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Wasp English Grammar
Md. Sahadat Hossain

Nothing found to be entitled
This book is a collection some grammatical items only… I did not
invent it myself…What I have done is as follows…
a. I went through several grammar books.
b. I noted the topics.
c. I gave these a .doc format.
d. And today (2013.12.17) I have converted it into .pdf
e. Finally, it gets you… I mean, you have got this masterpiece.

To get more….please visit my site….
http://bourneenglish.wordpress.com/
Join my Facebook group
https://www.facebook.com/groups/waspenglish/
Hit Like to this page
https://www.facebook.com/specialenglishcoaching/

The Topics
Grammatical Definition
Parts of speech
Noun
Pronoun
Number
Gender
Verb
Adjective
Adverb
Conjunction
Tense
Right form of verbs
Syntax

This is a game…this never happens to get an end…
The more enemies you kill, the more enemies you
will face…So, it’s your turn… Decide whether to kill
or to retreat… But remember, once you retreat, you
will have to pay it back with your LIFE…
…bournesjd

Grammatical Definition
Sentence- A sentence is a combination of words arranged in such an order that it expresses a
complete sense or meaning
Assertive- An assertive sentence is a sentence which simply asserts something
Affirmative- An affirmative sentence is an assertive sentence which affirms something.
Negative- A negative sentence is assertive sentence that denies something.
Interrogative- An interrogative sentence is a sentence which asks a question.
Imperative- An imperative sentence is a sentence that expresses an order, a request, or an
advice.
Optative- An optative sentence is a sentence which expresses a wish or desire of the mind.
Exclamatory- An exclamatory sentence is a sentence which expresses a sudden emotion or strong
feeling of human mind.
Noun- A noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Pronoun- A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
Adjective- An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
Verb- A verb is a word which states something about a person or a thing.
Adverb- An adverb is a word which states something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or
another adverb.
Preposition- A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a noun equivalent to show its
relation to other word in the sentence.
Conjunction- a conjunction is a word which joins words or clauses.
Interjection- An interjection is a word which expresses sudden feeling or emotion.
Gerund- Gerund is a verbal noun (verb+ing) used as a subject of a verb, object of a verb or object
to a preposition.
Gerund- A gerund is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjective or
an adverb.
Participle- A participle is a verb form that is used as an adjective.
Clause- A clause is a group of words which has a finite verb of its own but which acts as a single
element in or a part of a sentence.
Clause- A clause is a part of a larger sentence having a subject and a verb of its own.
Phrase- A phrase is a group of words which has no subject and finite verb and acts as a small
element of a sentence.
Case- Case is the relation of nouns and pronouns (or noun equivalents) with some other words in
a sentence.
Syntax- Syntax is the arrangement of words in a sentence.
Syntax- The study of rules that govern the ways in which words are combined to form phrases,
clauses and sentences is called syntax.
Syntax- Syntax is concerned primarily with word order in a sentence and with the arrangement of
words when they are used together.
Question tag- A question tag or tag question is a grammatical structure in which a declarative
statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment.
Question tag- A tag question is a constituent that is added after a statement in order to request
confirmation or disconfirmation of the statement from the addressee.
Question tag- A question added to a declarative sentence, usually at the end, to engage the
listener, verify that something has been understood, or confirm that an action has occurred is
known as question tag.

Question tag- A tag question is a short question added to the end of positive or negative
statement.
Subject- Subject is the part of a sentence or clause that commonly indicates what it is about or
who or what performs the action.
Subject- The subject is who or what does the verb.
Subject- the subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing or idea that is doing or being
something.
Predicate- Predicate is the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something
about the subject.
Predicate- Predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence or clause, modifying the subject
and including the verb, object, or phrase governed by the verb.
Predicate- A predicate is the portion of a clause or a sentence excluding the subject that
expresses something about the subject.
Object- an object denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's performance of the
verb.
Object- An object is a word or group of words, functioning as a noun, or a pronoun that is
influenced by a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
Object- An object is a word or phrase in a sentence referring to the person or thing receiving the
action of a transitive verb.
Complement- A complement is constituent of a clause or a sentence such as a noun phrase or
adjective phrase, that is used to predicate a description of the subject or object of the clause or
sentence.
Complement- Complement is a word or word group that completes the predicate in a sentence.
Article- An article is a word that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made
by the noun.
Article- An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or
indefinite reference, and new or given status.
Mood- Mood is the manner in which an action in a sentence is represented.
Tense - Tense is the form in which a verb is used to express when an action is, was or will be
performed.
Voice - Voice is the form of the verb in the sentence that shows whether the subject acts or is
acted upon.
Narration - Narration is assimilating information and retelling it.

