
ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, eû c~e© n‡Z Avj-vn Zvqvjv gnvKv‡k wPi¯’vqx ¯^M© I biK m„wó K‡i †i‡L‡Qb| †kl
wePv‡ii w`b Avgv‡`i c„w_ex GKwU wekvj gq`v‡b cwiYZ n‡e hv‡K ejv nq nvk‡ii gq`vb| GB
gq`vb bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ Øviv cwi‡ewóZ _vK‡e, hvi Dci ¯’vwcZ `xN© †mZz ev cyjwmivZ cvi n‡q ¯^‡M©
†h‡Z n‡e|9,10
AwZ cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K c„w_exi wewfbœ †`k I Rbc‡` AmsL¨ bex, im~j I AeZv‡ii Avwefv©e N‡U‡Q|
Zvuiv gvbeRvwZ‡K ¯^‡M©i mymsev` I bi‡Ki AwMœi fq cÖ`k©b K‡ib Ges ¯^vfvweK I my›`i Rxeb hvcb
K‡i ¯^‡M© hvIqvi AvnŸvb Rvbvb| 622 wLªóv‡ã g°v †_‡K g`xbvq wnRi‡Zi GK eQi c~‡e© cweÎ
†givR iRbx‡Z gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt) gnvKvk ågb K‡ib| wZwb gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I biK `k©b

10

K‡ib| 1584 wLª÷v‡ã BUvjxi `vk©wbK I weÁvbx wRqy`v©‡bv eª“‡bv cÖPvi K‡ib †h, AvKv‡ki Zviv¸‡jv
GK GKwU m~h©| 1838 wLª÷v‡ã Rvgv©b †R¨vwZwe©`& †d«WvwiK †e‡mj 61 wmMbvB b¶‡Îi c¨vivjv·
†g‡c c„w_ex †_‡K wewfbœ b¶‡Îi `~iZ¡ wbY©q Ki‡Z m¶g nb| Gi d‡j †h M‡elYvi m~ÎcvZ nq Zv‡Z
wbtm‡›`‡n cÖgvwYZ nq †h, AvKv‡ki b¶Î gÛjx GK GKwU m~h©| b¶Îmg~n Zvc I Av‡jvK cÖ`vbKvix
R¡jš— AwMœi KzÛ we‡kl| A‡bK¸‡jv b¶Î GK‡Î wekvj Qvqvc_ ˆZwi K‡i| AvaywbK †Uwj‡¯‹v‡c
gnvKv‡k cÖvq `k nvRvi †KvwU Qvqvc_ †`Lv hvq| cÖwZwU Qvqvc‡_ b¶‡Îi msL¨v `k nvRvi †KvwU ev
100 wewjqb| GB wecyj cwigvY b¶Î ev AwMœKzÛ c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki wekvj we¯—…Z GjvKvq
Aew¯’Z †hLv‡b ag©MÖš’mg~‡n †`vh‡Li Ae¯’vb ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| ag© I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK
M‡elYv Øviv Avgiv c&ªgvY K‡iwQ †h, gnvKv‡ki GB AwMœKzÛ mg~n cÖK…Zc‡¶ cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z
†`vhL|
eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ cÖvq me¸‡jv ag© ¯^M© I bi‡Ki K_v cÖPvi K‡i| wn›`y, †eŠ×, cvmx©, Bn~`x, L„÷ I
Bmjvg ag© ci‡jvK m¤úwK©Z wek¦v‡mi wfwˇZ cÖPvwiZ n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU a‡g©i g~jK_vB n‡”Q g„Zz¨i ci
¯^‡M© ev bi‡K Mgb Kiv| cweÎ KziAv‡b †e‡nk‡Zi cvkvcvwk †`vh‡Li weeiY i‡q‡Q| wek¦vmx‡`i Rb¨
†e‡nkZ I Awek¦vmx‡`i Rb¨ †`vhL ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q| †e‡nkZ k‡ãi A_© D`¨vb I evMvb| c„w_exi
†P‡qI eû DbœZ Rxeb hvc‡bi Dc‡hvMx gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx I kvwš—KzÄ mg~n‡K ejv nq
†e‡nkZ| gnvg~j¨evb iZœivwR w`‡q wbwg©Z wekvj cÖvmv`, D`¨vbivwR, cÖengvb b`x I SYv©©, e„¶-dzjdj, Lv`¨-cvbxq I †cvkvK-cwi”Q` †e‡nk‡Zi cwiwPZ mvgMÖx| †e‡nkZ ci‡jv‡Ki wPi¯’vqx Awebk¦i
me©cÖKvi `ytL-Kó I †K¬kgy³ Avevm| †e‡nk‡Zi AvUwU ¯—i| m‡ev©”P ¯—‡ii bvg †di`vDm| gnvKv‡ki
¶z`ªZg †e‡nkZ †mŠiRM‡Zi e„n¯úwZ MÖ‡ni b¨vq Aš—Zt `kwU c„w_exi mgvb| †`vhL k‡ãi A_©
cÖ¾wjZ Av¸b ev AwMœKzÛ| AwMœ w`‡q wbwg©Z ci‡jv‡Ki `ytL-Kó I hš¿Yvi wPi¯’vqx Avevm‡K ejv nq
†`vhL| †`vh‡Li mev©‡c¶v cwiwPZ Dcv`vb Av¸b| †`vh‡Li mvZwU ¯—i| m‡ev©”P ¯—‡ii bvg Rvnvbœvg
I me©wbgœ ¯—‡ii bvg nvweqv|12,13
cweÎ KziAv‡bi eY©bv g‡Z c„w_exi cÖwZwU Rbc‡` cÖ‡Z¨K RvwZi Kv‡Q bex I im~j †cÖwiZ n‡q‡Q|
Zvuiv ¯^‡M©i mymsev` I bi‡Ki AwMœi fq cÖ`k©b K‡ib| fviZe‡l©I wewfbœ hy‡M eû bex ev AeZvi
†cÖwiZ n‡q‡Qb| fviZe‡l© cÖPvwiZ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ¯^M© I bi‡Ki D‡j-L Av‡Q| F„M‡e` I A_e© †e‡`
¯^M© I bi‡Ki we¯—vwiZ weeiY i‡q‡Q| †eŠ× m~‡Î ¯^‡M©i wZbwU ¯—i I 136wU bi‡Ki D‡j-L cvIqv
hvq| mÄxe, Kvjm~Î, msnZ, †iŠie, gnv‡iŠie mev©‡c¶v fxwZKi biK| biK‡K GKwU AwMœi b`x ev
ˆeZiYx e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q, †hwU cvi n‡q ¯^‡M© †h‡Z n‡e| cweÎ KziAvb, wLªóvb evB‡ej I

11

Bû`x evB‡e‡j ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, ‡`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛmg~n c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki wekvj we¯—…Z
GjvKvq Aew¯’Z| c„w_ex‡Z †kl wePv‡ii ci G mKj AwMœKzÛ cvi n‡q †e‡nk‡Z †h‡Z n‡e|9,10
cweÎ KziAvb I nvw`‡mi fvl¨ g‡Z c„w_exi Pvicv‡k i‡q‡Q †`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛ, †h¸‡jv cvi n‡q
†e‡nk‡Z †h‡Z n‡e| †`vh‡Li AvqZb I MfxiZv GZ wekvj †h, Zv cwigvc Kiv G‡Kev‡iB Am¤¢e
Ges †e‡nkZ †`vh‡Li ‡P‡qI A‡bK eo| gnvKv‡ki wekvj AvK…wZi kvwš—gq MÖn mg~n †hLv‡b
c„w_exi †P‡qI DbœZ Rxeb hvc‡bi DcKiY we`¨gvb †m¸‡jvB †e‡nkZ| nvw`m kix‡d ewY©Z n‡q‡Q†e‡nk‡Zi GK GKwU e„¶ GZ eo †h, †Kvb mIqvix kZ e‡l©I Zv AwZµg Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv|12,13
cÖvPxb Kv‡j bex, im~j I AeZviMY wbiew”Qbœ a¨vb I K‡Vvi mvabv Øviv wek¦RM‡Zi mªóv gnvb
Avj-vni m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb K‡ib Ges gnvKv‡ki msev` I Z_¨vw` msMÖn K‡i c„w_ex‡Z cÖPvi
K‡ib| cweÎ KziAvb, evB‡ej, †e`, Dcwbl`, wÎwcUK I †R›`v‡e¯—vq gnvKvk m¤ú©‡K Zvu‡`i cÖPvwiZ
Z_¨vejxi we¯—…Z weeiY cvIqv hvq| weÁvbxivI cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡K gnvKvk M‡elYv K‡i Avm‡Qb|
weÁvbx _¨vwjm, Gwi÷vKv©m, Gwi‡÷vUj, †Kvcvwb©Kvm, UvB‡Kveªv‡n, †hvnvb †Kcjvi I M¨vwjwjI
BD‡iv‡c, Avh©fÆ, eivn wgwni, eªþ¸ß I fv®‹ivPvh© fviZe‡l© Ges ga¨hy‡M gymwjg weÁvbxiv evM`v‡`
M‡elYvMvi I gvbgw›`i ¯’vcb K‡i gnvKv‡ki e¯‘ivwR cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡i AvmwQ‡jb| Z‡e MZ
kZvãx‡Z weÁvbxiv gnvKvk M‡elYvq e¨vcK mvdj¨ AR©b K‡ib| AvKv‡ki MÖn, DcMÖn, m~h©, b¶Î
gÛjx I Qvqvc_ m¤ú©‡K ev¯—e Z_¨vw` mv¤cÖwZK M‡elYv Øviv D`NvwUZ n‡q‡Q|

wPÎ bs- 6 t bK‡m †mvjvqgvbx |
gnvKvk M‡elYv I ch©‡e¶Y K‡i gymwjg weÁvbxiv cweÎ KziAv‡bi wfwˇZ gnvwe‡k¦i †h iƒc‡iLv I
g‡Wj cÖYqb K‡i‡Qb Zvi GKwU ¯úó weeiY bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx (Seal of Solomon)-‡Z cvIqv
hvq| gymwjg weÁvbxiv gnvKvk weÁvb‡K mvgvwRK weÁvb I wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi m‡½ mgš^q mvab K‡i
12

Zvu‡`i M‡elYvjä Ávb gvbe Kj¨v‡Y cÖ‡qvM K‡ib| gymwjg we‡k¦ hyM hyM a‡i cÖPwjZ bK&‡m
†mvjvqgvbx ZviB GKwU ev¯—e cÖgvY| nhiZ †mvjvqgvb (Avt) Avj-vni bex Ges b¨vqcivqY ev`kvn
wQ‡jb| wZwb Avj-vni wbKU †_‡K †h Ávb AR©b K‡ib Zvi wfwˇZ cÖvq 800 wLªt c~e©v‡ã gnvwe‡k¦i
GKwU g‡Wj I iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb K‡iwQ‡jb| gnvwe‡k¦i GB g‡Wj AwZ cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡K Bû`x, wLªóvb
I gymwjg we‡k¦ bK&‡m ‡mvjvqgvbx bv‡g cwiwPZ| ‡ivM-e¨vwai wPwKrmv, cvi¯úwiK we‡iva wb®úwË Ges
†mŠfv‡M¨i cÖZxK iƒ‡c GB bKkv Bû`x, wLªóvb I gymjgvbMY e¨envi K‡i _v‡Kb|14

wPÎ bs- 7 t BmjvwgK hy‡M bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx (Aviex ms¯‹iY)|
gymwjg †`k mg~‡n bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx kZ kZ eQi a‡i me©‡iv‡Mi wPwKrmv I mKj we‡iva wb®úwËi
GKwU g‡nŠla ev ZvexR iƒ‡c e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q| Bûw`, wLªóvb I gymjgvb‡`i Kv‡Q GB bKmv
gnvwe‡k¦i GKwU g‡WjB ïay bq, GwU mK‡ji Kv‡Q GKwU agx©q cÖZxK iƒ‡cI M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| gymwjg
we‡k¦ GB bKkv cweÎ KyiAvb, nvw`m I gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i gnvKvk ch©‡e¶Y Ges mywdqv‡q ‡Kivg‡`i
wek¦`k©b Gi wfwˇZ ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q, hv cÖvPxb †R¨vwZwe©`¨v I agx©q MÖš’vw` we‡kl K‡i Bmjvgx `k©b
I cweÎ KziAv‡bi Zdmxi MÖš’ mg~‡n cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| GB bK&mv I g‡Wj chv©‡jvPbv Ki‡j cÖZxqgvb
nq †h, gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx‡Z cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Ae¯’vb|14

13

Avj-vni ‡R¨vwZ
‡e‡nkZ
‡`vhL
c„w_ex
gnvKv‡ki ‡R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx
gnvKv‡ki ‡R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx

wPÎ bs - 8 t bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx (evsjv ms¯‹iY)|
AZxZKv‡j gvby‡li wPš—vavivq c„w_ex gnvwe‡k¦i †K‡›`ª Aew¯’Z wQj Ges c„w_ex‡K †K›`ª K‡i hveZxq
†R¨vwZ®‹ wbw`©ó c‡_ Pjv‡div KiZ| AvKvk GKwU AwZKvq †Mvj‡Ki gZ c„w_ex‡K †e÷b K‡i Av‡Q,
hv‡Z P›`ª, m~h©, MÖn, b¶Î †QvU eo cÖ`x‡ci gZ mvRv‡bv i‡q‡Q| GB aviYv gvby‡li mnRvZ
Ávb‡ev‡ai m‡½ †ek my›`ifv‡e wg‡j hvq| GB gZev` cÖvPxb MÖxK I wgmixq weÁv‡bi Dci cÖwZwôZ
wQj Ges cÖvq `yB nvRvi eQi mZ¨ e‡j ¯^xK…Z n‡q AvmwQj| ZvB ¯^vfvweK Kvi‡Y gvby‡li AZxZ
AwfÁZv AvKvk‡K GKwU wekvj gnvwek¦ e‡j †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡iwb Ges c„w_ex †h Dnvi wekvjZvi
Zzjbvq GKwU bMY¨ we›`y we‡kl GB aviYv AZx‡Z KL‡bv ¯úó n‡q I‡Vwb|15

wPÎ bs - 9 t Gwi‡÷vU‡ji wek¦ g‡Wj|
14

AvaywbK †R¨vwZwe©`¨vq c„w_ex‡K GKwU †MvjK Ges Dnv gnvwe‡k¦i †K›`ª¯’‡j Av‡Q g‡b K‡i M‡elYv I
ch©v‡jvPbvi m~Pbv Kiv nq| gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx GKwU wekvj †Mvj‡Ki Dci Aew¯’Z| GB wekvj
†MvjKwU‡K Avgiv AvKvk e‡j g‡b Kwi| cÖK…Zc‡¶ †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx c„w_ex †_‡K wewfbœ `~i‡Z¡
Aew¯’Z| Dnviv GZ`~‡i Aew¯’Z †h, Avgiv Dnv‡`i mKj‡KB GKwU KwíZ †MvjK ev AvKv‡ki Dci
g‡b K‡i _vwK| GB KwíZ †Mvj‡Ki Dci †h †Kvb †R¨vwZ‡®‹i Ae¯’vb w¯’i Ki‡Z n‡j KZK¸‡jv
gnve„‡Ëi cÖ‡qvRb n‡e|
AvR n‡Z AvovB nvRvi eQi Av‡M MÖxKiv cÖK…wZi ¸ß inm¨ D`&NvU‡b g‡bvwb‡ek K‡ib| c„w_ex †h
†PÞv bq †MvjÑ ‡_wjm I wc_v‡Mvivm ‡mwU cÖPvi K‡ib| MÖxK weÁvbxiv P›`ª MÖnY I myh© MÖn‡Yi cÖK…Z
KviY e¨vL¨v K‡ib| weÁvbx Gwi÷vK©vm Ôc„w_exB †h m~‡h©i Pvicv‡k Ny‡iÕ GB ZË¡ cÖKvk K‡ib|
Gwi‡÷vUj wQ‡jb †kªô MÖxK weÁvbx| Gwi‡÷vUj g‡b Ki‡Zb c„w_ex we‡k¦i †K‡›`ª w¯’ifv‡e Aew¯’Z
Ges ZviKv LwPZ AvKvk ‡MvjK we‡k¦i ‡kl mxgv| GB †Mvj‡Ki evB‡i †Kvb wKQzi Aw¯—Z¡ †bB|
wgm‡ii weÁvbx U‡jgx (70-147L„t) Gwi‡÷vUj‡K mg_©b K‡i c„w_ex †Kw›`ªK ZË¡B †h mZ¨ Zvi cÖgvY
Dc¯’vcb K‡ib| 1543 wLªóv‡ã ‡Kvcvwb©Kvm m~h© †Kw›`ªK wek¦ZË¡ cÖwZôv K‡ib|16

wPÎ bs- 10 t †Kvcvwb©Kv‡mi wek¦ g‡Wj|
gymwjg weÁvbxiv Aejyß cªvq MÖxK Ávb-weÁvb AvniY I msi¶Y K‡ib| gywmjg weÁvbxiv ‡Uwj‡¯‹vc
m¤ú‡K© M‡elYvi m~ÎcvZ K‡ib| BUvjxi weÁvbx M¨vwjwjI me©cÖ_g †Uwj‡¯‹vc Avwe®‹vi K‡i
†R¨vwZwe©Áv‡b e¨envwiK c×wZ cÖeZ©b K‡ib| wZwb cix¶v wbix¶v Øviv AZx‡Zi eû fyj aviYvi
Aemvb NUvb| wZwb †mŠiRM‡Zi U‡jgxq web¨vm‡K åvš— cÖgvY K‡i †Kvcvwb©Kvm ZË¡ cÖwZôv K‡ib|
15