SENTENCE
Definition: A sentence is the largest grammatical unit. It is usually consists of a
subject and verb and an object or a complement. Essentially, a sentence consists of a
subject and a verb. A simple sentence is made up of two parts, a subject and a
predicate.
A sentence is a combination of words arranged in such an order that it expresses a
complete sense or meaning.
 Tashnuva is a dangerous girl.
 Tashnuva went to school.

SUBJECT
Definition: The subject of a sentence is a word or a group of words that says who or
what does something. One may loosely characterize the subject as ‘that which is being
discussed’ or the ‘theme’ of the sentence.
The subject may have:
 Headword noun/ noun-equivalent only (without an adjunct)
 Headword + adjunct (modifier like adjective/ determiner)
The structure of such sentence is: subject (without an adjunct) + predicate.
 Horses run.
 Tashnuva laughed.
 What she says is right.
Another structure is: subject (with an adjunct) + predicate.
 A few eggs are rotten.
 The sun rises in the east.
Note: The headword is an essential ingredient but a modifier is just an adjunct. So a
sentence is not possible without a headword (NOUN). We can’t say: A good runs fast.

PREDICATE
Definition: The predicate is that part of the sentence that says something about the
action of the subject.
The predicate may have:
 Headword (finite verb) only.
 Headword + adjunct (complement/object/adverb/prepositions)
The structure such sentence is: subject + predicate (finite verb only, without
adjunct)
 He died.
 Lions roar.
Another structure is: subject + predicate with adjunct.
 He loves her very much.
 Tashnuva plays the violin in the evening.
Note: The headword (finite verb) is an essential ingredient but complement/object etc.
is only an adjunct. It may or may not be present depending on the nature of the verb.

KINDS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES
Sentences are of four kinds:
 Declarative or statement (Assertive)
 Interrogative (Question)
 Imperative (Commands)
 Exclamatory (Exclamations)
Declarative Sentence: A declarative sentence is a sentence which simply asserts
something. Declarative sentences are statements.
The structure of a statement is: Subject+verb+other words.
 Tashnuva plays football.
 They are learning grammar.
There are three kinds of statements.
 Affirmative
 Negative
 Emphatic
Formation of negative and emphatic statements:
 Negative and emphatic statements are formed by placing do (do/does/did)
before the main verb in simple present/simple past tense.
Affirmative
Negative
Emphatic
I play chess.
I do not play chess.
I do play chess.
She likes Pizza.
She does not like Pizza.
She does like Pizza.
They told a lie.
They did not tell a lie.
They did tell a lie.
Tashnuva has a rabbit.
Tashnuva does not have a
Tashnuva does have a
rabbit.
rabbit.
Negative statements with auxiliary verbs are formed by placing not (n’t) after the
auxiliary.
Affirmative
Negative
Tashnuva is singing a song.
Tashnuva is not singing a song.
They were gossiping.
They were not gossiping.
I am reading a novel.
I am not reading a novel.


Interrogative Sentence: An interrogative sentence is a sentence which asks a
question.
Formation of interrogatives:
 A statement with an auxiliary verb is made interrogative by the inversion of the
subject and verb, i.e. by changing the position of the subject and verb.
Statement
Question
He is tall.
Is he tall?
They are teachers.
Are they teachers?
She can do this sum.
Can she do this sum?
Tashnuva will go home
Will Tashnuva go home?
A statement with a main verb in simple present/simple past is made
interrogative by introducing a dummy ‘do’ (do/did/does) and placing it at the
beginning of a question.
Statement
Question
They play chess.
Do they play chess/
Tashnuva helped her.
Did Tashnuva help her?
She lives in Chittagong.
Does she live in Chittagong?
They won the match.
Did they won the match?