1543 wLªóv‡ã ‡Kvcvwb©Kvm e‡jb †h, c„w_ex bq m~h© we‡k¦i †K‡›`ª w¯’ifv‡e Aew¯’Z| Ab¨ mKj
†R¨vwZ®‹ m~h©‡K †K›`ª K‡i Zvi Pviw`‡K cwiågY Ki‡Q| 1919 m‡b nv‡jv© †kcwj †`Lvb †h, m~h©
we‡k¦i †K‡›`ª Aew¯’Z bq, eis Avgv‡`i wgwéI‡q Qvqvc‡_i †K›`ª ‡_‡K AviI 33000 Av‡jvKel©
`~‡i Aew¯’Z| 1926 wLªóv‡ã GWyBb nvej& cÖgvY K‡ib ‡h, Avgv‡`i Qvqvc_ †_‡K ‡KvwU †KvwU Av‡jvK
el© `~‡i Av‡iv ‡KvwU †KvwU Qvqvc_ i‡q‡Q| A‡bK¸‡jv b¶Î GK‡Î wekvj Qvqvc_ ˆZwi K‡i|
b¶Îmg~n Zvc I Av‡jvK cÖ`vbKvix R¡jš— AwMœi KzÛ we‡kl| G‡`i ˆewkó¨ I ag© ci¯ú‡ii m‡½
Zzjbv Kiv hvq| AvaywbK †iwWI †Uwj‡¯‹v‡c gnvKv‡k cÖvq `k nvRvi †KvwU Qvqvc_ †`Lv hvq| cÖwZwU
Qvqvc‡_ b¶‡Îi msL¨v `k nvRvi †KvwU ev 100 wewjqb| GB weivU msL¨K b¶‡Îi g‡a¨ m~h© GKwU
mvaviY b¶Î hvi AvqZb cÖvq †Zi j¶ c„w_exi mgvb|15,16
m~h© c„w_ex †_‡K bq †KvwU wÎk j¶ gvBj `~‡i Aew¯’Z| m~h© Dnvi Pviw`‡K NyY©vqgvb MÖn I DcMÖn
wb‡q †h RMr m„wó K‡i‡Q Zv‡K Avgiv †mŠiRMr ewj| m~‡h©i `~ieZx© MÖn m~h© †_‡K 367 †KvwU gvBj
`~‡i Aew¯’Z| Ab¨vb¨ b¶Î ¸‡jv c„w_ex †_‡K GZ`~‡i Aew¯’Z †h, Dnv‡`i `~iZ¡ wbY©q Ki‡Z Av‡jvK
el© (Light year) Ges cvi‡mK (Persec) bvgK `ywU GKK e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| GK Av‡jvK el©
186000 x 60 x 60 x 24 x 365 = 5.8 x 1012 gvB‡ji mgvb Ges 3.26 Av‡jvKe‡l© GK
cvi‡mK| m~h© n‡Z mv‡o wZb cvi‡mK `~i‡Z¡i g‡a¨ c‡biwU b¶‡Îi cwiPq cvIqv †M‡Q| m~‡h©i
wbKUZg cÖwZ‡ekx Avjdv †m›Uzwi c„w_ex †_‡K cÖvq Pvi Av‡jvK el© `~‡i Aew¯’Z|17
m~h© GKwU gvSvwi AvKv‡ii b¶Î| m~‡h©i †P‡q Av‡iv eo b¶Î i‡q‡Q| Aek¨ A‡bK †QvU b¶Î i‡q‡Q
hv‡`i AvKvi A‡bKUv MÖn-DcMÖ‡ni g‡Zv| m~h© ev Dnvi g‡Zv b¶Î ¸‡jvi fi c„w_ex A‡c¶v
30,00,000 ¸Y Ges IRb 33,32,000 ¸‡Yi †P‡qI †ewk| m~‡h©i IRb 2 x 1028 Ub| m~‡h© †h
cwigvY c`v_© i‡q‡Q Zv n‡Z cÖvq mv‡o wZb j¶ c„w_ex m„wó Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| m~‡h©i ewn©fv‡Mi
ZvcgvÎv 6000 wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm Ges Af¨š—‡ii ZvcgvÎv †`o †KvwU †_‡K `yB †KvwU wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm|
m~‡h©i Af¨š—‡i AZ¨waK Zv‡ci d‡j nvB‡Wªv‡Rb wbDwK¬qvm wnwjqvg wbDwK¬qv‡m cwiYZ n‡”Q| m~‡h©
h‡_ó cwigvY nvB‡Wªv‡Rb M¨vm i‡q‡Q| †mB m‡½ Kve©b I bvB‡Uªv‡Rb M¨vmI| Gi d‡j eûKvj hveZ
wbDwK¬q wewµqv nIqv m¤¢e| PviwU nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYy †_‡K GKwU wnwjqvg cigvYy Drcbœ nq| GB
wbDwK¬q iƒcvš—i cÖwµqvi mgq wKQz c`v_© kw³‡Z cwiYZ nq| GK wK‡jvMÖvg nvB‡Wªv‡Rb †_‡K 992
MÖvg wnwjqvg ˆZwi nq Ges Aewkó AvU MÖvg c`v_© kw³‡Z cwiYZ nq| m~‡h©i 40 j¶ Ub c`v_© cÖwZ
†m‡K‡Û 3.7 j¶ IqvU kw³ Drcv`b K‡i| GB wecyj cwigvY kw³ †_‡K †h Zvc I Av‡jvi wewKiY
nq Zv cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û GKkÕ †KvwU nvB‡Wªv‡Rb †evgv we‡ùvi‡Yi mgZ~j¨| 500 †KvwU eQi a‡i cÖwZ
†m‡K‡Û m~‡h©i 40 j¶ Ub c`v_© kw³‡Z cwiYZ n‡”Q| m~‡h©i nvB‡Wªv‡Rb M¨v‡mi GK `kgvsk
16

wnwjqv‡g cwiYZ bv nIqv ch©š— GB wbDwK¬q wewµqv Pj‡Z _vK‡e| G Ae¯’vq †cŠuQv‡Z m~‡h©i AviI
600 †KvwU eQi cÖ‡qvRb| Ab¨vb¨ b¶‡Îi †¶‡ÎI GKB iƒc cÖwµqv Pj‡Q|17
we`y¨‡Zi mvnv‡h¨ gvbyl †h ˆe`y¨wZK Pzwj-ˆZqvi K‡i Dnvi ZvcgvÎv cÖvq Pvi nvRvi wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm|
GB ZvcgvÎvq mKj KwVb avZzB †h Zij nq Zv bq, Dnviv ev®úxf~ZI nq| †m wnmv‡e m~‡h©i evB‡ii
ZvcgvÎv 6000 wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm| Avi wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎvi ZxeªZv †h KZ cÖPÛ I cÖjqsKi Zv aviYv
KivB KwVb| Ggwb DËß I cÖKvÛ AwMœwcÛ †_‡K KZUv Zvc †h AvKv‡k Qwo‡q co‡Q Zvi wn‡me
wb‡j †`Lv hvq †h, m~‡h©i Pvi eM© nvZ RvqMv †_‡K N›Uvq hZUv Zvc wbM©Z nq c„w_ex‡Z AvU †gwUªK
Ub Kqjv GK‡Î †cvov‡jI Zv cvIqv hv‡e bv| m~h© Aš—Zt 500 †KvwU eQi hver Ggwb Awbev©Y wkLvq
R¡j‡Q| m~h© Avgv‡`i Rxe‡bi g~jvavi n‡jI Avgv‡`i cvw_©e cÖ‡qvR‡bi wbwg‡ËB †h AvKv‡k Ggb
†cÖvR¡j wkLvq R¡j‡Q Zv g‡b nq bv| m~‡h©i Qov‡bv Zvc I Av‡jvi `ykÕ †KvwU fv‡Mi GK fvM gvÎ
Avgiv cvB Ges GB ¯^í cwigvY Zvc I Av‡jv‡Z c„w_exi mKj Rx‡ei Rxeb aviY m¤¢e n‡”Q| Ab¨vb¨
MÖn¸‡jv †KvbwU m~‡h©i Lye Kv‡Q wKsev `~‡i Aew¯’Z e‡j GZ DËß wKsev GZ kxZj †h Dnviv cÖvYx
emev‡mi Rb¨ m¤úyY© A‡hvM¨| ïaygvÎ c„w_exi cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡ZB AvKv‡k m~h© †h Ggb `vD `vD K‡i
R¡j‡Q Zv g‡b nq bv| GQvov Ggb ¯^í ms¯’v‡bi Rb¨ kw³i Ggb weivU AcPq wK K‡i m¤¢e?
Avgv‡`i m~‡h©i b¨vq gnvKv‡k Av‡iv †h †KvwU †KvwU b¶Î Qvqvc_ mg~‡n `vD `vD K‡i R¡j‡Q
‡m¸‡jviB ev wK cÖ‡qvRb?

wPÎ bs - 11 t wgwéI‡q Qvqvc‡_ m~‡h©i Ae¯’vb

17

1887 wLª÷v‡ã Bs‡iR †R¨vwZwe©` DBwjqvg nv‡k©j cÖgvY K‡ib †h, AvKv‡ki b¶Î¸‡jv h‡_”Qfv‡e
Qwo‡q †bB| A‡bK¸‡jv b¶Î GK‡Î wekvj Qvqvc_ ˆZwi K‡i| kxZKv‡j AvKv‡ki `w¶Y-cwðg cÖvš—
n‡Z DËi-c~e© cÖvš— ch©š— †h Zvivi †eóbx †`Lv hvq GwU wgwéI‡q M¨vjvw· ev Qvqvc_| GB Qvqvc‡_
cÖvq 10 nvRvi †KvwU ev 100 wewjqb ZviKv i‡q‡Q| Avwk wewjqb Qvqvc‡_i †K‡›`ª Avi wek wewjqb
Qvqvc‡_i N~Yv©qgvb evû¸‡jv‡Z| Avgv‡`i m~h© GB wek wewjqb ZviKvi GKwU| AvKv‡k Lvwj †Pv‡L
Giƒc 3wU Qvqvc_ †`Lv hvq| Qvqvc_ ¸‡jv gnvKv‡k †gvUvgywU wbqwgZ `~i‡Z¡ Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| The
great spiral of andromeda m31 bvgK Qvqvc_wU andromeda b¶‡Îi Ae¯’v‡bi w`‡K †`Lv

hvq| GwUB Avgv‡`i Qvqvc‡_i evB‡i wbKUZg Qvqvc_| cÖvq 22,00,000 Av‡jvK el© `~‡i Aew¯’Z
GB Qvqvc_ 1,80,000 Av‡jvKel© ¯’vb Ry‡o we¯Z…Z Av‡Q| Great bear-G Aew¯’Z Qvqvc_ ¸‡jv cÖvq
mËi †KvwU Av‡jvK el© `~‡i c‡bi wewjqb Av‡jvKel© ¯’vb Ry‡o we¯Z…Z|16
AvaywbK †iwWI †Uwj‡¯‹v‡c `k nvRvi †KvwUiI AwaK Qvqvc_ †`Lv hvq| 200 Bw AcwUK¨vj
†Uwj‡¯‹v‡c 20 wewjqb Av‡jvK el© e¨vmv‡a© kZ kZ Qvqvc_ †`Lv hvq| G mKj Qvqvc‡_i
†ewkifvMB Dce„ËvKvi I c¨vuPv‡bv| GB Qvqvc_¸‡jv weivUvKvi PwK©i PvKvi gZ gnvKv‡k Nyi‡Q|
Qvqvc_ I b¶Î¸‡jv ci¯úi ‡_‡K GZ `~‡i Aew¯’Z †h G‡`i g‡a¨ msNl© nIqvi †Kv‡bv m¤¢vebv †bB
ej‡jB P‡j| GB wecyj cwigvY Qvqvc_ I b¶Î ev AwMœKzÛ c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki wekvj we¯—…Z
GjvKvq Aew¯’Z †hLv‡b ag©MÖš’mg~‡n †`vh‡Li Ae¯’vb ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Kv‡RB G mKj AwMœKzÛ †`vhL
ev bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ e‡jB cÖZxqgvb n‡”Q|15-17

wPÎ bs -12 t AvaywbK †Uwj‡¯‹v‡c gnvwek¦ (Clusters of Galaxies in the visible Universe)
18

cweÎ KziAv‡bi m~iv Avj-Bgiv‡b ewY©Z wb‡gœv³ AvqvZmg~n cÖgvY K‡i †h, gnvKv‡ki Qvqvc‡_
Aew¯’Z AwMœKzÛ mg~n †`vhL wbðq gnvKvk I c„w_exi m„wó‡Z Ges w`ev I ivwÎi AveZ©‡b Ávbx †jvK‡`i Rb¨ wb`k©b i‡q‡Q| hviv
`uvwo‡q, e‡m I kvwqZ Ae¯’vq Avj-vn‡K ¯§iY K‡i Ges gnvKvk I c„w_exi m„wó m¤ú‡K© wPš—v-M‡elYv
K‡i GB wm×vš— †bq †h, †n cÖfy! Zzwg Gme (gnvKv‡ki AwMœKzÛ) Ah_v m„wó Kiwb| Zzwg AwZ cweÎ|
Avgvw`M‡K †`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛ ‡_‡K i¶v Ki| †n cÖfy! wbðq Zzwg hv‡K †`vh‡L wb‡¶c Ki‡e, †m Pig
AcgvwbZ n‡e, Avi Rv‡jg‡`i †Kvb mvnvh¨Kvix †bB|18
cweÎ KziAvb I nvw`‡m ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, 1400 eQi c~‡e© GK cweÎ iRbx‡Z gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§`
(m) gnvKvk ågY K‡ib| gnvKv‡k wZwb †e‡n‡kZ I †`vhL `k©b K‡ib Ges Avj-vni m‡½ mv¶vr
K‡ib|12,13 eyLvix I gymwjg kix‡d ewY©Z `ywU nvw`m cÖgvY K‡i ‡h, m~h©mn AvKv‡ki b¶Î gÛjx
†`vhL| GKwU nvw`‡m wZwb e‡jb- (MÖx®§Kv‡j) †hvni ev `ycy‡ii bvgvh GKUz VvÛv n‡j Av`vq Ki‡e|
†Kbbv `ycyi †ejvq Mi‡gi ZxeªZvi DrcwË †`vh‡Li AwMœ †_‡K|12 Avi GK nvw`‡m wZwb e‡jb- †`vhL
GKevi Zvi cÖfyi Kv‡Q Awf‡hvM Ki‡jv †h, †n Avj-vn! Avgvi GK Ask Aci Ask‡K ‡L‡q †dj‡Q|
ZLb Avj-vn cvK Zv‡K `ywU wbtk¦vm Qvovi AbygwZ †`b| GKwU kxZKv‡j, AciwU MÖx®§Kv‡j| GLb
Avgiv kxZ I MÖx‡®§i †h ZxeªZv Abyfe Kwi Zv H wbtk¦vm ؇qi cÖfve gvÎ|12

wPÎ bs - 13 t c„w_ex‡Z MÖx®§Kv‡j I `ycyi †ejvq Zxeª Mi‡gi Drm †`vhL|
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv cÖgvY K‡ib †h, c„w_exi AvwýK MwZ I evwl©K MwZi d‡j w`ev I ivwÎ
Ges FZzi cwieZ©b nq| w`ev I ivw·Z, kxZ I MÖx‡®§ c„w_ex‡Z ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b m~h© n‡Z AvMZ
ZvcgvÎvi ZviZ‡g¨i Rb¨ nq|19 Dc‡iv³ nvw`‡m ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, c„w_ex‡Z ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b
†`vh‡Li AwMœ n‡Z AvMZ ZvcgvÎvi ZviZ‡g¨i Rb¨ nq| Kv‡RB AvaywbK weÁvb I nvw`‡mi Awfbœ
fvl¨ Abyhvqx m~h© I m~‡h©i ˆewkó¨ m¤úbœ gnvKv‡ki b¶Î gÛjx †`vhL|

19

c„w_ex cÖvq 8000 gvBj e¨v‡mi GKwU †MvjK| c„w_ex‡K Aek¨ cÖK…Z †MvjK ejv P‡jbv| KviY Dnvi
DËi I `w¶Y †gi“ mvgvb¨ Pvcv| c„w_exi Dc‡i f~c„‡ô †Kv_vI Mfxi mgy`ª, †Kv_vI cvnvo-ce©ZDcZ¨Kv †kvwfZ gnv‡`k| c„w_exi Af¨š—i fxlY Mig Ges hZB wfZ‡ii w`‡K hvIqv hvq e¯‘i NbZ¡
ZZB evo‡Z _v‡K| weÁvbxiv g‡b K‡ib - m~‡h©i wbKUeZx© †Kvb Zvivi cÖPÛ we‡¯dvi‡Yi d‡j Zvivi
wKq`sk LÛ weLÛ n‡q PZzw`©‡K wew¶ß nq| Dnvi †h Ask ¸‡jv m~‡h©i wbKU †_‡K hvq Dnviv m~‡h©i
gnvKl© e‡ji cÖfv‡e gnvk~‡Y¨ Dnvi MÖn DcMÖn iƒ‡c Pviw`‡K Nyi‡Z _v‡K| R‡b¥i mgq m~‡h©i b¨vq
c„w_exI GKwU R¡jš— M¨vm wcÛ wQj| †KvwU †KvwU eQi eû AveZ©b weeZ©‡bi ga¨ w`‡q †mB M¨vm wcÛ
n‡Z c„w_ex eZ©gvb Ae¯’vq DcbxZ n‡q‡Q| me©vaywbK M‡elYvq †`Lv hvq, c„w_exi Af¨š—‡i Zvc I
Pvc Am¤¢e †ekx| c„w_exi †K‡›`ª Zvc cÖvq 6000 wWMÖx †mjwmqvm| f~M‡f© cÖwZ 30 wgUvi wb‡P DòZv
10 wWMÖx K‡i e„w× cvq| Zvc evovi m‡½ m‡½ PvcI evo‡Z _v‡K| wn‡me K‡i †`Lv †M‡Q f~c„ô I
‡K‡›`ªi ga¨eZx© RvqMvq Pvc cÖvq cÖwZ Bw‡Z `yB †KvwU cvDÛ, †K‡›`ª GB Pvc wظ‡YiI ‡ekx- cÖwZ
Bw‡Z cÖvq 20000 Ub n‡Z cv‡i|16,17

wPÎ bs - 14 t c„w_exi Af¨š—i (Inside the Earth)
weÁvbx‡`i GB M‡elYvi K‡qK nvRvi eQi c~‡e© cweÎ ag© MÖš’ mg~‡n, we‡kl K‡i cweÎ KziAvb I
nvw`m kix‡d c„w_exi Af¨š—i I me©wbgœ ¯—i‡K GKwU AwMœKzÛ ev wm¾xb e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q,
†hLv‡b Awek¦vmx‡`i AvZ¥v mg~n‡K Ave× ‡i‡L AwMœ `» Kiv nq Ges cÖPÛ Pvc cÖ‡qvM K‡i kvw¯—
cÖ`vb Kiv nq|20
mv¤cÖwZK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv gnvKv‡k Qvqvc_ RM‡Zi evB‡i b¶‡Îi gZ wKQz †R¨vwZ‡®‹i mÜvb
cvb| cÖPÛ Zvc I kw³i Drm G mKj †R¨vwZ®‹ †Kv‡qmvi bv‡g cwiwPZ| †Kv‡qmvi¸‡jv‡K wVK b¶Î
ejv hvq bv| †m¸‡jv GK GKwU weivU e-¨vK‡nvj, hv †KvwU †KvwU b¶‡Îi mgš^‡q MwVZ| GKwU eo
20

b¶Î weewZ©Z I msKzwPZ n‡q e-¨vK‡nv‡j cwiYZ nq| mvaviYZt GKwU eo b¶Î †KvwU †KvwU eQi
cÖ¾¡wjZ n‡q jvj eY© aviY K‡i †jvwnZ `vb‡e cwiYZ nq| †jvwnZ `vbe †KvwU †KvwU eQi cÖ¾¡wjZ
I msKzwPZ n‡q ïå eY© aviY K‡i †k¦Z evg‡b cwiYZ nq| †k¦Z evgb †KvwU †KvwU eQi cÖ¾¡wjZ I
msKzwPZ n‡q K…ò MnŸi ev e-¨vK‡nv‡j cwiYZ nq| e-¨vK‡nv‡ji NbZ¡ I gva¨vKl©Y kw³ GZ †ewk †h,
†Kvb e¯‘ Ggb wK Av‡jvK iwk¥I †mLvb †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z cv‡ibv|21
gnvKv‡ki e-¨vK‡nvj †KvwU †KvwU b¶Î Ave× K‡i †Kv‡qmv‡i cwiYZ nq| ‡Kv‡qmvi wecyj cwigvY
c`v_© I b¶Î AvK©lY K‡i cÖPÛ Zvc Drcv`b K‡i| gnvKv‡ki me‡P‡q †ewk Zvc Drcv`bKvix
AwMœwcÛ †Kv‡qmvi| c„w_ex †_‡K †Zi wewjqb Av‡jvK el© `~i‡Z¡i g‡a¨ K‡qK nvRvi †Kv‡qmv‡ii Aw¯—
Z¡ Avwe®K…Z n‡q‡Q| cweÎ ag© MÖš’mg~‡n †`vh‡Li AwMœi †h eY©bv †`qv n‡q‡Q Zvi m‡½ b¶‡Îi AwMœ
Ges †Kv‡qmv‡ii h‡_ó mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| †Kv‡qmvi †`vh‡Li GjvKvq Awe¯’Z| ZvB †Kv‡qmvi¸‡jv‡K
fqsKiZg †`vhL e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv hvq|21

wPÎ bs - 15 t K…ò MnŸi (Black Hole)
cweÎ KyiAvb I nvw`‡m ewY©Z n‡q‡Q- †e‡nkZ wPi kvwš— I wPi mey‡Ri †`k| †e‡nk‡Zi AvKvi I
AvqZb wekvj| †KvwU †KvwU AwMœKzÛ wb‡q †hgb †`vhL ˆZwi n‡q‡Q, †Zgwb †KvwU †KvwU kvwš—gq MÖn
wb‡q ˆZwi n‡q‡Q †e‡nkZ| †e‡nk‡Zi wbgœ¯—‡i Ae¯’vbKvixMY D”P¯—‡i Ae¯’vbKvixMY‡K Giƒc
†`L‡Z cv‡e, †hiƒc c„w_ex †_‡K AvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx‡K †`Lv hvq| †e‡nk‡Zi cÖwZwU ¯—‡i KZ
mnmª †KvwU kvwš—gq MÖn i‡q‡Q Zv Kíbv KivI Avgv‡`i c‡¶ Am¤¢e| †Kbbv †e‡nkZ †`vh‡Li ‡P‡q
A‡bK eo| nvw`m kix‡d ewY©Z n‡q‡Q- †e‡nk‡Zi GK GKwU e„¶ GZ eo †h, †Kvb mIqvix kZ
e‡l©I Zv AwZµg Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| Kv‡RB gnvKv‡ki †h mKj MÖ‡n I †R¨vwZ‡®‹ GZ wekvj AvK…wZi
MvQcvjv I e„¶ i‡q‡Q †m mKj MÖn I †R¨vwZ‡®‹i AvqZb I mxgv-cwimxgv †h KZ wekvj Zv Abygvb
KivI Avgv‡`i c‡¶ Am¤¢e|12,13
21

AwZ cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K bex I im~jMY gnvKv‡k †e‡nkZ I †`vh‡Li Aw¯—‡Z¡i K_v cÖPvi K‡ib| cÖvPxb
Kv‡j gvbyl AvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx‡K †QvU eo evwZ ev cÖ`xc e‡j g‡b Ki‡Zb| ZvB †m hy‡M
AvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx‡K †e‡nkZ I †`vhL ej‡j nvm¨Ki I D™¢U K_v iƒ‡c MY¨ n‡Zv| 1920 wLªt
ch©š— weÁvbxiv Avgv‡`i wgwéI‡q Qvqvc_‡K gnvKv‡ki GKgvÎ Qvqvc_ e‡j g‡b Ki‡Zb| eZ©gv‡b
gnvKv‡k Aš—Zt `k nvRvi †KvwU Qvqvc_ †Uwj‡¯‹vc Øviv ch©‡e¶Y Kiv hvq Ges G msL¨v µ‡gB †e‡o
P‡j‡Q| Qvqvc_‡K GL‡bv gnvwe‡k¦i mvsMVwbK GKK iƒ‡c aiv nq| cÖwZwU Qvqvc‡_ Zvivi msL¨v 10
nvRvi †KvwU ev 100 wewjqb| GB weivU msL¨K Zvivi g‡a¨ m~h© GKwU mvaviY Zviv, hvi AvqZb cÖvq
†Zi j¶ c„w_exi mgvb| weÁvbx‡`i aviYv - gnvKv‡k G ch©š— Avwe®‹…Z Qvqvc_ me©‡gvU Qvqvc‡_i
kZKiv `k fv‡Mi †ewk bq| GL‡bv kZKiv 90 fvM Qvqvc_ Avgv‡`i ch©‡e¶Y ¶gZvi evB‡i i‡q
†M‡Q| gnvKv‡ki G mKj A`„k¨ I `„k¨gvb †R¨vwZ®‹ gÛjx‡K GLb †e‡nkZ I †`vhL ej‡j †gv‡UI
Aev¯—e I D™¢U K_v iƒ‡c MY¨ n‡e bv| †Kbbv kZ kZ eQi M‡elYvi ci weÁvbxiv cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb †h,
gnvKv‡ki †e‡nkZ I †`vh‡Li GjvKvq Aew¯’Z H mKj †R¨vwZ®‹ †Kv‡bv ‡QvULvU evwZ ev cÖ`xc bq,
eis Dnviv GK GKwU wekvj AvqZ‡bi MÖn, b¶Î I AwMœKzÛ, hv eZ©gv‡b c„w_exi gvbyl me©m¤§Zfv‡e
†g‡bI wb‡q‡Qb|15-17

AZGe ag© I weÁv‡bi Awfbœ I me©m¤§Z wm×vš— n‡jv- gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx cweÎ
ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z †e‡nkZ I †`vhL ev ¯^M© I biK, hv‡`i msev` bex, im~j I
AeZviMY hy‡M hy‡M cÖPvi K‡ib|
eZ©gvb hyM weÁv‡bi hyM| †h wel‡qi ˆeÁvwbK wfwË †bB †mwU G hy‡M APj| GZKvj ¯^M© I biK
gvby‡li Kv‡Q GKwU mvaviY wek¦vm I aviYv wQj gvÎ| AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki
Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi GB wek¦vm‡K GKwU my¯úó ˆeÁvwbK wfwË cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q| wek¦RM‡Zi Aš—iv‡j †h
gnvmZ¨ weivRgvb †mwU cix¶v-wbix¶v I M‡elYv Øviv D`NvUb K‡i gvbe Kj¨v‡Y cÖ‡qvM Kiv
weÁv‡bi KvR| ZvB gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi gvbeRvwZi Rb¨ GKwU mymsev` iƒ‡c
we‡ewPZ n‡e| GB we¯§qKi Avwe®‹vi ¯^vfvweKfv‡e gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKyÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi
Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR ‡_‡K weiZ Ki‡e Ges my›`i I myk„•Lj Rxeb hvcb K‡i
¯^‡M© †h‡Z m‡Pó Ki‡e| d‡j GKwU my¯’ mg„×kxj AZ¨vaywbK mf¨Zvi weKvk N‡U c„w_ex gvbeRvwZi
Rb¨ kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU my›`i MÖ‡n cwiYZ n‡e|


22

ag©, gnvKvk weÁvb I wPwKrmv weÁvb

KmwgK †_ivwci g~jm~Î

wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’v RvwZms‡Ni GKwU †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb| wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’v ‰`wnK I gvbwmK my¯’Zvi m‡½
mvgvwRK my¯’Zv‡KI ¯^v‡¯’¨i msÁvq Aš—©fy³ K‡i‡Q| ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK, Ava¨vwZ¥K I
cwi‡ekMZ my¯’Zv‡KI wPwKrmv weÁvbxiv ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ Acwinvh©¨ e‡j g‡b K‡ib| c„w_ex‡Z †iv‡Mi
DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii KviY m¤ú‡K© wPwKrmv weÁvbxiv †ek K‡qKwU Z‡Ë¡i AeZviYv K‡ib| G‡`i
g‡a¨ ÔÔmycvib¨vPvivj w_Iwi Ae wWwRRÓ we‡klfv‡e D‡j-L‡hvM¨| GB ZË¡ mg¯— †iv‡Mi KviY iƒ‡c
GKwU mycvib¨vPvivj fvBivm‡K `vqx K‡i‡Q hv Evil spirit iƒ‡c gvbe †`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i gvbyl‡K
A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR Ki‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i| d‡j gvbyl I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ bó nq
Ges c„w_ex‡Z †ivM-e¨vwai we¯—vi N‡U| c„w_ex‡Z GB fvBiv‡mi AZ¨waK msµgY n‡j mgv‡Ri me©Î
†ivM-e¨vwa, gnvgvix, mvgvwRK AbvPvi, Aw¯’iZv, Kjn-weev` I hy×-weMÖn Qwo‡q c‡o| cweÎ ag© MÖš’
mg~‡n GB mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivm‡K GKwU Evil spirit e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| me©‡ivM I mKj
we‡iv‡ai g~j KviY GB mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivm cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©j Kiv m¤¢e n‡j c„w_ex‡Z †iv‡Mi
DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii mvaviY KviY mg~n `~i n‡e Ges mKj we‡iv‡ai Aemvb N‡U c„w_ex gvbe
RvwZi Rb¨ kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU ¯^v¯’¨Ki Avevm I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e|22,23

wPÎ bs - 16 t mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivm|

23

cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡ni eY©bv g‡Z gvbeRvwZi Avw` wcZv nhiZ Av`g (Avt) I gvZv nhiZ nvIqv (Avt)
g„wËKv n‡Z m„wói ci GKwU RvbœvZ ev ¯^‡M© evm Ki‡Zb| kqZvb Zv‡`i‡K A¯^vfvweK Kv‡R cÖ‡ivwPZ
K‡i ¯^M© †_‡K †ei n‡Z eva¨ K‡i| cweÎ KziAv‡b RvbœvZ kãwU `ywU A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| c„w_exi
RvbœvZ I AvKv‡ki RvbœvZ| c„w_exi †h mKj GjvKvq myL-kvwš— I m¤ú‡`i cÖvPzh© weivRgvb †mwU‡K
KziAv‡b RvbœvZ ev ¯^M© ejv n‡q‡Q| nhiZ Av`g (Avt) g„wËKv n‡Z R‡b¥i ci AvKv‡ki ¯^‡M© evm
Ki‡Zb bv c„w_exi ¯^‡M© - †m wel‡q cweÎ KziAv‡bi cÖvPxb ZdmxiKvi‡`i g‡a¨ †ek gZ-cv_©K¨ †`Lv
hvq| cweÎ KziAv‡bi eû cÖvPxb ZdmxiKvi GB ¯^M©‡K AvKv‡ki GKwU ¯^M© e‡j eY©bv Ki‡jI A‡bK
ZdmxiKvi GwU‡K c„w_exi GKwU kvwš— D`¨vb ev ¯^M© e‡j AwfwnZ K‡ib| Zdmx‡i Be&‡b Kvmxi,
Zdmx‡i Kvk&kvd I Zdmx‡i Be&‡b Rvixi Zvevix‡Z myiv evK¡vivi 35-36 bs Avqv‡Zi Zdmx‡i G
wel‡q my¯úó weeiY cvIqv hvq|23
eZ©gv‡b cÖZœZvwË¡K M‡elYv Øviv cÖvß Rxevk¥ I AvaywbK Rxe weÁv‡bi m‡½ cweÎ KziAv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK
M‡elYv Øviv cÖZxqgvb nq †h, nhiZ Av`g (Avt) c„w_exi GKwU RvbœvZ ev ¯^‡M© evm Ki‡Zb| cweÎ
KziAv‡b ¯úó D‡j-wLZ n‡q‡Q †h, nhiZ Av`g (Avt) g„wËKv ev c„w_exi Dcv`vb n‡Z chv©qµ‡g GK
we‡kl cÖwµqvq Rb¥ MÖnY K‡i GKwU ¯^‡M© evm Ki‡Zb| weÁvbxiv Avw` gvbyl m„wói GB ch©vqµwgK
cÖwµqvwU AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv D`&NvUb K‡i‡Qb, hv weeZ©bev` bv‡g cwiwPZ| cweÎ KziAv‡b GB
weeZ©‡bi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq| eZ©gv‡b gvbeRvwZ ÒAvkivdzj gvLjyK¡vZÓ ev m„wói †miv Rxe wnmv‡e
weeZ©‡bi m‡ev©”P ¯—‡i Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| Avj-vn Zvqvjv nhiZ Av`g (Avt) †K m‡ev©”P gh©v`v I Ávb `vb
K‡i c„w_ex‡Z GKwU kvwš—c~Y© GjvKv ev D`¨v‡b emev‡mi e¨e¯’v K‡iwQ‡jb| nhiZ Av`g (Avt) Gi
GB kvwš—gq D`¨vb I Rbc`wUi eZ©gvb Ae¯’vb m¤ú‡K© †Kvb ¯úó weeiY ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n cvIqv hvq
bv| Z‡e AwaKvsk ag© we‡klÁ, cÖZœZË¡we`& I weÁvbx GB Rbc`wU fviZe‡l©i †Kvb GjvKvq Aew¯’Z
wQj e‡j gZ cÖKvk K‡ib| m¤cÖwZ jÛb cÖevmx evsjv‡`kx M‡elK I Aa¨vcK Rbve Aveyj Lv‡qi
nhiZ Av`g (Avt) I wewe nvIqvi Rb¥¯’vb evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU GjvKv e‡j cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb| wZwb
1993 Bs m‡bi 3iv Rvbyqvix XvKvq RvZxq †cÖmK¬v‡e GK mvsevw`K m‡¤§j‡b Zvui M‡elYvi welq e¯‘
Dc¯’vcb K‡ib|7,8,24,25
cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡ni eY©bv g‡Z, Bewjm GKwU Acvw_©e I AwZ my² cÖvYx ev AvZ¥v iƒ‡c c„w_ex‡Z
AeZxY© n‡q‡Q hvi ag© gvbeRvwZi ¶wZ mvab Kiv| eZ©gv‡b weÁvbxiv c„w_ex‡Z e¨vK&‡Uwiqv, fvBivm,
dv½vm I c¨vivmvBU BZ¨vw` eû ¶z`ª I my²Zi cÖvYxi mÜvb †c‡q‡Qb hviv gvbe‡`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i eû
†ivM-e¨vwa m„wó K‡i gvby‡li ¶wZ mvab K‡i _v‡K| GB AvYyex¶wYK ¶z`ª cÖvYx‡`i cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©‡ji
eû JlaI wPwKrmv weÁvbxiv Avwe®‹vi K‡i‡Qb| cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~n Ges AvaywbK weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK
24

M‡elYv Øviv G welqwU GLb wbtm‡›`nfv‡e cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q †h, Bewjm e¨vK&‡Uwiqv I fvBiv‡mi †P‡qI
¶z`ªZi AwZ-AvYyex¶wYK GKwU cÖvYx ev AvZ¥v hv GKwU Evil spirit iƒ‡c gvbe‡`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i i³
cÖev‡ni gva¨‡g mg¯— kix‡i Qwo‡q c‡o Ges gvbyl‡K A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR Ki‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i|
d‡j wewfbœ †ivM-e¨vwa, gnvgvix, Kjn-weev` I hy×-weMÖn †`Lv ‡`q| AvaywbK wPwKrmv weÁv‡b
c„w_ex‡Z ‡ivM-e¨vwa I Kjn m„wói AwZ cÖvPxb GB ZË¡‡K Òmycvi b¨vPvivj w_Iwi Ae wWwRRÓ Ges
AwZ my² GB cÖvYx Bewjm‡K GKwU mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivm e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| ag© I weÁv‡bi
Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv Avgiv GB mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivmwU mbv³ Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ Ges bK&‡m
†mvjvqgvbxi ˆeÁvwbK we‡k-lY K‡i GwU cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©‡ji GKwU e¨e¯’v I Jla D™¢veb K‡iwQ,
hv‡K Avgiv ÒKmwgK ‡_ivwcÓ e‡j AwfwnZ K‡iwQ| fviZe‡l©i cÖvPxb ag©xq MÖš’ gnvfviZ, ivgvqY I
cyiv‡Y GB e¨e¯’v‡K Ag„Z e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q|26
1986 Bs m‡b Avgvi cÖ_g MÖš’ Ôci‡jvK Avwe®‹viÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| GB MÖ‡š’ cweÎ KziAvb I gnvKvk
weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv Avwg cÖgvY Kwi †h, gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹ gÊjx cÖK…Zc‡¶ cweÎ
ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z ¯^M© I biK| eZ©gv‡b gnvKvk weÁv‡bi GB Avwe®‹vi‡K AvaywbK wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi
m‡½ mgš^q mvab K‡i Avwg KmwgK ‡_ivwc I Ag„‡Zi m~ÎwU D`&NvUb Kwi, hv mKj cÖKvi ‰`wnK,
gvbwmK, mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK, A_©ˆbwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK, Ava¨vwZ¥K I cwi‡ekMZ e¨vwai g~j KviY mycvi
b¨vPvivj fvBivm c„w_ex †_‡K wbg~©j K‡i RvZxq I Avš—Rv©wZK cwiw¯’wZi eZ©gvb ‡cÖ¶vc‡U wb‡æ ewY©Z
j¶¨ mg~n AR©b Ki‡Z m¶g :1. mKj cÖKvi ˆ`wnK, gvbwmK, mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK I Ava¨vwZ¥K e¨vwa
I we‡iv‡ai Aemvb N‡U c„w_ex gvbe RvwZi Rb¨ kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU
¯^v¯’¨Ki Avevm I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e|
2. gvbe Kj¨v‡Y M„nxZ RvwZmsN I wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi j¶¨ mg~n AwZ `ª“Z ev¯—evwqZ n‡e, c„w_exi
Rjevqy I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡e Ges GBW&m, K¨vÝvi I ü`&‡ivM mn
hveZxq RwUj I `~iv‡ivM¨ e¨vwa wbivgq n‡q mK‡ji Rb¨ ¯^v¯’¨ wbwðZ n‡e|
3. c„w_exi abx I `wi`ª gvbyl GKwU Awfbœ ag©xq wek¦vm I åvZ…Z¡‡ev‡a HK¨e× n‡e, d‡j DbœZ I
`wi`ª we‡k¦i g‡a¨ A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i †h wekvj cÖvPxi ˆZwi n‡q‡Q †mwU evwj©b cÖvPx‡ii gZ
wejyß n‡e Ges wek¦ `vwi‡`ª¨i Aemvb N‡U c„w_ex GKwU DbœZ wek¦iv‡óª cwiYZ n‡e|
4. evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb ivR‰bwZK `j I †RvU¸‡jvi cvi¯úwiK we‡iv‡ai Aemvb N‡U †`‡k
ivR‰bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv cÖwZwôZ n‡e, `vwi`ª¨, mš¿vm I `yb©xwZ wbg~©j n‡e, †fRvj I welv³
Lv`¨ mgvMÖxi e¨envi n«vm, wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `ªe¨g~‡j¨i DaŸ©MwZ †iva Ges e¨vcK A_©‰bwZK
25

mg„w× I Dbœqb N‡U evsjv‡`k AwZ Aí mg‡q BD‡iv‡ci myBRvij¨v‡Ûi gZ GKwU AvaywbK I
DbœZ iv‡óª cwiYZ n‡e|
5. gvbeRvwZ cwic~Y© wek¦vmx‡Z cwiYZ n‡e Ges bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ ‡_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i
gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© †h‡Z m¶g n‡e|
wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’v ˆ`wnK I gvbwmK my¯’Zvi m‡½ mvgvwRK my¯’Zv‡KI ¯^v‡¯’¨i msÁvq Aš—f©~y³ K‡i‡Q|
ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK, Ava¨vwZ¥K I cwi‡ekMZ my¯’Zv‡KI wPwKrmv weÁvbxiv ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨
Acwinvh© e‡j g‡b K‡ib| c„w_ex‡Z †iv‡Mi DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii KviY m¤ú‡K© wPwKrmv weÁvbxiv
†ek K‡qKwU Z‡Ë¡i AeZviYv K‡i‡Qb| G‡`i g‡a¨ wb‡gœ ewY©Z wZbwU ZË¡ we‡klfv‡e D‡j-L‡hvM¨|22
01. Supernatural Theory of Disease Ñ GB ZË¡wU me‡P‡q cÖvPxb ZË¡| GB ZË¡ Abyhvqx GKwU

mycvi‡bPvivj fvBivm Evil spirit iƒ‡c gvbe †`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i gvbyl‡K A¯^vfvweK KvR Ki‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ
K‡i| d‡j gvbyl I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ bó nq Ges gvbyl Amy¯’ n‡q hvq| c„w_ex‡Z GB
fvBiv‡mi AZ¨waK msµgY n‡j mgv‡Ri me©Î wewfbœ cÖKvi †ivM-e¨vwa, gnvgvix, Kjn-weev` I hy×
weMÖn Qwo‡q c‡o| cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n GB Z‡Ë¡i D‡j-L cvIqv hvq|
02. Germ Theory of Disease Ñ d«v‡Ýi wPwKrmv weÁvbx jyB cv¯‘i 1860 L„÷v‡ã GB Z‡Ë¡i