Formation of negative interrogative:
 A positive interrogative is made negative interrogative by placing not after the
subject. However, if the contracted form n’t is used, it precedes the subject.
Interrogative
Negative Interrogative
Does she play tennis?
Does she not play tennis?
Doesn’t she play tennis?
Do they go to school?
Do they not go to school?
Don’t they go to school?
Can you lift it?
Can you not lift it?
Can’t you lift it?
Is she beautiful?
Is she not beautiful?
Isn’t she beautiful?

Imperative sentence: An imperative sentence expresses a command, order, request,
advice, suggestion etc.
Note: In an imperative sentence, the subject is invariably the second person pronoun
you, which is generally unexpressed.
 Come in. (You come in)
 Get out. (You get out)
 DO this. (You do this)
Note: Words like please, kindly are to be appended to an imperative indicating
request.
 Please give me a glass of water.
 Open the door, please.
If please is at the end, it has to be separated from the main part of the sentence by a
comma.
There are three kinds of imperative sentences.
 Affirmative
 Negative
 Emphatic
Affirmative
Negative
Come in.
Don’t come in.
Call a taxi.
Don’t call a taxi.
Please switch on the fan.
Please don’t switch on the
fan.

Emphatic
Do come in.
Do call a taxi.
Please do switch on the
fan.

Exclamatory sentence: Exclamatory sentences express a wide variety of emotions
like sudden surprise, delight, pain, anger, disgust etc.
 Hurrah! We have won the match.
 Alas! Tashnuva ahs failed in ten subjects.
Formation of exclamatory sentences:
 What+noun+other words e.g. What a place it is!
 How+adjective/adverb+other words e.g. How tall she is!
 O that+clause e.g. O that I were a bird!
 Alas that+clause e.g Alas, she died so young!
 Would that+clause e.g. Would that I had known her!
 If only+clause e.g. If only I could get a first in English!
 Word+and+word e.g. Tashnuva and a dangerous!
 Short cries/incomplete sentences e.g. Fire! Murder; fantastic!; What an idea!
Note: What takes a noun, not an adjective/adverb.
 What a girl she is!
 What a gift it is!
Note: What can take an adjective only when it modifies a noun.
 What a faithful friend he is!
 What a moving performance!
Note: How takes an adjective/adverb, not a noun.
 How kind he is!
 How fast she runs!

APPENDIX
Besides these all kinds of sentences, there are another kind of sentence named
optative sentence.
Optative Sentence: An optative sentence is a sentence which expresses a wish or
desire of the mind.
 May Allah help you.
 Live long Tashnuva.
 May you prosper in life.

EXERCISE
Identify subject and Predicate
01. Have a happy birthday.
02. The mountains are a popular vacation spot.
03. Tad took his dog to the vet yesterday
04. Holly and Mac cleaned the basement.
05. Do birds sing to warn other birds about their territory?
06. Park your car in the garage when the weather calls for snow.
07. At six o'clock each day, please feed and walk the dog.
08. Salad is a healthy addition to lunch and dinner.
09. Skunks are very accurate when they spray a rival.
10. Justin washed and waxed Dad's car.
11. The garbage truck arrives very early in the morning.
12. Would they prefer chili or sauerkraut with their hotdogs?
13. Sixteen inches of snow fell in the Adirondacks last night.
14. I am afraid of heights.
15. Reading often improves your vocabulary
16. Cell phones are convenient at home or at the office.
17. Grab my hand and hang on tight!
18. The drenching rainfall yesterday flooded many roads.
19. May I borrow your stapler?
20. Place a coaster underneath your glass, please.
Convert the following sentences
01. Anika goes to school. (Neg)
02. Anika is the best girl in the world. (neg)
03. Anika is intelligent. (neg-int)
04. Anika does not play cricket. (aff)
05. Anika sings very well. (excl)
06. How nice the bird is! (assertive)
07. Let Anika drink coffee. (assertive)
08. Let Anika sing a song. (assertive)
09. Is Anika playing games? (neg-int)
10. Anika is drawing a picture. (neg)
11. Shan’t we be playing chess? (affirmative)
12. You should always speak the truth. (imperative)
13. Anika is happy. (neg)
14. Anika was happy. (neg-int)
15. Tashnuva is feeling lonely. (Neg)