AeZviYv K‡ib| wZwb me© cÖ_g evZv‡m †ivM-RxevYy ev e¨vK‡Uwiqvi Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| 1877
L„÷v‡ã ievU© KzK gvB‡µv‡¯‹vc Øviv Anthrax-Gi RxevYy Avwe®‹vi K‡i cÖgvY K‡ib †h, e¨vK‡Uwiqv,
fvBivm, dv½vm I c¨vivmvBU Øviv Avµvš— n‡q gvbyl Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o|
03. Multifactorial Theory of Disease Ñ gvbe‡`‡n †iv‡Mi DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii GwU me©vaywbK

ZË¡| GB ZË¡ Abyhvqx ïay †ivM RxevYyB bq, AviI eûwea Kvi‡Y gvbyl I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨
bó n‡q wewfbœ cÖKvi †iv‡Mi DrcwË nq|
Supernatural theory of disease me‡P‡q cÖvPxb ZË¡| GB ZË¡ mg¯— †iv‡Mi KviY iƒ‡c GKwU

mycvi‡bPvivj ev Acvw_©e fvBivm‡K `vqx K‡i‡Q, hv Evil spirit iƒ‡c gvbe‡`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i gvbyl‡K
A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR Ki‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i| d‡j gvbyl I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ bó nq
Ges c„w_ex‡Z †ivM-e¨vwai we¯—vi N‡U| c„w_ex‡Z GB fvBiv‡mi AZ¨waK msµgY n‡j mgv‡Ri me©Î
†ivM-e¨vwa, gnvgvix, mvgvwRK AbvPvi, Aw¯’iZv, Kjn-weev` I hy×-weMÖn Qwo‡q c‡o| cweÎ
ag©MÖš’mg~‡n GB mycvi‡bPvivj fvBivm‡K GKwU Evil spirit e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| `vk©wbKMY GB
fvBivm‡K AÁZv ev Ignorance e‡j AwfwnZ K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ Multifactorial I Germ
theory of disease-†KI GB Z‡Ë¡i AvIZvq e¨vL¨v Kiv hvq| †h mycvi‡bPvivj fvBivm

Øviv

cÖ‡ivwPZ n‡q gvbyl A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR Ki‡Z eva¨ nq ‡mwU cÖwZ‡iva I wbg©~j Kiv m¤¢e n‡j
26

c„w_ex‡Z †iv‡Mi DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii mvaviY KviY mg~n mn‡RB `~i Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| G ai‡Yi
†ivM cÖwZ‡iva cÖwµqv‡K Primary Prevention iƒ‡c AwfwnZ Kiv nq| G chv©‡q c„w_ex‡Z †iv‡Mi
DrcwË I †ivM we¯—v‡ii c~‡e©B Dnvi KviY mg~n wbg~©j nq|
GWIqvW© †Rbvi Small Pox-Gi Vaccine Avwe®‹vi K‡i c„w_exi †KvwU †KvwU gvbyl‡K GB †iv‡Mi
gnvgvix †_‡K i¶v K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b Small Pox-Gi RxevYy Variola Virus c„w_ex †_‡K wbg~©j n‡q‡Q|
Kv‡RB mKj †ivM I we‡iv‡ai g~j KviY mycvi‡bPvivj fvBivm wbg~©j Kiv m¤¢e n‡j hveZxq ˆ`wnK,
gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa wbivgq n‡e Ges mKj RvwZMZ, ag©xq, ivóªxq I mv¤cÖ`vwqK we‡iv‡ai
Aemvb N‡U c„w_ex gvbeRvwZi Rb¨ kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e|
AwZ cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K bex, im~j I AeZviMY ¯^‡M©i mymsev` I bi‡Ki AwMœi fq cÖ`k©b K‡ib|
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv gnvKv‡k †mB ¯^M© I biK Avwe®‹vi I mbv³ Ki‡Z m¶g nb|
gvbeRvwZi BwZnv‡m G‡Zv we¯§qKi I eo Avwe®‹v‡ii Avi †Kv‡bv bwRi Av‡Q e‡j Avgv‡`i Rvbv
†bB| †Kbbv GZKvj g„Zz¨i c~‡e© ¯^M© I biK `k©b wQj GKwU Am¤¢e e¨vcvi| weÁvbx‡`i GB we¯§qKi
Avwe®‹vi ¯^vfvweKfv‡e (Reflexly) gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi
Am^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ Ki‡e (KviY †Kvb gvbyl wPiKvj AwMœ`» n‡Z Pvq bv) Ges my›`i
I myk„•Lj Rxeb hvcb K‡i ¯^‡M© †h‡Z m‡Pó Ki‡e (‡h‡nZz wPiKvjxb myL I kvwš— mK‡ji Kvg¨)|
d‡j mKj e¨vwa I we‡iv‡ai g~j KviY mycvi‡bPvivj fvBiv‡mi cÖfve gvby‡li Dci AKvh©Ki e‡j
cÖwZcbœ n‡e, cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡e Ges c„w_ex me©‡ivM I we‡iva gy³ n‡q GKwU
¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e|
fviZe‡li© cÖvPxb agx©q MÖš’ gnvfviZ, ivgvqY I cyiv‡Y Ag„Z I gnvwe‡li D‡j-L cvIqv hvq| †h Jla
cvb K‡i gvbyl ARi, Agi I wbivgq nq Ges wPi †hŠeb jvf K‡i ¯^‡M© cÖ‡ek K‡i Zv‡K e‡j Ag„Z|
Ag„Z hveZxq ‰`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa cÖwZ‡iva I wbivgq K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^v¯’¨Ki
Avevm I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K gy³ K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M©
wb‡q †h‡Z m¶g| gnvfvi‡Z Ag„‡Zi DrcwË m¤ú‡K© ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, Amyi‡`i m‡½ µgvMZ hy‡×
†n‡i †`eZviv Zvu‡`i kw³ nvwi‡q †d‡jb| †mRb¨ Zvuiv weòzi Kv‡Q kw³ I AgiZ¡ cÖv_©bv K‡ib| weòz
†`eZv‡`i Dc‡`k †`b †h, mgy`ª gš’b K‡i Ag„Z msMÖn Ki| ‡`eZv I Amyi mnmª ermi mgy`ª gš’b
K‡i Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvb|26
eZ©gv‡b gnvKvk weÁvbx‡`i nvRvi eQ‡ii M‡elYv Øviv cÖvß Z_¨vejx Ges bex, im~j I AeZvi‡`i
nvRvi eQ‡ii a¨vb I mvabv Øviv cÖvß Z_¨vejxi Zzjbvg~jK we‡k-lY K‡i Avgiv gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I
bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi I mbv³ Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ, hv GKwU weKí e¨e¯’v I g‡nŠla iƒ‡c mKj
27

e¨vwa I we‡iv‡ai g~j KviY mycvi‡bPvivj fvBivm‡K AKvh©Ki I wbg~©j K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨
cwiYZ Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ ‡_‡K gy³ K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© wb‡q
†h‡Z cv‡i| Kv‡RB GB weKí e¨e¯’v I g‡nŠla‡K Avgiv Ag„Z e‡j AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi| bex, imyj,
AeZvi I weÁvbx‡`i nvRvi nvRvi eQi a‡i gnvKvk gš’‡bi d‡j GB Ag„Z Avwe®K…Z n‡q‡Q|
c„w_exi cÖwZwU Rbc‡` cÖ‡Z¨K RvwZi Kv‡Q bex I imyj †cÖwiZ n‡q‡Q| fviZe‡l©I cÖvPxbKv‡j eû
bex - †`eZv ev AeZv‡ii Avwef©ve N‡U‡Q| Kw_Z Av‡Q - gnv‡`e fMevb wke †`eZv I Amyi‡`i
mn‡hvwMZvq mgy`ª gš’b K‡i Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvb, †hwU c‡i nvwi‡q hvq| c„w_exi †Kvb †`k ev ms¯’v
AvR ch©š— GB Ag„‡Zi mÜvb cvqwb| eZ©gv‡b ag© I weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKvk gš’b
K‡i Avgiv Ag„‡Zi m~ÎwU D`&NvUb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ, hv gnvfvi‡Z D‡j-wLZ fMevb wk‡ei Ag„‡Zi
gZ Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i| Z_¨ cÖhyw³ I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi G hy‡M GB Ag„Z nviv‡bvi †Kv‡bv m¤¢vebv †bB
ej‡jB P‡j| KviY GwU GKwU Scientific Message gvÎ| gnvKvk M‡elYv Øviv D™¢vweZ GB
Scientific Message I weKí wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v‡K Avgiv KmwgK †_ivwc e‡j AwfwnZ K‡iwQ|

bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx gnvwe‡k¦i GKwU g‡Wj I iƒc‡iLv| AwZ cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡K bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx GKwU
ZvweR ev g‡nŠla wnmv‡e me©‡iv‡Mi I mKj we‡iva wb®úwËi cÖwZ‡laK iƒ‡c e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q|
eZ©gv‡b Bûw`, wLªóvb I gymjgvb‡`i Kv‡Q GB bKkv gnvwe‡k¦i GKwU g‡WjB ïay bq, GwU mK‡ji
Kv‡Q GKwU agx©q cÖZxK I cªvK…wZK wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v (Natural Therapy) iƒ‡cI M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| GZKvj
GB wPwKrmv e¨e¯’vi †Kv‡bv ˆeÁvwbK wfwË wQj bv| GwU GKwU mvaviY wek¦vm I aviYv wQj gvÎ|
mv¤cÖwZK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx‡Z ewY©Z gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi
K‡i GB wek¦vm‡K GKwU my¯úó ˆeÁvwbK wfwË cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| ˆeÁvwbK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I
bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi wbtm‡›`‡n GKwU we¯§qKi Avwe®‹vi| gnvKv‡ki ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—‡Z¡ wek¦vm
GZKvj GKwU Ava¨vwZ¥K kw³ (Spiritual Force) wQj, hv gvbyl‡K agx©q Rxeb hvc‡b DrmvwnZ
K‡i‡Q| eZ©gv‡b gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®K…Z n‡q GB wek¦vm GKwU ˆeÁvwbK m‡Z¨
cwiYZ n‡q‡Q, hv GKwU hvwš¿K kw³ (Mechanical Force) iƒ‡c weÁvbx wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m~Î
Abyhvqx gvbeRvwZ‡K gnvb Avj-vni w`‡K AvKl©Y Ki‡e, bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj
cÖKvi A¯^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ Ki‡e Ges ¯^vfvweK I myk„sLj Rxeb hvcb K‡i ¯^‡M© †h‡Z
m‡Pó Ki‡e| d‡j GKwU Acivagy³, my¯’ I mg„×kxj mgvR e¨e¯’vi weKvk N‡U c„w_ex gvbeRvwZi
Rb¨ kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e| GB e¨e¯’v I g‡nŠla‡K
fviZe‡l©i cÖvPxb agx©q MÖš’ gnvfviZ, ivgvqY I cyiv‡Y Ag„Z e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q|

28

Zvgv ev †jvnvi ˆZwi gv`yjx I AvswU †Kvb †ivM mviv‡Z cv‡i bv, Z‡e G‡Z bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbxi †h
Message i‡q‡Q eZ©gvb hy‡M gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j GwU hveZxq ˆ`wnK,

gvbwmK, Ava¨vwZ¥K I mvgvwRK e¨vwai g~j KviY Supernatural Virus cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©‡ji GKwU
g‡nŠla iƒ‡c †`Lv w`‡q‡Q, hv me©‡iv‡Mi cÖwZ‡laK Ag„Z iƒ‡c GBW&m, K¨vÝvi I ü`&‡ivM mn hveZxq
‰`wnK, gvbwmK, Ava¨vwZ¥K I mvgvwRK e¨vwa cÖwZ‡iva I wbivgq K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^v¯’¨Ki Avevm
I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K gy³ K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© wb‡q
†h‡Z m¶g|
weÁvbx AvjevU© AvBb÷vBb 1905 wL&ª÷v‡ã ÔAv‡cw¶K ZË¡Õ cÖKvk K‡ib| 1929 wL&ª÷v‡ã Av‡cw¶K
Z‡Ë¡i MvwYwZK we‡k-lY Ges c`v_© I kw³i AwfbœZv cÖgvY K‡i wZwb GKwU m~‡Îi mÜvb †`b| Zuvi
GB weL¨vZ m~Î E=mc2 -Gi Dci wfwË K‡i weÁvbxiv cigvYy †evgv ‰Zwi Ki‡Z m¶g nb| 1945
mv‡j wØZxq wek¦hy‡× Av‡gwiKvi cigvYy †evgvi AvNv‡Z Rvcv‡bi `ywU kni wn‡ivwkgv I bvMvmvwK
aŸsmcÖvß nq| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb †evgvi aŸsmKvwiZv cigvYy †evgvi †P‡qI gvivZ¥K| eZ©gv‡b civkw³¸‡jvi
Kv‡Q †h cvigvYweK A¯¿ gRy` i‡q‡Q, Zv gvbe mf¨Zv‡K wbwg‡lB aŸsm K‡i w`‡Z m¶g| GB
aŸsmvZ¥K e¨e¯’v‡K Avgiv gnvfviZ, ivgvqY I cyiv‡Y ewY©Z gnvwel e‡j AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi|
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv ag© I weÁvb, we‡kl K‡i ag© I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi AwfbœZv cÖgvwYZ nIqvq
gnvKv‡k cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mgy‡n ewY©Z ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®K…Z n‡q‡Q| gnvKv‡ki ¯^M© I bi‡Ki
gvwjKvbv †h GKgvÎ Avj-vni Zv‡Z c„w_exi mg¯— gvbyl GKgZ| gnvKv‡k Avj-vni bi‡K cigvYy kw³i
†h wekvj gRy` i‡q‡Q, †mLvbKvi kw³ †h KZ †KvwU †KvwU wn‡ivwkgv I nvB‡Wªv‡Rb †evgvi mgZyj¨ Zv
Avgiv KíbvI Ki‡Z cvwi bv| G gnvkw³i AwaKvix gnvb Avj-vn †h KZ eo ¶gZvevb I kw³ai Zv
Avgiv wPš—vI Ki‡Z cvwi bv| c„w_exi civkw³¸‡jv‡K GB gnvkw³a‡ii m‡½ †Kv‡bviƒc Zzjbv Kiv
P‡j bv| weÁvbxiv gnvKv‡k †h ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Qb, c„w_exi cÖwZwU
ag©MÖ‡š’ H GKB ¯^M© I bi‡Ki D‡j-L Av‡Q| Kv‡RB G welqwU GLb ¯úó n‡q c‡o‡Q †h, eû ag©, eû
RvwZ I eû iv‡óª wef³ gvbeRvwZ bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Rb¨
GKwU gvÎ agx©q wek¦vm I åvZ…Z¡‡ev‡a HK¨e× n‡e (‡h‡nZz mKj ag© GKB ¯^M© I bi‡Ki K_v e‡j‡Q)
Ges civkw³¸‡jvI bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡`i aŸsmvZ¥K cvigvYweK Kg©m~Px
cwiZ¨vM K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K ¯^‡M© †bqvi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡e (†h‡nZz kvwš— cÖwZôv Zv‡`i Kg©m~Pxi g~j
j¶¨)| d‡j gvbe mf¨Zv‡K aŸsm K‡i w`‡Z m¶g gnvwel ev cigvYy A¯¿ mg~n wbw®Œq n‡q hv‡e,
Might is Right GB bxwZi Aemvb N‡U DbœZ I `wi`ª we‡k¦i g‡a¨ A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i ‡h wekvj cÖvPxi

ˆZwi n‡q‡Q †mwU evwj©b cÖvPx‡ii g‡ZvB wejyß n‡e, mvg¨, ˆgÎx, b¨vqwePvi I kvwš— cÖwZwôZ n‡e Ges
29

mgMÖ c„w_ex GKwU kw³kvjx †bZ…Z¡ Øviv cwiPvwjZ n‡q GKwU AvaywbK I DbœZ wek¦ivóª Z_v ¯^M©iv‡R¨
cwiYZ n‡e|
mv¤cÖwZK Kv‡j ag© I weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv GKwU me©m¤§Z wek¦v‡mi wfwˇZ gvbeRvwZ‡K
HK¨e× K‡i wek¦ kvwš— cÖwZôvi GKwU cÖqvm c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡ki wPš—vkxj M‡elK I weÁvbx‡`i
g‡a¨ j¶¨ Kiv hvq| m¤cÖwZ d«v‡Ýi wPwKrmv weÁvbx I ag© we‡klÁ Wvt gwim eyKvBwj evB‡ej,
KziAvb I weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv cÖgvY K‡ib ‡h, cweÎ KziAv‡b Ggb GKwU Z_¨I †bB hv
AvaywbK weÁv‡bi †hŠw³K gvb`‡Û DËxY© n‡Z cv‡i bv|11 wgm‡ii weÁvbx Wt ivkv` Lwjdv cweÎ
KziAvb Kw¤úDUvi Øviv we‡k-lY K‡i †h Ewb‡ki m~ÎwU (Rule of Nineteen) D`&NvUb K‡i‡Qb Zv
wbtm‡›`‡n cÖgvY K‡i †h, cweÎ KziAvb Ggb GKwU MÖš’ hv †Kvb gvby‡li c‡¶ iPbv Kiv m¤¢e bq,
eis GwU gnvKvk †_‡K ‡cÖwiZ gnvb Avj-vni me©‡kl evZ©v|27 m¤cÖwZ Av‡gwiKvi †R¨vwZwe©Ávbx I
MwYZwe`& gvB‡Kj GBP nvU© we‡k¦i †kªô gbxlx‡`i Rxeb Pwi‡Zi ‰eÁvwbK we‡klY K‡i cÖgvY K‡ib
†h, gnvbex nhiZ ‡gvnv¤§` (mvt) c„w_ex‡Z mev©waK cÖfve we¯—viKvix me© Kv‡ji me©‡kªô gnvgvbe|
wZwb Zuvi eûj cÖPvwiZ Ôw` nv‡ÛªWÕ MÖ‡š’ GB Z_¨ Zz‡j a‡ib|28 GK_v HwZnvwmKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z †h,
cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡ni g‡a¨ GKgvÎ KziAvb h_vh_fv‡e msiw¶Z n‡q‡Q| Z‡e KziAvb Zvi c~e©eZx© MÖš’
mg~n‡K ¯^xK…wZB ïay †`qwb, Zv‡`i evnKMY‡K Avj-vni imyj I bex e‡jI AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q| eZ©gv‡b
cÖZœZvwË¡K M‡elYv Øviv G welqwU ¯úófv‡e cªgvwYZ n‡q‡Q †h, c„w_ex‡Z mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK
weeZ©‡bi avivq a‡g©I hy‡M hy‡M eû cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| GB weeZ©‡bi d‡j c~e©eZx© ag© I agx©q
MÖš’ mgyn iƒcvš—wiZ I wejyß n‡q GKgvÎ cweÎ KziAvb gnvb Avj-vni me©‡kl evZv© iƒ‡c cÖwZwôZ
n‡q‡Q|6,11
1400 eQi c~‡e© gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt) Avj-vni me©‡kl ivmyj iƒ‡c gvbeRvwZi Kv‡Q cweÎ
KziAvb cÖPvi K‡ib| wZwb AvaywbK hy‡Mi †Kv‡bv weÁvbx I MwYZÁ wQ‡jb bv| wZwb †Kvb ˆeÁvwbK
M‡elYvMvi ev gnvKvk M‡elYv †K‡›`ª KvR K‡i‡Qb e‡j cÖgvY cvIqv hvq bv| eis wZwb wQ‡jb
GKRb mvaviY Avie hvi †Kv‡bv A¶i Ávb wQj bv e‡j BwZnv‡m D‡j-L Av‡Q|11 eZ©gv‡b weÁvbxiv
gnvKv‡ki †R¨vwZ®‹gÛjx m¤ú‡K© †h mKj Z_¨ D`NvUb K‡i‡Qb †m¸‡jv 1400 eQi c~‡e©i ‡Kv‡bv
mvaviY Avi‡ei Rvbv _vKvi K_v bq| ZvB gnvKvk weÁvbxiv †h welq ¸‡jv M‡elYv K‡i gnvbex
nhiZ ‡gvnv¤§` (mvt) Gi 1400 eQi ci Avwe®‹vi K‡i‡Qb †m m¤ú‡K© Zuvi Ávb _vKv gnvKv‡k
Áv‡bi Ggb GKwU Dr‡mi mÜvb †`q, hv †Kej gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt) ev Zvui g‡Zv bex, imyj
I AeZviMYB AewnZ wQ‡jb|9-11

30

1974 m‡bi 16B b‡f¤^i Av‡gwiKvi weÁvbxiv cy‡q‡Uv©wi‡Kvi AvwiwP‡ev †iwWI gvb gw›`i ‡_‡K
gnvKv‡k GKwU evZv© †cÖiY K‡ib| GB evZv©q Qvqvc‡_i Aci cv‡i hw` †Kvb Zvivi MÖ‡n †Kvb
eyw×gvb cÖvYx _v‡K Zv‡`i Kv‡Q gvby‡li cwiPq I weeiY ‡`qv n‡q‡Q| evZv©‡Z Awfev`b Rvbv‡bv
n‡q‡Q, Avš—b©v¶wÎK cÎ wgZvjxi AvnŸvb Rvbv‡bv n‡q‡Q Ges wewfbœ mf¨Zvi Qvqvc_ K¬ve MV‡bi Rb¨
`iLv¯— AvnŸvb Kiv n‡q‡Q| gnvKv‡k GB evZv© Av‡jvi †e‡M GwM‡q Pj‡Q|16
cweÎ †KviAvb gnvKvk †_‡K ‡cÖwiZ gnvb Avj-vn&i evZv©| Avj-vn Zvui GB evZv©‡Z c„w_exi gvbyl‡K
gnvKv‡ki ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Avgš¿Y Rvwb‡q‡Qb, †hLv‡b c„w_exi †P‡qI DbœZZi Rxeb hvc‡bi mKj
DcKiY we`¨gvb| ¯^‡M© †h‡Z n‡j †`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛ mg~n cvi n‡Z n‡e|9,10
weÁvbxiv c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki †KvwU †KvwU Av‡jvK el© we¯Z…Z GjvKvq †KvwU †KvwU b¶Î,
†Kv‡qmvi I e-¨vK‡nv‡ji mÜvb †c‡q‡Qb, †h¸‡jv GK GKwU wekvj AwMœKzÛ Ges †`vhL| †`vh‡Li GB
`xN© c_ AwZµg Kiv mnR bq| cÖ‡qvRb GKRb c_ cÖ`k©K, whwb GB c_ m¤ú‡K© h‡_ó Ávb iv‡Lb|
c„w_exi cÖwZwU Rbc‡` cÖ‡Z¨K RvwZi Kv‡Q bex, im~j I AeZviMY GK GK Rb c_ cÖ`k©K iƒ‡c
†cÖwiZ nb| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) gvbe RvwZi Kv‡Q †cÖwiZ gnvb Avj-vni me©‡kl im~j I c_
cÖ`k©K| 1400 eQi c~‡e© GK cweÎ iRbx‡Z wZwb gnvKvk ågY K‡ib, ¯^M© I biK `k©b K‡ib Ges
Avj-vni m‡½ mv¶vr K‡ib| ZvB Zvui cÖ`wk©Z c‡_ bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ mg~n cvi n‡q ¯^‡M© hvIqv m¤¢e|
gnvKvk †_‡K Avj-vn cvK 1400 eQi c~‡e© gnvbexi Kv‡Q †h evZv© (cweÎ †KviAvb) †cÖiY K‡i‡Qb,
Avgiv ZvB Avkv KiwQ †mwU MÖnY K‡i weÁvbxiv c„w_exi gvbyl‡K ¯^‡M© †bqvi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡eb|
†Kbbv gnvKv‡k bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ mg~‡n weÁvbxiv †h DËß AwMœi kvw¯—i e¨e¯’vi mÜvb †c‡q‡Qb †mwU
Kíbv Ki‡jI Avgv‡`i kixi wkD‡i I‡V| †hLv‡b ZvcgvÎv †KvwU ‡KvwU wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm Qvwo‡q
†M‡Q| †mLv‡b hw` gvbyl‡K wbôzifv‡e wb‡¶c Kiv nq, wPiKvj hw` gvbyl‡K †mLv‡b Ae¯’vb Ki‡Z
nq, Zv‡`i cwiYvg wK n‡e! Zv‡`i `ytL-`y`©kv I Kó-hš¿Yv eY©bv Kivi g‡Zv fvlv wK Avgv‡`i Av‡Q!
cweÎ KziAv‡b †`vh‡L gvby‡li Ki“Y Ae¯’vi wKQy Bw½Z Gfv‡e †`qv n‡q‡Q - wbðq hviv Avj-vn‡K
Awek¦vm Ki‡Q Zv‡`i Rb¨ i‡q‡Q bi‡Ki kvw¯—| Dnv Lye Lvivc RvqMv| hLb Zv‡`i‡K bi‡Ki
AwMœKz‡Û wb‡¶c Kiv n‡e weKU MR©b ïb‡Z cv‡e, Dnv we‡¯dvwiZ n‡Z _vK‡e †hb †µv‡a †d‡U
co‡Q| hLbB †Kv‡bv `j‡K wb‡¶c Kiv n‡e cÖnixMY wR‡Ám Ki‡eb - †Zvgv‡`i wbKU wK †Kv‡bv fq
cÖ`k©bKvix im~j Av‡mb bvB? Zviv ej‡e- Avgv‡`i wbKU Aek¨B GKRb fq cÖ`k©bKvix im~j
G‡mwQ‡jb| Zvu‡K Avgiv wg_¨v g‡b K‡iwQjvg Ges e‡jwQjvg- Avj-vn ‡Kv‡bv imyj cvVvb bvB|
Gfv‡e Zviv Zv‡`i fyj ¯^xKvi Ki‡e| wKš‘ biKevmx Avj-vni Ki“Yv n‡Z ewÂZ n‡e| - (myiv gyjK&,
AvqvZ bs 6-11)|

31

¯^‡M© †h‡Z n‡j †`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛ mg~n cvi n‡Z n‡e| ¯^M© gnvKv‡ki †KvwU †KvwU kvwš—gq MÖn I kvwš—
D`¨vb, †hLvbKvi myL-kvwš—i gvÎv I ZxeªZv c„w_exi ‡P‡qI nvRvi nvRvi ¸Y †ewk|17 AvaywbK Ávb,
weÁvb I cÖhyw³i e¨vcK Dbœqb I weKv‡ki d‡j eZ©gv‡b Av‡gwiKv c„w_exi GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ
n‡q‡Q| GB ¯^M©iv‡R¨i bvMwiKZ¡ jv‡fi Rb¨ cÖwZ eQi c„w_exi `wi`ª †`k mg~‡ni ‡KvwU †KvwU gvbyl
WvBfviwmwU wfmvi Rb¨ Av‡e`b K‡ib| gnvKvk cÖhyw³i e¨vcK Dbœq‡bi d‡j eZ©gv‡b gnvKv‡k cweÎ
†KviAv‡b ewY©Z ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡I Avwe®‹…Z n‡q c‡o‡Q| ZvB Avgiv Avkv KiwQ - weÁv‡bi GB
hy‡M c„w_exevmx bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M©i bvMwiKZ¡ jv‡fi
Rb¨ gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Gi wbKU †cÖwiZ gnvb Avj-vni evZv©wU wkM&wMiB MÖnY Ki‡eb|
gnvKvk m¤ú‡K© hZB M‡elYv I AbymÜvb Pj‡Z _vK‡e gvbeRvwZi Kv‡Q cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z
¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ AviI ¯úó †_‡K ¯úóZi n‡Z _vK‡e Ges AwZ cÖvPxb Kvj ‡_‡K cÖPwjZ GKwU
mvaviY wek¦vm ‰eÁvwbK m‡Z¨ cwiYZ n‡e| GZKvj gvbyl AvKv‡k eû †QvU eo cÖ`xc ev P›`ª, m~h©¨,
MÖn I ZviKv †`L‡Z †c‡q‡Q| kZ kZ eQi nvRvi nvRvi weÁvbxi gnvKvk M‡elYv I AbymÜv‡bi
d‡j gvbyl GLb AvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ †`L‡Z cv‡e hv gvbeRvwZ‡K cybiƒÌvb I †kl wePv‡ii
gZ GKwU Ae¯’vi m¤§yLxb Ki‡e| GB Ae¯’v †_‡K DËiY I bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨
gvbeRvwZ ZLb wbtm‡›`nfv‡e mKj cÖKvi A¯^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ n‡e Ges wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M©
†h‡Z m‡Pó n‡e| d‡j cÖK…wZi ¯^vfvweK wbq‡g c„w_ex cvc gy³ n‡q mZ¨ hy‡M cÖ‡ek Ki‡e| mKj
Ab¨vq I Am‡Z¨i wejywß N‡U c„w_ex cweÎ I c~Y¨evb gvby‡l cwic~Y© n‡q hv‡e, wnsmv, we‡Øl, nvbvnvwb
I hy‡×i Aemvb N‡U c„w_ex‡Z mvg¨, ˆgÎx, b¨vqwePvi I kvwš— cÖwZwôZ n‡e Ges mKj RvwZMZ, agx©q
I mv¤cÖ`vwqK ˆelg¨ wejyß n‡q c„w_ex GKwU cweÎ f~wg‡Z cwiYZ n‡e| ‡hLv‡b c„w_exi mKj RvwZ,
ag© I ivóª GKxf~Z n‡q GKwU mvaviY RvwZ‡Z cwiYZ n‡e| †h mvaviY RvwZi D‡Ïk¨B n‡e
gnvKv‡ki biK AwZµg K‡i wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Rb¨ c„w_ex‡K GKwU cvcgy³ cweÎ f~gx‡Z cwiYZ
Kiv| GB cÖwµqv‡K Avgiv “Sterilization of the world” e‡jI AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi| cweÎ ag©MÖš’
mg~‡n ewY©Z n‡q‡Q - †Kqvg‡Zi c~‡e© nhiZ Cmv (Avt) gnvKvk †_‡K c„w_ex‡Z AeZiY Ki‡eb| wZwb
RM‡Zi cvcivwk‡K c~Y¨ Øviv, Ryjyg‡K Bbmvd Øviv Ges `vwi`ª¨‡K A_©-m¤ú‡`i cÖvPzh© Øviv cwiewZ©Z
K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ Ki‡eb|12,13


32

KmwgK †_ivwc

wØZxq Askt e¨envwiK (Practical)

KmwgK †_ivwci e¨envi I Kvh©KvwiZv
ag©, gnvKvk weÁvb I wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv D™¢vweZ KmwgK †_ivwc gvbe
Rxe‡bi me©‡¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ GKwU wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v hv‡K fviZe‡l©i cÖvPxb ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n Ag„Z e‡j
AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| †h Jla cvb K‡i gvbyl ARi, Agi I wbivgq nq Ges wPi †hŠeb jvf K‡i
¯^‡M© cÖ‡ek K‡i Zv‡K e‡j Ag„Z| Ag„Z wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’v ¯^v‡¯’¨i †h msÁv cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q Zvi cÖwZwU
†¶‡Î e¨eüZ n‡q gvbyl‡K my¯’ K‡i ïay †h c„w_ex‡Z my›`i I ¯^vfvweK Rxeb `vb Ki‡e Zv-B bq,
gvbyl‡K Ava¨vwZ¥K fv‡eI cweÎ K‡i ci‡jv‡Ki ¯^‡M© wb‡q †h‡Z m¶g| ZvB Ag„Z‡K Avgiv cik
cv_i (Philosophers’ Stone ) e‡jI AwfwnZ K‡iwQ, hvi ¯ú‡k© wbK…óZi gvbyl my¯’ I cweÎ n‡q
¯^‡M© hvIqvi ‡hvM¨Zv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| cigvYy wPwKrmv (Nuclear Medicine) AvaywbK wPwKrmv
weÁv‡bi GKwU bZzb kvLv hv cigvYy kw³i kvwš—c~Y© e¨env‡ii GKwU ev¯—e `„óvš—| eZ©gv‡b civkw³
mg~n cigvYy A‡¯¿i (Nuclear Weapon) †h wekvj gRy` M‡o Zz‡j‡Q Zv gvbe mf¨Zv‡K wbwg‡lB
aŸsm K‡i w`‡Z m¶g| Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbvq Avgiv ¯úó †`L‡Z cvw”Q, KmwgK †_ivwc cigvYy kw³i
GB Ace¨envi †iva K‡i gvbe mf¨Zv‡K cigvYy A‡¯¿i aŸs‡mi nvZ †_‡K ïay i¶v bq, GwU gvbe
Rxe‡bi me©‡¶‡Î Ag„Z iƒ‡c e¨eüZ n‡q c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| gvbe Kj¨v‡Y
KmwgK †_ivwci GB eûgyLx e¨envi I cÖ‡qv‡Mi wewfbœ cÖwµqv Avgiv GLv‡b ms‡¶‡c Zz‡j aivi †Póv
K‡iwQ|

me© †iv‡Mi wPwKrmv I ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vi Dbœq‡b
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

c„w_ex‡Z cÖwZ eQi cvuP †KvwUi AwaK gvbyl wewfbœ †iv‡M I `yN©Ubvq gviv hvq| cÖwZ eQi cÖvq †`o
†KvwU gvbyl ü`&‡iv‡M, GK †KvwU K¨vÝv‡i Ges 50 j¶ gvbyl `yN©Ubvi Rb¨ g„Zy¨ eiY K‡i| G mKj
g„Zz¨i Rb¨ AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB a~gcvb, WªvM I Gj‡Kvn‡ji Ace¨envi‡K `vqx Kiv nq| GKgvÎ gvwK©b
hy³iv‡óª cÖwZ eQi GK †KvwU gvbyl a~gcvb RwbZ †ivM we‡kl K‡i K¨vÝvi I ü`&‡iv‡M Avµvš— nq|
G‡`i g‡a¨ 3,90,000 Rb g„Zy¨ eiY K‡i| c„w_ex‡Z cÖwZ eQi ü`&‡ivM I K¨vÝv‡i g„Zz¨nvi h_vµ‡g
30% I 20%| a~gcvb‡K GB `ywU †iv‡Mi cÖavb KviY iƒ‡c wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZ eQi `yN©Ubvi

33

Rb¨ g„Zz¨ nvi 10%| WªvM I Gj‡Kvn‡ji Ace¨env‡ii Kvi‡Y AwaKvsk `yN©Ubv N‡U _v‡K| a~gcvb,
WªvM I Gj‡Kvn‡ji Ace¨envi †iva K‡i ü`&‡ivM, K¨vÝvi I `yN©Ubvi Rb¨ g„Zz¨nvi kZKiv 60 fvM
†_‡K eûjvs‡k n«vm Kiv m¤¢e| eZ©gv‡b ag© I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k
cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®K…Z nIqvq G welqwU GLb ¯úó n‡q c‡o‡Q †h,
gvbeRvwZ bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi
A¯^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ n‡e| d‡j a~gcvb, WªvM I Gj‡Kvn‡ji Ace¨envi ¯^vfvweKfv‡e
n«vm cv‡e| G Qvov mKj cÖKvi ‰`wnK, gvbwmK, mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK, A_©ˆbwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK,
Ava¨vwZ¥K I cwi‡ekMZ e¨vwa, we‡iva I weev‡`i g~j KviY mycvi b¨vPvivj fvBivm gvbe‡`‡n I
mgv‡Ri me©Î AKvh©Ki n‡q †ivM-e¨vwa, gnvgvix, hy×-weMÖn I `yN©Ubvi mvaviY KviY mg~n e¨vcK nv‡i
n«vm cv‡e| Gfv‡e Ag„Z ev KmwgK †_ivwc mKj e¨vwai wPwKrmv cÖ`vb K‡i ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’vi Dbœqb, g„Zy¨
nvi n«vm, Mo Avqy e„w× I mK‡ji Rb¨ ¯^v¯’¨ wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i|22