You are a King?
Who cares?
Even a God bleeds to death
When a bullet pierces Him…

Parts of Speech
Definition:
 A term in traditional grammar for the eight categories into which words are
classified according to their functions in sentences.
 Every part of a sentence is called parts of speech.
Example:
 Tashnuva is the most dangerous girl in the world.
Here, every word is a particular part of the sentence.
The parts of speech are eight in number. They are as follow…
Noun
Adverb
Pronoun
Preposition
Adjective
Conjunction
Verb
Interjection

NOUN
Definition:
 A noun is a word used for naming some person or thing.
 A noun is a naming word.
 A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Example:
 Tashnuva is talking using Skype.
 Tashnuva was born in Venice.
Nouns are of five kinds.
Proper Noun
Common Noun
Collective Noun
Material Noun
Abstract Noun

PRONOUN
Definition: A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
 She is a good student.
 They love each other.
There are eight kinds of pronouns.
Personal Pronoun
Reflexive and Emphatic Pronoun
Interrogative Pronoun
Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun
Distributive Pronoun
Indefinite Pronoun
Reciprocal Pronoun

ADJECTIVE
Definition: An adjective says something more about a noun. An adjective can take
an adverb of degree like too/very. It has comparative and superlative form as well.
 Tashnuva is a good girl.
 Tashnuva has a pen.
 Tashnuva is taller than Justin.

Adjectives are of five kinds.
Adjective of Quality
Adjective of Quantity
Numeral Adjective
Pronominal Adjective
Proper Adjective

VERB
Definition: Verbs are words that usually express an action.
 Tashnuva plays game.
 Tashnuva went to Sylhet.
Quick Tip 1: If a word can have should in front of it and the phrase sounds complete, the word is
a verb. Examples: should leave, should sail, should discover, should complain. Leave, sail,
discover, and complain are all verbs.
Quick tip 2: If a word can have to in front of it and the phrase sounds complete, it’s a verb.
Examples: to leave, to sail, to discover, to complain. Leave, sail, discover, and complain are all
verbs.
Here are some examples of verbs. You can see that they all meet the test with
should and the test with to.
Go: should go, to go
Tell: should tell, to tell
Disagree: should disagree, to disagree
Spell: should spell, to spell
In contrast, the following words do not pass the should or to test:
Coffee: *should coffee *to coffee
Beautiful: *should beautiful *to beautiful
Hardly: *should hardly *to hardly
Under: *should under *to under
Thus, coffee, beautiful, hardly, and under are not verbs.

ADVERB
Definition: An Adverb adds something more to the meaning of the verb.
 Tashnuva went there yesterday.
 Tashnuva is working slowly.
 Tashnuva is too ill to go to school.
Adverbs are of ten kinds.
Adverb of manner
Adverb of place
Adverb time
Adverb number or frequency
Adverb of degree or quantity

Adverb of cause and effect
Adverb of order
Adverb of assertion and negation
Interrogative Adverb
Relative and conjunctive Adverb

PREPOSITION
Definition: A preposition is a word usually placed before a noun or pronoun to show
place, time, cause, purpose, or means.
 Tashnuva lives in Chittagong.
 I will meet you at 6 p.m.
 Tashnuva is waiting in front of her school.
Prepositions are of six kinds.
Simple Preposition
Double Preposition
Compound Preposition

Phrase Preposition
Participle Preposition
Disguised Preposition

Simple preposition: It consists of only one word, such as to, on, in, up, with etc.
Double Preposition: Two simple preposition make a double preposition together,
such as within, into, onto etc.
Compound Preposition: When a simple preposition gets combined with a noun or
an adjective or an adverb, it becomes compound preposition. Such as, across
(on+cross), about (on+by+out), behind (by+hind), before (by+fore) etc.
Phrase Preposition: A prepositional phrase is a word group that begins with a
preposition. Such as, on account of, by means of, in front of etc.
Participle Preposition: When present participle or past participle acts as a
preposition then it is called participle preposition. Such as, He saw Tashnuva walking
past them.
Disguised Preposition: When a preposition used briefly or invisible or
unmentionably, then it is called disguised preposition. Such as, It is 7
O’clock.(O’=of);He went a hunting. (a=on).