GBWm& cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©‡j
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv
G‡KvqvW© BwgDb †Wwdwm‡qwÝ wm‡Ûªvg ms‡¶‡c GBWm&-GBPAvBwf fvBivm Øviv msµwgZ GKwU e¨vwa
hvi Kvh©Ki †Kvb wPwKrmv AvR ch©š— Avwe®‹…Z nqwb| GBPAvBwf fvBivm Øviv Avµvš— n‡q gvbyl
†`‡ni ¯^vfvweK †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv nvwi‡q †d‡j Ges wewfbœ msµvgK e¨vwa, Ggb wK K¨vÝv‡i
Avµvš— n‡q g„Zz¨ eiY K‡i| 1981 mv‡j hy³iv‡óª GK`j mgKvgx cyi“‡li g‡a¨ me©cÖ_g GB †ivM aiv
c‡o| bvix cyi“‡li Aeva †hŠb wgj‡bi d‡j mvaviYZ GB †ivM Qovq|22

wPÎ bs - 17 t GBWm& fvBivm
34

RvwZmsN GBWm& Kg©m~Px Ges wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi wnmve Abyhvqx 1998 mv‡ji †kl w`‡K we‡k¦ GBWm
wb‡q RxweZ †jv‡Ki msL¨v wQj 3 †KvwU 34 j¶| 2007 mv‡j GB msL¨v wQj 3 †KvwU| GBPAvBwf-i
cÖv`yf©ve ïi“ nIqvi ci †_‡K 2 †KvwUi †ewk gvbyl GBW‡m gviv †M‡Q| mviv we‡k¦ cÖvq 25 j¶ wkïi
GBWm i‡q‡Q| 2003 mv‡ji g‡a¨ GBPAvBwf Avµvš— bvix, cyi“l I wkïi msL¨v wQj 4 †KvwU| G‡`i
kZKiv 70 fvM evm K‡i Avwd«Kvq| wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi mv¤cÖwZK wnmve Abyhvqx 2000 mvj bvMv`
evsjv‡`‡k 147000 †_‡K 703000 R‡bi GBPAvBwf msµgY nIqvi K_v| hw`I evsjv‡`‡k
miKvix wnmve Abyhvqx G ch©š— 1745 Rb GBPAvBwf Avµvš— †ivMx mbv³ Kiv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| Avgv‡`i
cvk¦©eZ©x †`k fvi‡Z GBPAvBwf Avµv‡š—i msL¨v cÖvq 50 j¶| 2000 mv‡ji †kl bvMv` `w¶Y I
`w¶Yc~e© Gwkqvq GBPAvBwf msµwgZ †jv‡Ki msL¨v wQj 1 †KvwU| GB A‡j GBPAvBwf msµg‡Yi
`ª“Z we¯—vi NU‡Q| AwaKvsk we‡klÁ G e¨vcv‡i GKgZ †h, Gwkqvi gnvgvix K‡qK eQ‡ii g‡a¨
Avwd«Kvi gnvgvix‡KI Qvwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡i|29
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb †h, c„w_ex‡Z weeZ©‡bi GK RwUj cÖwµqvq A‰Re c`v_©
†_‡K cÖ_‡g GK †Kvlx Rxe, c‡i eû †Kvlx Rx‡ei D™¢e N‡U‡Q| cÖ_g A‡gi“`Ûx cÖvYxi Avwefv©e N‡U
m¤¢eZt 50 †_‡K 60 †KvwU eQi Av‡M| Gi cieZx© ch©v‡q cÖvq 45 †KvwU eQi Av‡M Avwef~©Z n‡qwQj
†gi“`Ûx cÖvYx| cÖvq 18 ‡KvwU eQi Av‡M c„w_ex‡Z Avwef~©Z n‡qwQj ¯—b¨cvqx cÖvYx| c„w_ex‡Z eyw×e„wË
m¤úbœ AvaywbK gvby‡li Avwefv©e N‡U cÖvq 40,000 eQi Av‡M| mev©aywbK M‡elYvq cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q †h,
AvaywbK gvby‡li Zzjbvq AbybœZ n‡jI cÖvq 50 j¶ eQi Av‡MI c„w_ex‡Z gvbe cÖRvwZi Aw¯—Z¡
we`¨gvb wQj| c„w_ex‡Z wewfbœ cÖRvwZi cÖvYxi ïay †h Avwefv©e N‡U‡Q Zv-B bq, Zv‡`i wejywßI
N‡U‡Q| GB Avwefv©e I wejywßi DrK…ó D`vniY mixm„c| 20 †KvwU eQi hver mixm„c wQj c„w_exi
ey‡K cÖvavb¨ we¯——viKvix cÖvYx| Zvici Zv‡`i wejywß NU‡Z ïi“ K‡i| Aaybv †mB mixm„‡ci wKQz msL¨K
bgybvB ïay cvIqv hvq| Gme mixm„c 6 †_‡K 7 †KvwU eQi Av‡MI c„w_ex‡Z wQj Ges cieZx©‡Z
Zv‡`i ¯’vb `Lj K‡i ‡bq ¯—b¨cvqx cÖvYx| gvbe cÖRvwZ AZxZ Kvj †_‡KB eû cÖwZKzj Ae¯’v AwZµg
K‡i AvaywbK mf¨Zvq c`vc©Y K‡i‡Q| †Kvb Kv‡jB gvbe cÖRvwZ wejyß nIqvi gZ Ae¯’vi m¤§yLxb
nqwb| Z‡e G hy‡Mi fqven I giYNvwZ e¨vwa GBWm& gvbe RvwZi Aw¯—Z¡ wecbœ K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| eZ©gv‡b
Pvi †KvwUiI AwaK gvbyl GBWm&-G Avµvš— n‡q‡Q Ges c„w_ex‡Z G †ivM gnvgvix iƒ‡c Qwo‡q co‡Q|
weÁvbxiv GBWm& cÖwZ‡iva I wbivg‡q Kvh©Ki †Kvb wPwKrmv AvR ch©š— Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb|6,30
GBWm& fvBivm ev GBPAvBwf GKwU mvaviY

RNA

fvBivm| gvby‡li †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv wbwðZ

Kivi Rb¨ †`‡n †h wm‡÷g KvR Ki‡Q, GB fvBivm we‡kl K‡i †mB wm‡÷‡gi †Kvl¸‡jv‡K msµwgZ
K‡i| Gme †Kv‡li g‡a¨ me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© n‡”Q

CD4 helper T wj‡çvmvBUm&|

35

gvbe‡`‡n cÖ‡e‡ki ci

GB fvBivm Zvi wifvm© UªvÝwµc‡UR (Reverse Transcriptase) bvgK we‡kl GbRvBg w`‡q †Kv‡li
RNA

†µv‡gvRg‡K

DNA

†µv‡gvR‡g iƒcvš—wiZ K‡i Ges gvbe †Kv‡li m‡½ wg‡k GKxf~Z n‡q hvq|

GK ch©v‡q gvbe‡`‡ni †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv webó n‡Z _v‡K Ges hZ †ewk

CD4

†Kvl Avµvš— nq,

cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv ZZ ‡ewk `ye©j n‡q c‡o| †ivM cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’v bó n‡q †M‡j e¨vK&‡Uwiqv, fvBivm,
dv½vm I †cÖv‡Uv‡Rvqvi msµgY †`Lv †`q Ges K¨vÝvi m„wói ZrciZv e„w× cvq| GBPAvBwf
msµg‡Yi cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q AwaKvsk †ivMxi †Kvb j¶Y _v‡K bv| fvBivm kix‡i cÖ‡ek Kivi ci i‡³
Gw›UevwW kbv³‡hvM¨ (Detectable) nIqvi Rb¨ 6 mßvn †_‡K 6 gvm mgq jv‡M| †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î
GBPAvBwf msµwgZ e¨w³i `k eQ‡ii †ewk mgq ch©š— †Kv‡bv j¶Y †`Lv hvq bv| j¶Y wenxb
ch©v‡q †ewki fvM msµwgZ e¨w³ my¯’ _v‡K wKš‘ GBPAvBwf fvBivm Ab¨ R‡bi †`‡n Qwo‡q co‡Z
cv‡i| kix‡ii evB‡i GBPAvBwf ‡eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB †`‡ni evB‡i mvaviYZ GBPAvBwf
fvBivm cvIqv hvq bv|30
GBPAvBwfi Kvh©Ki †Kvb wUKv AvR ch©š— Avwe®K…Z nqwb| KviY GBPAvBwfi MVb ˆewPΨ (Genetic
Diversity) GZ ‡ewk †h, weÁvbx‡`i c‡¶ Gi wei“‡× Kvh©Ki †Kvb wUKv ev Jla Avwe®‹vi Kiv Am¤¢e

n‡q c‡o‡Q| Avwd«Kvi wewfbœ †`‡k †h mKj fvBivm Øviv GBWm nq †m¸‡jv Av‡gwiKv ev Gwkqvi
fvBivm †_‡K wfbœ cÖK…wZi| G ai‡bi kZ kZ MVb ˆewP‡Îi mÜvb cvIqv ‡M‡Q|45 ZvB mKj
fvBiv‡mi wei“‡× Kvh©Ki GKwU cÖwZ‡laK (Universal Vaccine) D™¢veb Qvov c„w_ex †_‡K GBPAvBwf
wbg~©j Kiv m¤¢e bq| GBWm †iv‡Mi wPwKrmvq eZ©gv‡b †h mKj Jla e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K †m¸‡jv †ivM
wbivgq Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi g~jbxwZ n‡”Q Prevention is Better than Cure”- †ivM
wbivg‡qi †P‡q †ivM cªwZ‡ivaB DËg cš’v| ZvB GBPAvBwf cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©j K‡i gvbe mf¨Zv‡K
i¶vi Rb¨ c„w_exi me©Î Kvh©Ki GKwU cÖwZ‡laK (Universal Vaccine) Ri“ix n‡q c‡o‡Q| GWIqvW©
†Rbvi small pox-Gi f¨vw·b Avwe®‹vi K‡i c„w_exi †KvwU †KvwU gvbyl‡K GB †iv‡Mi gnvgvix †_‡K
i¶v K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b Small Pox-Gi RxevYy c„w_ex †_‡K wbg©~j n‡q‡Q| Small Pox-Gi RxevYy
45

Variola Virus-Gi gZ HIV Virus wbg~©j K‡i GBWm& †ivM cÖwZ‡iva Kiv m¤¢e|

Ag„Z ev KmwgK

†_ivwc GBPAvBwf fvBiv‡mi wei“‡× c„w_exi mKj †`‡k I me©Î Kvh©Ki GKwU cÖwZ‡laK (Universal
Vaccine) iƒ‡c e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i|

AvR n‡Z K‡qK nvRvi eQi c~‡e© bex-ivm~j I AeZviMY gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—‡Z¡i K_v cÖPvi
K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b weÁvbxiv gnvKv‡k †mB ¯^M© I biK Avwe®‹vi I mbv³ Ki‡Z m¶g nb| wek¦ RM‡Zi
Aš—iv‡j †h gnvmZ¨ weivRgvb †mwU cix¶v-wbix¶v I M‡elYv Øviv D`&NvUb K‡i gvbe Kj¨v‡Y cÖ‡qvM
Kiv weÁv‡bi KvR| ZvB AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k ¯^M© I bi‡Ki Aw¯—Z¡ Avwe®‹vi gvbeRvwZi
36

Rb¨ GKwU mymsev` iƒ‡c we‡ewPZ n‡e| gvbyl bi‡Ki AwMœKzÊ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj cªKvi
A¯^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ n‡e Ges my›`i I myk„sLj Rxeb hvcb K‡i ¯^‡M© †h‡Z m‡Pó n‡e|
d‡j †h Supernatural Virus Øviv cÖ‡ivwPZ n‡q gvbyl A¯^vfvweK I Aeva †hŠbvPv‡i wjß nq †mwU
c„w_ex †_‡K wbg~©j n‡e, GBPAvBwf-i msµgY I we¯—vi †iva n‡e Ges gvbe RvwZ GBW‡mi gnvgvix
†_‡K i¶v cv‡e|

cwi‡ek wech©q ‡iv‡a I wek¦ `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvP‡b
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

weÁvbxiv g‡b K‡ib †h, Avgv‡`i c„w_ex MÖ‡ni eqm cÖvq 500 †KvwU eQi| cÖvq 500 †KvwU eQi c~‡e©
m~‡h©i wKQy wKQy Ask wew”Qbœ n‡q m~‡h©i Pvwiw`‡K cwiågY Ki‡Z _v‡K| G¸‡jv c‡i †mŠiRM‡Zi MÖ‡n
iƒcvš—wiZ nq| Avgv‡`i c„w_exI Giƒc GKwU MÖn| Zv‡ci g~j Drm †_‡K wew”Qbœ n‡q covq c„w_exi
Zvc Av‡¯— Av‡¯— Kg‡Z _v‡K| M¨vm Zij n‡q f~Z¡K I evqygÛ‡ji m„wó nq| Zvc Av‡iv K‡g †M‡j
ev®ú Nbxf~Z n‡q weivU weivU †g‡Ni m„wó nq Ges cÖej e„wócvZ n‡Z _v‡K| d‡j b`-b`x, n«`, mgy`ª
cÖf„wZ Rjvk‡qi m„wó nq| Gfv‡e K‡qK kÕ †KvwU eQ‡ii ivmvqwbK wewµqvi d‡j h‡_vchy³ ˆRe
c`v_© mg~‡ni wgjb N‡U Ges c„w_ex‡Z Rxe‡bi D‡b¥l nq| Zvici ˆRe weeZ©‡bi ¯^vfvweK wbq‡g
c„w_ex‡Z Dw™¢` I cÖvYx RM‡Zi weKvk N‡U Ges cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZwôZ nq| cwi‡e‡ki
¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ i¶vq c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv I evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—‡ii we‡kl f~wgKv i‡q‡Q|14,40,46
eZ©gv‡b wkívqb I KvwiMwi mf¨Zvi `ª“Z weKv‡ki Kvi‡Y AwZwi³ Kve©b WvB A·vBW I wmGdwm
M¨vm wbtmiY n‡”Q| meyR MvQcvjv, e„¶ I eb DRvo n‡q hv‡”Q| d‡j c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv µ‡gB e„w×
cv‡”Q Ges evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—i ¶q n‡q hv‡”Q| ZvcgvÎv e„w× I MÖxb nvDR cÖwZwµqvi d‡j mgMÖ
f~gÛjB AvR µgkt wec`RbK Ae¯’vi w`‡K P‡j hv‡”Q| MÖxb nvDR ev meyR Ni ej‡Z KvuP †Niv
Ni‡K eySv‡bv nq| hvi †fZi meyR MvQcvjv I kvK-mewR mxwgZ fv‡e Pvl Kiv hvq| KvuP †Niv N‡i
m~‡h©i wKiY mn‡R cÖ‡ek K‡i| wKš‘ †fZi †_‡K KvuP †f` K‡i evB‡i †h‡Z cv‡ibv| d‡j MÖxb
nvD‡Ri wfZi ZvcgvÎv e„w× cvq| GKB fv‡e m~h© iwk¥ evqygÛj †f` K‡i c„w_ex c„‡ô mn‡R †cŠ‡Q,
wKš‘ c„w_ex ‡_‡K me wewKiY mn‡R gnvKv‡k †h‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j evqygÛj I c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„w×
cvq| G‡¶‡Î wewfbœ cÖKvi M¨vm MÖxb nvD‡Ri Kvu‡Pi b¨vq KvR K‡i| Gme M¨v‡mi g‡a¨ Kve©b WvB
A·vBW, wg‡_b I wm Gd wm we‡klfv‡e D‡j-L †hvM¨| GB cÖwµqvi d‡j µgvš^‡q c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv
e„w× cv‡”Q| hv‡K MÖxb nvDR cÖwZwµqv ejv nq| weÁvbx‡`i g‡Z AvMvgx 80 eQ‡i MÖxb nvDR
cÖwZwµqvi d‡j c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv cvuP wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm e„w× cv‡e| G‡Z c„w_exi ‡gi“ A‡ji 60 j¶
eM©gvBj GjvKv Ry‡o c„w_exi †gvU Rjfv‡Mi 70% cvwb †h ei‡di ¯—‡i Rgv Av‡Q ZvcgvÎv e„w×i
37

d‡j G wekvj eid ivwk Mj‡Z ïi“ Ki‡e| cwi‡ek weÁvbx‡`i g‡Z mvM‡ii Rj ivwk hw` M‡o GK
wgUvi e„w× cvq Zvn‡j evsjv‡`k I wgm‡ii gZ wbPz AÂj `k dzU cvwbi wb‡P wbgw¾Z n‡e|
gvjØx‡ci gZ †`‡ki Aw¯—Z¡ _vK‡e bv| G Qvov DËi Av‡gwiKv I KvbvWvi Mg Drcv`bKvix †cÖBwi
AÂj m¤ú~Y© gi“f~wg‡Z cwiYZ n‡e| d‡j gvivZ¥K Lv`¨ msKU †`Lv †`‡e| eZ©gv‡b c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv
e„w× †c‡q †gi“ AÂj I ce©Z k„‡½i eid Mj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q Ges mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv µ‡gB e„w×
cv‡”Q| G‡Z Wye‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q mvMiKz‡ji wbævÂj I gnvmvMixq Øxcgvjv| ZvcgvÎv e„w×i d‡j
Rjevqy‡Z †`Lv w`‡”Q weivU cwieZ©b| kxZ cÖavb GjvKv¸‡jv DËß n‡q evqy cÖev‡n weNœ m„wó n‡”Q|
evqy cÖevn K‡g e„wó cÖeY GjvKvq µgvMZ e„wó n‡qB P‡j‡Q Ges Liv cÖeY GjvKvq Livi ZxeªZv AviI
e„w× cv‡”Q| weÁvbxiv ej‡Qb - c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv Gfv‡e e„w× †c‡j Avwd«Kv gnv‡`‡k Liv, AwZ e„wó I
eb¨v gnvgvix AvKvi aviY Ki‡e| 1977 I 1984 mv‡j RvwZms‡Ni giy cÖwµqv msµvš— Kb‡fbk‡b
ejv n‡q‡Q †h, ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y c„w_exi cÖvq `yB Z…Zxqvsk GjvKv gi“f~wg I Livi m¤§yLxb
n‡q‡Q| eZ©gv‡b cÖwZ eQi c„w_exi cÖvq `yB j¶ eM© wK‡jvwgUvi GjvKv gi“f~wg‡Z cwiYZ n‡”Q|46,47
evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—i m~‡h©i AwZ‡e¸wb iwk¥ †_‡K c„w_ex‡K i¶v K‡i| GB iwk¥ c„w_exi cÖvYxKzj I
Dw™¢‡`i Rb¨ AZ¨š— ¶wZKi| GB iwk¥i cÖfv‡e Z¡K K¨vÝvi I †Pv‡L bvbv cÖKvi †ivM m„wó nq| AwZ
†e¸wb iwk¥ gvbyl I cÖvYxKz‡ji †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZvI Kwg‡q †`q| Dw™¢‡`i †Kvl weK…wZ mn MvQcvjv,
jZvcvZv I ¸j¥ aŸsm K‡i| I‡Rvb ¯—‡ii ¶q (Ozone Hole) †hfv‡e evo‡Q Zv‡Z weÁvbxiv AvksKv
Ki‡Qb †h, AvMvgx 2030 mvj bvMv` c„w_ex‡Z Z¡K K¨vÝvi, †Pv‡Li Qvwb mn wewfbœ †ivM gnvgvix
AvKv‡i Qwo‡q co‡e| gvby‡li ˆZwi ivmvqwbK †hŠM wm Gd wm †_‡K m„ó †K¬vwib I †eªvwgb I‡Rvb ¯—i
¶‡qi cÖavb KviY| MÖxb nvDR cÖwµqvq GwU c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„wׇZI h‡_ó Ae`vb ivL‡Q| ZvcgvÎv
e„w× I I‡Rvb ¯—i ¶‡qi d‡j eZ©gv‡b c„w_ex‡Z †`Lv w`‡q‡Q cwi‡ekMZ mgm¨v I cÖvK…wZK
fvimvg¨nxbZv hv Avgv‡`i mvgvwRK, A_©‰bwZK I ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡bi Dci ¶wZKi cÖfve we¯—vi
Ki‡Q Ges cwi‡e‡k weiƒc cÖwZwµqv m„wói d‡j c„w_exi me©Î †`Lv w`‡q‡Q Liv, eb¨v, AwZe„wó,
Abve„wó, †ivM-e¨vwa, Zzlvi So I GwmW e„wó| cwi‡ek `~lY I wech©‡qi d‡j eZ©gv‡b Dw™¢` I
cÖvwYKz‡ji eû cÖRvwZ wejyß n‡q ˆRe ˆewPΨ webó n‡Z P‡j‡Q| gvbyl Avµvš— n‡”Q eû RwUj †ivMe¨vwa‡Z, Avš—R©vwZK kvwš— I Lv`¨ wbivcËv wewNœZ n‡”Q Ges c„w_ex‡Z †`Lv w`‡q‡Q A_©‰bwZK
wech©q|31,32
1992 mv‡j eªvwR‡ji wiI wW †Rwb‡iv‡Z AbywôZ nq awiÎx kxl© m‡¤§jb| GB m‡¤§j‡b fwel¨r
eskai‡`i i¶vi Rb¨ wbivc` wek¦ Movi AwfcÖv‡q 178wU †`‡ki ivóªcwZ, cÖavbgš¿x I gš¿x ch©v‡qi
cÖwZwbwaMY 27wU Kg©m~Px mgwš^Z wiI †NvlYv MÖnY K‡ib| GB m‡¤§j‡b ¯’vqx I †UKmB Dbœqb, `vwi`ª¨
38