CONJUNCTION
Definition: A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases or clauses.
 Tashnuva and Wasp hate each other.
 The train has arrived but there is no sign of Tashnuva.
Conjunctions are of three kinds.
Co-ordinating Conjunction
Sub-ordinating Conjunction
Correlative Conjunction

INTERJECTION
Definition: Interjections are those words which express sudden feelings of mind.
 Hurrah! We have won the match.
 Alas! The man is no more.
 Fie! Fie! Tashnuva is a cheat.

NOUN
Definition: Noun is a naming word.
 Tashnuva, Wasp, Justin, Dhaka, Chittagong, Honesty, Freedom etc.
Noun and Noun Phrase
A noun is often called a noun phrase. A noun phrase can be a single-word noun:
 Teachers love their pupils. (noun phrase: teachers)
But a noun phrase is usually longer than a single word because it consists of an
adjective or a determiner plus a noun.
 A good teacher loves his pupils. (noun phrase: a good teacher)
Kinds of Nouns
Nouns can be classified into five kinds:
1. Proper nouns
2. Common nouns
3. Collective nouns
4. Material nouns
5. Abstract nouns
Proper nouns
A proper noun is the name of a particular person or thing, i.e a name used for
an individual person or place, river; or mountain etc.
 Mary, Hamlet, Tashnuva, Everest.
Common nouns
A common noun refers to any and every person or thing of the same kind or
class, not to a particular person or thing.
 cow, dog, girl, boy, man, woman
Proper Noun
Tashnuva
Justin
Atlantic
Everest

Common Noun
Girl
Boy
Ocean
Mountain

Collective nouns
A collective noun is the name of a collection, group of people, or things of the
same kind.
 class, team, government, jury, federation, herd, army, crowd, police,
infantry, cavalry, committee, gang, fleet, flock, library, meeting, party,
navy, audience, swarm, elite, mass, majority, gentry, bundle, stack, pack,
group, shoal, bunch etc.
Common Noun
Student
Player
Soldier
Robbers

Collective Noun
Class
Team
Army
Gang

Note: Collective noun always takes singular verb.
 A flock of sheep is grazing in the field.
 The jury consists of twelve persons.
 The committee has decided to elect its new member.

Noun of Multitude: When collective noun is divided, it becomes noun of
multitude. Noun of multitude takes plural verb.
 The committee have decided to elect their new member.
Material Nouns
A material noun is the name of a material, substance, or ingredient things are
made of. They can be articles of food or drink as well.
 iron, copper, steel, gold, coal, silver rice, wheat, milk, water, tea, sugar
 The ring is made of gold.
 The chair is made of wood.
 Please give me a glass of water.
Common Noun
Fetters, sickle, hammer
Bench, door, cupboard
Butter, cheese
Ring, Necklace

Material Noun
Iron
Wood
Milk
Gold

Note: A material noun is a type of common noun but a distinction is made
between the two. A common noun is usually a countable noun but a material
noun is an uncountable noun:
 The cow gives us milk.
 Cow is a common noun (countable), but milk is a material noun
(uncountable).
Abstract nouns
An abstract noun is the name of a quality, state, or concept.
 beauty, sweetness, childhood, love, freedom, brotherhood, honesty,
conspiracy, childhood, boyhood, slavery
Note: Concrete nouns are names of material things, i.e. things having a
material form, shape or size. Abstract nouns are the names of qualities found in
various kinds of objects. Since they have no material form, they cannot be seen
or touched. We can know of them only through our mind:
Concrete Noun

Abstract Noun

Sugar
Sweetness
Book
Love
Dhaka
Bitterness
Tashnuva
Fear
*** This table is not, anyway, a conversion between concrete and abstract
noun.
***In short, concrete nouns refer to physical properties and abstract nouns to
mental properties.

Note: Proper, material and abstract noun can be used as common noun in two
ways.
a. by putting an article before it.
 Tashnuva is a good girl. (Proper noun)
 A Tashnuva has come to meet you. (Common noun)
 Justice is a noble quality. (Abstract noun)
 He is a justice of the peace. (Common noun)
 Tashnuva drinks water. (Material noun)
 The water of the Padma is sacred. (common noun)

Nouns: Countability
Nouns are of two kinds from the viewpoint of countability:
a) Countable nouns b) Uncountable nouns
Countable nouns
Nouns that can be counted are called countable nouns:
a book
one books
an egg
one egg

two books
two eggs

Note: Generally a noun used in answer to the question “how many?” is a
countable noun.
 How many films did you watch?
 I watched six films.
 How many flights are there from here to Paris?
 There are only two flights.
Note: Common nouns and collective nouns are by and large countable.

Uncountable nouns
Nouns that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns:
 milk, water, ink, sugar, butter (not, a milk, one water, two sugar)
Note: A noun used in answer to the question “how much?” is an uncountable
noun. When we want to refer to the quantity of these items we use values of
measurement which are countable:
 How much milk do you need?
 We need a litre of milk.
Note: Material nouns and abstract nouns are uncountable. So are proper nouns,
though they can be used as countable nouns in special situations:
 There are two Indias, the rural and the urban.
Note: Certain nouns can be used both as countable and uncountable depending
on the context.
Countable
Uncountable
These chickens are lovely.
I prefer chicken to fish.
Petrol catches fire easily.
Shall we make a fire out here?

Nouns: Number
Number is of two kinds:
a) singular i.e. one
 one apple, one crow
b) plural i.e. more than One
 Apples (more than one apple)
 Crows (more than one crow)
Note: In a few languages, plural denotes two or more people/things, but in
English plural denotes more than one. It could also be less than two. So one
plus a fraction is considered plural.
 One and a half years (not, year) one and a half feet (not, foot)
 One and a quarter hours (not hour)

PRONOUN
Definition: A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
 She is a good student.
 They love each other.
There are eight kinds of pronouns.
Personal Pronoun
Reflexive and Emphatic Pronoun
Interrogative Pronoun
Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun
Distributive Pronoun
Indefinite Pronoun
Reciprocal Pronoun

Personal Pronoun: Personal pronouns represent specific people or things.
Note: I, we, he, she, our, their, me, him, her etc are personal pronouns.
 We make war to live in peace.
 I did not go there.
 She has done this.
 They met Tashnuva.

Reflexive and Emphatic Pronoun: When subject and object refer to the same
person or thing it is called reflexive pronoun.
 Tashnuva helped herself.
 You have hurt yourself.
 He spoke to himself.
And the emphatic pronouns are used to emphasize that the action is done by
one else.
 I myself saw them.
 Tashnuva herself killed them.
 Mother cooks rice herself.

Interrogative Pronoun: Interrogative pronoun is a term that introduces a
question.
Note: Who, which, what, when, how, where etc. are interrogative pronoun.
 What is your name?
 Who are you?
 How are you?
 Which is your book?
 Whom do you love?

Relative Pronoun: A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative
clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it
modifies.
The pronoun that refers to some noun or pronoun mentioned before and at the
same time joins two sentences is called a relative pronoun.
Note: Who, which, that are the relative pronouns.
 I know the man who went there.
 This is the book which belongs to me.
 This is the rat that was caught by a cat.
 This is the man whose pocket was picked.

 This is the house my uncle built.
 A dog that barks seldom bites.
Demonstrative Pronoun: A demonstrative pronoun is a determiner that points
to a particular noun or to the noun it replaces.
Note: This, that, these, those, such, same, any and so are demonstrative
pronouns.
 This is my book and that is your book.
 Point out the error if there be any.
 You being a gentleman, you should act as such.
 I will not do the same again.
 I don’t think so.

Distributive Pronoun: The pronouns that separate one person or thing from
another or a number persons or things are called distributive pronouns.
Note: Each, either, neither are distributive pronouns.
 Each of the girls has got a book.
 Either of the pens will do.
 Neither of the pens will do.