we‡gvPb I cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ i¶vi gva¨‡g f~-gÛj msi¶‡Yi A½xKvi e¨³ Kiv nq| 1997 mv‡j
RvwZmsN m`i `߇i AbywôZ nq wØZxq awiÎx m‡¤§jb| 70 wU †`‡ki ivóª cÖavb GB m‡¤§j‡b †hvM`vb
K‡ib| 2002 mv‡j `w¶Y Avwd«Kvi †Rvnv‡bm&ev‡M© AbywôZ nq Z…Zxq awiÎx m‡¤§jb| we‡k¦i 70 wU
‡`‡ki ivóª cÖavb mn 191wU †`‡ki †gvU 65 nvRvi cÖwZwbwa GB m‡¤§j‡b AskMÖnY K‡ib| 2010
mv‡j †Wbgv‡K©i ‡Kv‡cb‡n‡M‡b AbywôZ nq me©‡kl awiÎx m‡¤§jb| G mKj m‡¤§j‡bi j¶¨ I
D‡Ïk¨ wQj wek¦e¨vcx `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvPb Ges wek¦ cwi‡ek msi¶‡Y †UKmB Dbœqb I †KŠkj wba©viY|
RvwZms‡Ni D‡`¨v‡M AbywôZ GB m‡¤§jb ¸‡jv‡Z c„w_exi cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi Rb¨ DbœZ wek¦‡K
we‡klfv‡e `vqx Kiv nq Ges cwi‡ek i¶vi AwaKvsk e¨qfvi en‡bi Rb¨ Zv‡`i‡K Avnevb Rvbv‡bv
nq|31,32
wiI m‡¤§j‡b ejv nq †h, 1989 mv‡j we‡k¦i RbmsL¨vi 20% `wi`ª gvbyl †gvU wek¦ m¤ú‡`i 1.4%
†fvM K‡i| Aciw`‡K GKB msL¨K DbœZ we‡k¦i gvbyl †gvU wek¦ m¤ú‡`i 82.7% †fvM K‡i| eZ©gv‡b
wk‡ívbœZ †`k mg~‡ni 20% gvbyl c„w_exi 80% cwi‡ek `~lY K‡i _v‡K| GRb¨ DbœZ I abx †`k
¸‡jvi †fvMwejvm I Av‡qmx Rxeb e¨e¯’vB g~jZt `vqx| wk‡ívbœZ †`k mg~‡n KjKviLvbv, †gwkbvwiR
I hvbevnb †_‡K AwZwi³ eR¨© I Kve©b WvB A·vBW wbtmiY nq| †K¬v‡iv‡d¬v‡iv Kve©b ev wm Gd wm
†dvg, Gqvi KwÛkbvi I †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii †k‡j e¨eüZ nq| Dbœqbkxj I `wi`ª we‡k¦ wejvmx mvgMÖxi
e¨envi Kg| ZvB eûj cwigv‡Y Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wmGdwm I Ab¨vb¨ welv³ M¨vm Drcv`‡bi Rb¨
DbœZ wek¦ `vqx|33,34 weMZ kZvãx‡Z G mKj M¨v‡mi Rb¨ ZvcgvÎv e„w×i cwigvY wQj 0.5-1.0 wWwMÖ
†mjwmqvm| AvMvgx 80 eQ‡i GB ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q 5 wWwMÖ †mjwmqv‡m DbœxZ n‡e | eZ©gv‡b
evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—i ¶q I c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv †h nv‡i e„w× cv‡”Q Zv‡Z ˆRe ˆewPΨ, cwi‡ek I gvbe
mf¨Zvi Aw¯—Z¡B wecbœ n‡q c‡o‡Q| cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z n‡q‡Q - †Kqvg‡Zi c~‡e© gvby‡li cv‡ci
fv‡i RR©wiZ c„w_ex welv³ M¨vm wbtmiY Ki‡e hv gvbeRvwZ I cÖvYxKz‡ji Aw¯—Z¡ wecbœ K‡i Zzj‡e|
cweÎ KziAv‡b GB M¨vm‡K ejv n‡q‡Q Ô†`vLvbÕ- welv³ †auvqv hv mgMÖ c„w_ex‡Z Qwo‡q co‡e|35
eZ©gv‡b gnvKvk M‡elYv I G m¤úwK©Z cÖhyw³i e¨vcK Dbœq‡bi d‡j G welqwU GLb ¯úó n‡q c‡o‡Q
†h, gnvKv‡ki ‡R¨vwZ®‹gÛjxB cÖK…Z c‡¶ cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z ¯^M© I biK| gnvKvk weÁvbx‡`i
GB Avwe®‹vi wbtm‡›`‡n c„w_exi gvbyl‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi A¯^vfvweK
I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ Ki‡e Ges ¯^vfvweK I myk„sLj Rxeb hvcb K‡i ¯^‡M© †h‡Z m‡Pó Ki‡e| GB
Avwe®‹vi ZvB †fvM wejv‡m gË Ges Av‡qmx Rxeb hvc‡b Af¨¯— abx I DbœZ we‡k¦i 20% gvbyl‡KI
bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Rb¨ ¯^vfvweK I fvimvg¨ c~Y©
Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Z m‡Pó Ki‡e (†h‡nZz abx Mixe mK‡jB ‡e‡nk‡Z †h‡Z Pvq)| d‡j abx I `wi`ª
39

we‡k¦i g‡a¨ †h A¯^vfvweK A_©‰bwZK ˆelg¨ m„wó n‡q‡Q †mwU wejyß n‡q wek¦ `vwi`ª¨ k~‡b¨i †KvVvq P‡j
Avm‡e, hv‡K Avgiv `vwi`ª¨‡K hv`yN‡i cvVv‡bvi e¨e¯’v e‡jI AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi| GB e¨e¯’v Kvh©Ki
n‡j Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wm Gd wm I Ab¨vb¨ welv³ M¨v‡mi wbtmiY n«vm ‡c‡q MÖxb nvDm cÖwZwµqv I
cwi‡ekMZ mgm¨v mg~n `~i n‡e Ges cÖK…wZi ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡q c„w_ex gvbeRvwZi Rb¨
kvwš—‡Z I wbivc‡` ev‡mi Dc‡hvMx GKwU my›`i MÖ‡n cwiYZ n‡e|

RvwZmsN I wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi j¶¨ ev¯—evq‡b
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

gymwjg ‡`k mg~‡n hyM hyM a‡i wewfbœ †ivM-e¨vwai wPwKrmvq ÔZvweRÕ Gi cÖPjb i‡q‡Q| hveZxq
ˆ`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwai wPwKrmvq gmwR‡`i BgvgMY †jvnv ev Zvgvi gv`yjx‡Z Aviex‡Z
†jLv GKwU KvMR †ivMxi Mjvq ev nv‡Z †eu‡a †`b| GB wPwKrmv e¨e¯’vi †Kv‡bv ˆeÁvwbK wfwË †bB|
Z‡e gv`yjxi †fZi †h KvMR, Zv‡Z GKwU Message Av‡Q hv‡K bK&‡m ‡mvjvqgvbxI ejv n‡q
_v‡K|14 GB bKmv gnvwe‡k¦i GKwU gvbwPÎ I g‡Wj hv‡Z gnvKv‡ki wewfbœ †R¨vwZ®‹ gÊjx Ges ¯^M©
I bi‡Ki Ae¯’vb AswKZ i‡q‡Q| gnvwe‡k¦i GB g‡Wj cweÎ †KviAvb I nvw`‡mi fv‡l¨i Dci wfwË
K‡i AswKZ n‡q‡Q|
GB bK&mv I g‡Wj ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j cÖZxqgvb nq †h, c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki wekvj we¯—„Z
GjvKvq bi‡Ki Ae¯’vb| bi‡Ki AwMœKzÊ mg~n cvi n‡q †h wekvj gnvwek¦ †mLv‡b ¯^‡M©i Ae¯’vb|
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv weÁvbxiv c„w_exi Pvicv‡k gnvKv‡ki wekvj we¯—„Z GjvKvq bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ
mg~‡ni Aw¯—Z¡ D`NvUb K‡i bK&‡m ‡mvjvqgvbx ev Zvwe‡Ri Message-wU mwVK I mZ¨ e‡j cÖgvY
K‡i‡Qb| Zvgv ev †jvnvi ˆZwi gv`yjx †Kvb †ivM mviv‡Z cv‡i bv, Z‡e GB gv`yjx‡Z †h Message
Av‡Q GwU hveZxq ˆ`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwai g~j KviY Supernatural Virus cÖwZ‡iva I
wbg©~‡ji GKwU g‡nŠla, hv‡K Avgiv BwZg‡a¨ gnvfviZ , ivgvqY I cyiv‡Y ewY©Z Ag„Z e‡j cÖgvY
K‡iwQ |
‡h K‡qKRb gnvb kvmK mgMÖ c„w_ex kvmb K‡i‡Qb e‡j BwZnv‡m D‡j-L Av‡Q Zvu‡`i g‡a¨ nhiZ
†mvjvqgvb (Avt) GKRb| wZwb Avj-vni bex I b¨vqcivqY kvmK wQ‡jb| cweÎ KziAv‡b ewY©Z n‡q‡Q
- GKw`b nhiZ †mvjvqgvb (Avt) Rvb‡Z cv‡ib ‡h, Bqv‡g‡bi mvev ivR¨ ivYx wejwKm kvmb K‡ib|
wZwb AviI Rvb‡Z cv‡ib †h, ivYx wejwKm Avj-vni cwie‡Z© cÖK…wZi Dcvmbv K‡ib| ZLb nhiZ
†mvjvqgvb (Avt) Zvui Kv‡Q GKwU Message †cÖiY K‡ib| GB Message MÖnY K‡i ivYx wejwKm
nhiZ †mvjvqgvb (Avt) Gi Kv‡Q AvZ¥mgc©Y K‡ib|36 ag© I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi Zzjbvg~jK M‡elYvi
d‡j eZ©gv‡b bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx GgbB GKwU kw³kvjx Message iƒ‡c Avwef~©Z n‡q‡Q, hv me©‡iv‡Mi
40

cÖwZ‡laK Ag„Z iƒ‡c wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi j¶¨ mg~nB ïay ev¯—evqb Ki‡Z m¶g bq, GwU RvwZms‡Ni
m`m¨ ivóª mg~‡ni ivóª cÖavbMY‡KI ivYx wejwK‡mi g‡Zv Avj-vn&i AbyMZ I b¨vqcivqY kvm‡K
cwiYZ K‡i mgMÖ c„w_ex‡K GKwU DbœZ wek¦ivóª I ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ Ki‡Z m¶g|

evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq mgm¨vejx mgvav‡b
KmwgK †_ivwci Kvh©KvwiZv

1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`k c„w_exi gvbwP‡Î GKwU ¯^vaxb I mv©e‡fŠg ivóª iƒ‡c AvZ¥cÖKvk K‡i| ¯^vaxbZvi
¯’cwZ e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb evsjv‡`k‡K myBRvij¨v‡Ûi gZ GKwU AvaywbK I DbœZ ivóª iƒ‡c
M‡o †Zvjvi msKí †NvlYv K‡ib| Zvui GB †NvlYv AvRI ¯^cœ i‡q †M‡Q|37 weMZ 39 eQ‡i
ivR‰bwZK we‡iva I ¶gZvi cwieZ©b evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœqb‡K Pig ¶wZMª¯— K‡i|
eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`k c„w_ex‡Z GKwU `wi`ª I `ybx©wZ MÖ¯— †`k iƒ‡c cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i‡Q| m¤cÖwZ cÖavb
ivR‰bwZK `j I †RvU¸‡jvi we‡iva, wnsmv I nvbvnvwb Pig ch©v‡q †cŠu‡Q Ges †`‡k Ri“ix Ae¯’v
Rvix Kiv nq| evsjv‡`‡ki GB RwUj ivR‰bwZK cwiw¯’wZ ‡gvKvwejvq Ges Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b
bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx ev Ag„Z ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i| AwZ cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K bex, im~j I
AeZviMY ¯^‡M©i mymsev` I bi‡Ki AwMœi fq cÖ`k©b K‡ib| AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k †mB ¯^M©
I biK Avwe®K…Z n‡q‡Q| ZvB G welqwU GLb ¯úó n‡q c‡o‡Q †h, weÁvbx‡`i GB we¯§qKi
Avwe®‹vi evsjv‡`‡ki wee`gvb cÖavb ivR‰bwZK `j I †RvU¸‡jvi we‡iva wb®úwË K‡i Zv‡`i‡K
wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© hvIqvi Rb¨ GKwU gvÎ wek¦v‡mi wfwˇZ HK¨e× Ki‡e, d‡j mKj `j I †RvU GK‡Î
GKwU gnv‡Rv‡U cwiYZ n‡e| G‡`‡ki RbMYI †`vh‡Li AwMœKzÛ †_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi
A¯^vfvweK I Ab¨vq KvR †_‡K weiZ n‡e Ges my›`i I myk„sLj Rxeb hvcb K‡i ¯^‡M© †h‡Z m‡Pó
n‡e| d‡j hveZxq mš¿vm, `ybx©wZ, wnsmv I nvbvnvwb wbg~©j n‡e Ges evsjv‡`k GKwU kw³kvjx †bZ…Z¡
Øviv cwiPvwjZ n‡q myBRvij¨v‡Ûi gZ GKwU AvaywbK I DbœZ ivóª Z_v ¯^M©iv‡R¨ cwiYZ n‡e|
eZ©gvb miKvi GKwU ÁvbwfwËK wWwRUvj mgvR cÖwZôv K‡i †`‡k mykvmb cÖwZôvi `„p A½xKvi e¨³
K‡i‡Qb| cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ m~Î g‡Z evsjv‡`‡k Ri“ix Ae¯’v Rvwi nIqvi ci `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgk‡b
cÖvq 70 nvRvi Awf‡hvM Rgv c‡o‡Q| weMZ miKvi ¸‡jvi `ye©jZvi my‡hv‡M ¶wZMÖ¯— I wbhv©wZZ
gvbyl G mKj Awf‡hvM wb‡q `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgk‡bi kiYvcbœ n‡q‡Qb| wKš‘ evsjv‡`‡k mš¿vmx I
cÖZviKPµ GZB mwµq †h, GKgvÎ m‡PZb I mvnmx bvMwiKMYB miKv‡ii Kv‡Q GZ¸‡jv Awf‡hvM
wb‡q nvwRi n‡Z ‡c‡i‡Qb| GB 70 nvRvi Awf‡hvM cvwb‡Z fvmgvb ei‡di Dc‡ii AskUzKz
(Iceberg Phenomenon) e‡jB g‡b n‡”Q| AviI wecyj msL¨K wbhv©wZZ I gRjyg bvMwiK wbðq

Av‡Qb hviv `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgk‡b Awf‡hvM Kivi mvnm ch©š— nvwi‡q †d‡j‡Qb| myôz Z`š— K‡i GZ
41

Awf‡hvM wb®úwË Kiv `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb I eZ©gvb miKv‡ii c‡¶ wbtm‡›`‡n GKwU `yiƒn KvR|
KmwgK †gwW‡Ukb cÖwµqvq †`k ‡_‡K `vwi`ª¨, mš¿vm I `ybx©wZ wbg~©j K‡i GB mgm¨vi mgvavb m¤¢e|
eZ©gv‡b `ªe¨g~‡j¨i DaŸ©MwZ, †fRvj I welv³ Lv`¨ mvgMÖx evsjv‡`‡ki RbM‡Yi Rxebgvb, ¯^v¯’¨ I
A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v `ywe©ln K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| mv¤cÖwZK wi‡cv©‡U †`Lv hvq, weMZ `k eQ‡i †fRvj I welv³
Lv`¨ mvgMÖx MÖnY K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki Aš—Zt `yB †KvwU gvbyl wKWwb ‡iv‡M Avµvš— n‡q‡Q Ges j¶ j¶
gvby‡li wKWwb weKj n‡q ‡M‡Q| GB RwUj e¨vwai wPwKrmv e¨q wbtm‡›`‡n †`‡ki A_©bxwZi Dci
weiƒc cÖwZwµqv m„wó K‡i‡Q| KmwgK †_ivwc G mKj mgm¨vi GKwU MÖnY‡hvM¨ e¯‘wbó mgvavb w`‡Z
cv‡i e‡j Avgiv g‡b Kwi|
fviZ evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZ‡ekx ivóª| 1971 mv‡j ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× fvi‡Zi Amvgvb¨ Ae`vb evsjv‡`‡ki
RbMY AZ¨š— kª×vi m‡½ ¯§iY K‡i| evsjv‡`‡k cÖevwnZ 57wU b`xi g‡a¨ 54 wU b`xB fviZ I
evsjv‡`‡ki ga¨ w`‡q cÖevwnZ n‡”Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ 24wU b`x fviZ †_‡K evsjv‡`‡k cÖevwnZ †gvU cvwb
cÖev‡ni kZKiv 94 fvM enb K‡i _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU AvqZ‡bi cÖvq 37 kZvsk M½v
AeevwnKvq Aew¯’Z| GB we¯—xY© A‡ji K…wl, Pvlvev`, hvZvqvZ I cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ M½vi cvwbi
Dci wbf©ikxj| 1975 mv‡j fviZ M½v b`x‡Z dviv°v euva Pvjy K‡i| d‡j evsjv‡`‡ki DËiv‡j
cwi‡e‡ki Dci weiƒc cÖwZwµqv m„wó nq| cvwbi Afv‡e GB AÂj gi“f~wg n‡Z P‡j‡Q| M½vi cÖevn
n«vm cvIqvq b`xi Zj‡`k fivU n‡q hv‡”Q| e‡½vcmvMi n‡Z jeYv³ cvwb cÖ‡ek K‡i gvwUi
jeYv³Zv evwo‡q w`‡”Q| ewa©Z jeYv³Zv K…wl Dbœqb, ebvqb, wkívqb I Rb¯^v¯’¨ msi¶‡Y gvivZ¥K
cÖfve †d‡j‡Q| me‡P‡q †ewk wech©‡q c‡o‡Q my›`ieb| jeYv³Zvi Kvi‡Y GB eb GLb aŸs‡mi
c‡_| fviZ Awfbœ b`xc‡_ evua I †Mªv‡qb wbgv©Y QvovI ms‡hvM Lvj Lbb K‡i evsjv‡`‡k cvwb
cÖev‡ni ¯^vfvweK MwZ ‡iva K‡i w`‡q‡Q| d‡j G‡`‡ki 14 †KvwU gvbyl Liv, eb¨v I cwi‡ek wech©‡qi
Kvi‡Y Pig Av_©-mvgvwRK msK‡U c‡o‡Q|38
Ag„Z GB msK‡Ui GKwU kvwš—c~Y© mgvavb w`‡Z cv‡i| c„w_exi cÖwZwU a‡g© ¯^M© I bi‡Ki D‡j-L Av‡Q|
AvaywbK M‡elYv Øviv gnvKv‡k †mB ¯^M© I biK Avwe®K…Z n‡q‡Q| A¯^vfvweK AvPiY K‡i †Kvb RvwZ
¯^‡M© †h‡Z cv‡i bv| Kv‡RB fviZ Aš—Z c‡¶ bi‡Ki AwMœ †_‡K cwiÎvY jvf K‡i wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M©
hvIqvi Rb¨ evsjv‡`k‡K gi“KiY I cwi‡ek wech©q n‡Z i¶v K‡í Awfbœ b`x mg~‡ni cvwb cÖevn
¯^vfvweK ivL‡Z m‡Pó n‡e| d‡j evsjv‡`k cÖK…Z A‡_©B GKwU †mvbvi evsjvq cwiYZ n‡e|

42

KmwgK †_ivwci A_©‰bwZK ¸i“Z¡
mKj cÖKvi ˆ`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa cÖwZ‡iva I wbivgq Ges GBW‡mi RxevYy wbg~©‡ji j‡¶¨
c„w_exi wewfbœ †`k cÖwZ eQi ‡KvwU †KvwU Wjvi I i“wci ev‡RU cÖYqb K‡i Avm‡Q| evsjv‡`k
miKviI cÖwZ eQi ¯^v¯’¨ Lv‡Z †KvwU †KvwU UvKvi ev‡RU MÖnY Ki‡Q Ges `vwi`ª¨, mš¿vm I `ybx©wZ
wbg©~‡ji j‡¶¨ eû ms¯’v I cÖwZôvb M‡o Zz‡j‡Q| eZ©gv‡b ag© I gnvKvk weÁv‡bi AwfbœZv cÖgvwYZ
nIqvi d‡j D™¢yZ Ag„Z GKwU cÖwZ‡ivag~jK e¨e¯’v - Preventive Measure, hv me©‡ivM I mKj
we‡iv‡ai g~j KviY Supernatural Virus-‡K gvbe‡`‡n I mgv‡Ri me©Î AKvh©Ki K‡i evsjv‡`kmn
c„w_exi mKj †`k, RvwZmsN I wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi j¶¨ mg~n AwZ`ª“Z ev¯—evqb Ki‡Z m¶g| GB
e¨e¯’v cÖK…Zc‡¶ GKwU Message, hvi cÖ‡qvM I wecYb LiP AwZ bMY¨| c„w_exi me©Î Ag„Z cÖ‡qvM
Ki‡j me©‡ivM gy³ n‡q I mKj we‡iv‡ai Aemvb N‡U gvby‡li †h mZZv, ˆbwZKZv, Kg© DÏxcbv I
`¶Zv e„w× cv‡e, ivR‰bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡q †h A_©‰bwZK
mg„w× NU‡e, ¯^v¯’¨ I mvgvwRK k„•Ljv Lv‡Z †h A‡_©i mvkªq n‡e, Zv w`‡q ïaygvÎ evsjv‡`k‡K GKwU
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m¤¢e| GB Awfbe ZË¡ I weKí e¨e¯’v‡K Avgiv ZvB ÔAvjvw`‡bi †PivMÕ e‡jI AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi|
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Avjvw`‡bi †Piv‡Mi b¨vq Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i |
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I gvbe mf¨Zvi Aw¯—Z¡ wecbœ n‡q c‡o‡Q| weMZ kZvãx‡Z eûj cwigv‡Y Kve©b WvB A·vBW,

43

wmGdwm I Ab¨vb¨ welv³ M¨vm Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ ZvcgvÎv e„w×i cwigvY wQj 0.5-1.0 wWwMÖ
†mjwmqvm| AvMvgx 80 eQ‡i GB ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q 5 wWwMÖ †mjwmqv‡m DbœxZ n‡e| ZvcgvÎv e„w× I
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d‡j c„w_exi me©Î †`Lv w`‡q‡Q Liv, eb¨v, AwZe„wó, Abve„wó, †ivM-e¨vwa, Zzlvi So I GwmW e„wó|14
Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wmGdwm I Ab¨vb¨ welv³ M¨v‡mi Drcv`b n&ªvm K‡i c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„w× I
I‡Rvb ¯—‡ii ¶q cÖwZ‡iv‡ai j‡¶¨ RvwZms‡Ni ZË¡veav‡b 1987 I 1997 Bs m‡b h_vµ‡g M„nxZ
n‡q‡Q Montreal Protocol I Kyoto Protocol. GB `ywU c&ª‡UvKj ev¯—evq‡bi Rb¨ †KvwU †KvwU
Wjv‡ii ev‡RU c&ªYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| Kyoto Protocol Gi Kvh©KvwiZv AvMvgx 2012 mv‡j †kl nIqvi
K_v| AvMvgx 2050 mv‡ji g‡a¨ evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—‡ii ¶q Recovery Kivi Rb¨ Montreal
Protocol-Gi m¤¢ve¨ †h Costs and Benefits aiv n‡q‡Q Zv wbgœi~c: -

39

Reduced fisheries damage

: US$238 billion

Reduced agricultural damage

: US$191 billion

Reduced damage to materials

: US$30 billion

Costs

: US$235 billion

Net Benefits

: US$224 billion

* All values are reported in US$ at 1997 levels.
Montreal Protocol ev¯—evwqZ n‡j AvMvgx 2060 mv‡ji g‡a¨ 235 wewjqb gvwK©b Wjvi e¨q K‡i

mvk&ªq n‡e 224 wewjqb Wjvi| Ag„Z gvby‡li Rxeb AvPiY I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZôv
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m¶g| Avi GB c×wZ cÖ‡qv‡M †h A_© LiP n‡e Zv AwZ bMY¨| GKwU Astronomical Message
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Protocol-Gi Zzjbvq ‡h A‡_©i mvkªq n‡e Zv 458 wewjqb gvwK©b Wjv‡ii †P‡qI †ewk| Z‡e Ag„Z

gvby‡li Rxeb AvPiY I cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ cÖwZôv K‡i evqygÛ‡ji I‡Rvb ¯—‡ii ¶q I
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44

KmwgK mvRv©wi
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- gvbe‡`n bv †K‡U I †Kv‡bv iƒc †mjvB cÖ`vb bv K‡i i³cvZnxb †h mvRv©wi †mwU ‡jRvi mvRv©wi|
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ejv nq †Uwj mvRv©wi| †Uwj mvRv©wi cÖwµqvq †ive‡Ui mn‡hvwMZv MÖnY Kiv n‡j Zv‡K ejv nq
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AvnZ I Amy¯’ ‡ivMx‡`i‡K †Uwj mvRv©wi c×wZ‡Z Acv‡ikb K‡i my¯’ K‡i †Zvjv m¤¢e|42
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45

KvR Ki‡Z bv cv‡i| KmwgK mvRv©wi †ivM nIqvi c~‡e©B †iv‡Mi KviY mg~n cÖwZ‡iva I wbg~©j Ki‡Z
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hvq| †hLv‡b ¯^qs Avj-vn gnvKvk †_‡K GKRb †d‡ikZv †cÖiY K‡i gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt)
Gi ü`&h‡š¿ Acv‡ikb K‡i Zvu‡K my¯’, m¶g I cweÎ K‡i †Zv‡jb| GB Acv‡ikb bex Kixg (mvt)
Gi †`‡n Aš—Z Pvi evi m¤úv`b Kiv n‡q‡Q|43 Acv‡ik‡bi GB cÖwµqv‡K †iv‡evwUK mvRv©wi I
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nhiZ byn (Avt) Gi wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v gvÎ Pwj-k e¨w³ MÖnY K‡ib Ges GK weivU mf¨Zv gnvcve‡b Wy‡e
aŸsm n‡q hvq| eZ©gv‡b weÁvbxiv gnvKvk m¤ú‡K© eû Z_¨ D`&NvUb K‡i‡Qb hv AZxZKv‡j gvby‡li
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nIqvi Dcµg n‡q‡Q| gvbeRvwZi BwZnv‡m GZ eo wec` I wech©q Avi KLbI c„w_ex‡Z †`Lv
46

hvqwb| GB gnvmgm¨v mgvav‡bi GKwU kvwš—c~Y© ‰eÁvwbK cÖwµqv Avgiv gnvbex nhiZ ‡gvnv¤§`
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AcmviY I wbg~©j Ki‡Z cvi‡j mKj cÖKvi ‰`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa wbivgq n‡e, RvZxq I
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Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Qb| GB Avwe®‹vi ¯^vfvweKfv‡e gvbeRvwZ‡K wPi¯’vqx bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K
cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi A¯^vfvweK I cvc KvR †_‡K weiZ Ki‡e Ges my›`i I myk„•Lj Rxeb
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eû iv‡óª wef³ gvbe RvwZ GKwU gvÎ wek¦vm Øviv HK¨e× n‡e Ges mgMÖ c„w_ex GKwU kw³kvjx
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47

m¶g| ZvB Ag„Z‡K Avgiv ürwc‡Ûi Pacemaker e‡j AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi, hv KmwgK mvRv©wii
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gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt) 1400 eQi c~‡e© Avj-vni me©‡kl ivmyj iƒ‡c c„w_ex‡Z AvMgb K‡ib|
Zvui AvMg‡bi ‡mB hyM‡K ejv nq AvBq¨v‡g Rv‡nwjqvZ ev AÜKvi hyM| †m hy‡M gvbyl A‡bK åvš—
wek¦vm, Kzms¯‹vi I Evil spirit Øviv Avµvš— n‡q wewfbœ mvgvwRK Aciva I eû Ab¨vq Kv‡R wjß wQj|
d‡j mgv‡Ri me©Î A¯^vfvweK I Aw¯’wZkxj Ae¯’vi m„wó nq Ges cwi‡e‡ki ¯^vfvweK fvimvg¨ bó
n‡q wewfbœ †ivM-e¨vwa, †MvÎ Kjn I hy‡×i we¯—vi N‡U| gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt) Avj-vni wbKU
†_‡K cweÎ KziAvb cÖvß nb| cweÎ KyiAvb GKwU Avmgvbx wKZve - gnvKvk †_‡K †cÖwiZ GKwU
Cosmic Ray ev gnvRvMwZK Av‡jv, †h Av‡jv‡Z †m hy‡Mi AÜKvi we`~wiZ n‡q Avie RvwZ GKwU

mf¨ RvwZ‡Z cwiYZ nq Ges mgMÖ c„w_ex‡Z gymwjg mf¨Zvi weKvk N‡U| cweÎ ag©MÖš’ mg~‡n ewY©Z
n‡q‡Q- bex I ivmyjMY Zvu‡`i RvwZi wPwKrmK iƒ‡c ‡cÖwiZ nb| ZvB gnvbex nhiZ †gvnv¤§` (mvt)
wQ‡jb GKRb wPwKrmK - KmwgK mvR©b, whwb GKwU gnvRvMwZK Av‡jvK iwk¥ Øviv Avie RvwZ‡K
Acv‡ikb K‡i GKwU mf¨ RvwZ‡Z cwiYZ K‡ib| gnvbexi GB KmwgK mvRv©wi ev †cm‡gKvi
cÖwZ¯’vc‡bi d‡j †m hy‡M nhiZ Igi (ivt) Gi g‡Zv gnvb kvm‡Ki Avwef©ve N‡U, whwb ej‡Zb †dviv‡Zi Zx‡i GKwU KzKziI hw` wccvmvq Kó cvq †mRb¨ Igi `vqx| Kv‡RB KmwgK mvRv©wi gvbe
Rxe‡bi me©‡¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ †jRvi mvRv©wi, †iwWI mvRv©wi, †Uwj mvRv©wi I †iv‡evwUK mvRv©wii Abyiƒc
GKwU mvwR©‡Kj c×wZ hv cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡K c„w_ex‡Z cÖPwjZ Av‡Q|
kj¨we`¨vi BwZnv‡m A‡¯¿vcPvi ïi“ n‡q‡Q bvwc‡Zi ¶yi‡K mvR©‡bi A¯¿ iƒ‡c e¨envi K‡i| AvaywbK
mvR©‡bi nv‡Z GB A¯¿ evW©-cvK©vi Knife| evW©-cvK©vi Knife †_‡K DËiY N‡U GwU GLb B‡jK&wUªK ev
B‡jK&UªwbK †jRvi I Mvgv Knife|41 eZ©gv‡b mvRv©wi‡Z ag© I gnvKvk cÖhyw³ ms‡hvwRZ n‡q mvR©‡bi
A¯¿ n‡q ‡M‡Q gnvRvMwZK - Cosmic Knife, hv gvbeRvwZi wmbvPvK K‡i mycvib¨vPvivj fvBivm‡K
gvby‡li ü`&wcÛ n‡Z AcmviY K‡i hveZxq ˆ`wnK, gvbwmK I mvgvwRK e¨vwa cÖwZ‡iva I wbivgq K‡i
c„w_ex‡K GKwU ¯^M©ivR¨ I ¯^v¯’¨Ki Avev‡m cwiYZ K‡i gvbeRvwZ‡K bi‡Ki AwMœKzÛ †_‡K gy³ K‡i
gnvKv‡ki wPi¯’vqx ¯^‡M© wb‡q †h‡Z m¶g| ZvB Avgiv wbtm‡›`‡n ej‡Z cvwi - KmwgK mvRv©wi
AvaywbK kj¨we`¨vi m‡ev©”P I me©‡kªô c×wZ (Procedure), †hwU gvbe Rxe‡bi me©‡¶‡Î cÖ‡qvM Kiv
†h‡Z cv‡i|

48

Z_¨m~Î

1. Wt Avwgbyj Bmjvg, RMr Rxeb `k©b, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv, 1992 Bs|
2. cÖ‡gv`eÜz †mb¸ß, ag© `k©b, e¨vbvwR© cvewjkvm©, KwjKvZv, 1989 Bs|
3. wcÖwÝcvj Aveyj Kv‡mg, weÁvb mgvR ag©, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv 1987 Bs|
4. Zdmx‡i gvqv‡idzj KziAvb, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv, 1993 Bs, AvqvZzj Kzimx,
myiv evKviv, AvqvZ bs 255|
5. cÖv¸³, myiv Avbqvg, AvqvZ bs 59|
6. gwim eyKvBwj, gvby‡li Avw` Drm, iƒcvš—i - AvLZvi Dj Avjg, 1g ms¯‹iY, 1995 Bs, Ávb
†Kvl cÖKvkbx, evsjvevRvi, XvKv-1100|
7. Scientific Indications in the Holy Quran, Board of Researchers, Islamic
Foundation Bangladesh, Dhaka, 1995.
8. M. Akbar Ali, Aspect of Science in Religions – A comparative study, Malik library,
Bangla Bazar, Dhaka, 1987.

9. State of the dead, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Edited by James
Hastings, Marrison and Gib ltd., Edinburgh, Vol-XI, P.P. – 817- 854.

10. Wt Avhnvi DwÏb wmwÏKx, Bmjvg Ges Ab¨vb¨ ag©, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv,
1990 Bs|
11. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, The Quran and Science, American Trust
Publications, Indianapolis, USA, 1979.

12. ‡gkKvZ kixd, Gg`vw`qv jvB‡eªix, PKevRvi, XvKv, 1405 wnRix|
13. ki‡n AvK¡v‡q‡` bmdx, KzZzeLvbv Gg`vw`qv †`Ie›`, BD wc, fviZ|
14. Avkivd Avjx jLbex, bK&‡m †mvjvqgvbx, dwi` G›UvicÖvBR, w`j-x, fviZ|
15. Wt igRvb Avjx mi`vi, †R¨vwZ®‹ weÁvb, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv, 1977 Bs|
16. ‡gvnv¤§` Ave`yj ReŸvi, wek¦ I †mŠi RMr, evsjv‡`k cÖ‡KŠkj wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv, 1986 Bs|
17. myeªZ eo–qv , †mŠiRMr , evsjv GKv‡Wgx , XvKv , 1988 Bs|
18. Zdmx‡i gvqv‡idzj KziAvb, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv, 1993 Bs, myiv AvjBgivb, AvqvZ bs 190-193|
19. c„w_exi MwZ, mvgvwRK weÁvb, RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©, XvKv, 2008Bs, c„ 102105|
20. Zdmx‡i gvqv‡idzj KziAvb, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv, 1993 Bs, myiv
gyZvd&wddxb|
49

21. Neil F. Comins, Discovering the Universe, 5th edition, W.H. Freeman and
Company, New York, 2000.
22. Park’s Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine, 19th edition, 2007, Jabalpur,
India.

23. Zdmx‡i Be‡b Rvixi Zvevix, `v‡i GnBqv, ˆei“Z, †jevbb, 2001Bs, myiv evK¡viv, AvqvZ
35-36, c„t 262-278|
24. Shaikh Sharafuddin, The notion of evolution through the ages, Islamic
Foundation Bangladesh, Dhaka, 1981.

25. ‰`wbK RbZv, 04/01/1993 Bs, XvKv|
26. myaxi P›`ª miKvi, †cŠivwYK Awfavb, Gg wm miKvi GÛ mÝ, KwjKvZv, 1396 e½vã|
27. Ahmed Deedat, Al-Quran-The Ultimate Miracle, Durban, South Africa, 1980.
28. Michael H. Hart, The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History,
Golden Books Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2000.
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30.Warren Levinson, Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 9th edition,
Lange Medical Books, New York, USA, 2004.

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XvKv, 2003 Bs|
32. Susan L. Cutter, Environmental Risks and Hazards, Prentice – Hall of India
private Limited, New Delhi, 1999.

33.nx‡i›`ª Kzgvi `vm, gvbe cwi‡ek weÁvb : evqy `~lY, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv, 1991 Bs|
34. ‡U‡imv †nqUvi, wek¦ `vwi`ª¨, MY Dbœqb MÖš’vMvi, XvKv, 1987 Bs|
35.Zdmx‡i gvqv‡idzj KziAvb, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv, 1993 Bs, myiv †`vLvb|
36. Zdmx‡i gvqv‡idzj KziAvb, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k, XvKv, 1993 Bs, myiv bgj|
37.Gg, Avwbmy¾vgvb, ¯^vaxbZvi ¯’cwZ e½eÜz, KvKjx cÖKvkbx, evsjv evRvi, XvKv, 1991 Bs|
38.‡gv¯—dv Kvgvj, evsjv‡`‡ki cvwb m¤ú`-mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv, KvKjx cÖKvkbx, evsjvevRvi, XvKv
, 2000 Bs|
39. Global Benefits and Costs of the Montreal Protocol, Applied Research
Consultants, 1997, Environment Canada.
40. David C. Sabiston: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice, 18th edition,
Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2008.

50


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