Indefinite Pronouns: Indefinite pronouns refer to people or things without
saying exactly who or what they are.
Note: One, any, anyone, anybody, anything, some, someone, somebody,
something, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nothing, none,
nobody, both, many, few, little, other, another, several, all etc are
indefinite pronouns.
 None but Allah can help us.
 Somebody has done this.
 One should go there.
 Everybody loves Tashnuva.
 Can you get someone to do it?

Reciprocal Pronoun: The pronouns that indicate mutual relation between two
or, more persons are called reciprocal pronoun.
Note: Each other and one another are reciprocal pronouns.
 Tashnuva and Casanova hate each other.
 They are talking with one another.
 They are talking to each other.

Things always fall apart…

Nouns: Number
Number is of two kinds:
a) singular i.e. one
 one apple, one crow
b) plural i.e. more than One
 Apples (more than one apple)
 Crows (more than one crow)
Note: In a few languages, plural denotes two or more people/things, but in
English plural denotes more than one. It could also be less than two. So one
plus a fraction is considered plural.
 One and a half years (not, year) one and a half feet (not, foot)
One and a quarter hours (not hour)

Plural forms
Plurals are usually formed by adding s, es, or ies to the singular form. They can
also be formed by other means.
Singular
Book
Knife
Notice
Man

Plural
Books
Knives
Notices
Men

Rules of changing number of nouns
Rule 01: Most nouns are made plural by adding an -s to the singular form.
Cat — cats
Horse — horses
Notice — notices
Cow — cows
Page — pages
Sitar — sitars
Rule 02: The plural of nouns ending in s, ss, sh, ch, x is made plural by adding
es to the singular form:
Bus — buses
Gas — gases
Kiss — kisses
Bench — benches
Watch — watches
Box — boxes
Rule 03: Consonant + 0
Nouns ending in consonant + o usually form their plural by adding es to the
singular:
Echo echoes
Torpedo — torpedoes
Embargo — embargoes
Mosquito — mosquitoes
Hero — heroes
Veto — vetoes
Note: Some nouns like these have two plural forms viz., noun + s and, noun +
es
Banjo—banjos, banjoes
Halo—halos, haloes
Cargo—cargos, cargoes
Mango—mangos, mangoes
Note: The plural form of maestro is maestros or maestri.
Note: Buffalo can have an unchanged plural form: I saw a herd of buffalo there.
Note: The plural of mafioso is mafiosi.
Rule 04: Vowel + o
Nouns ending in vowel + o form their plural by adding s to the singular:
Radio — radios
Cuckoo — cuckoos
Stereo — stereos
Curio — curios
Rodeo — rodeos
Portfolio — portfolios

Note: Words of foreign origin and abbreviated words ending in o take s only:
Photo — photos
Dynamo — dynamos
Solo — solos
Kilo — kilos
Piano — pianos
Tempo — tempo
Rule 05: Consonant + y
Nouns ending in consonant + y form their plural by dropping y and adding ies
Baby — babies
Lady — ladies
Fly — flies
Duty — duties
Army — armies
Story — stories
Note: A proper noun ending in y takes s, not ies
Henry — Henrys
Dolly — Dollys
Mary — Marys
Germany — Germnys
Rule 06: Vowel + y
Nouns ending in vowel + y take s in the plural form
Boy — boys
Storey — storeys
Key — keys
Monkey — monkeys

Day — days
Lay — lays

Note: The plural form of money is moneys or monies.
Rule 07: Nouns ending in f or fe form their plural by dropping f or fe and
adding ves.
Calf — calves
Half — halves
Wife — wives
Knife — knives
Leaf — leaves
Thief — thieves
Loaf — loaves
Wolf — wolves
Note: The plural form of still life (in painting) is still lifes (not lives).
Rule 08: The following nouns though ending in f or ff or fe take only an s in the
plural
Belief — beliefs
Chief — chiefs
Cliff — cliffs
Scarf — scarfs
Safe — safes
Strife — strifes
Roof — roofs
Gulf — gulfs
Note: The plural of if used as a noun is ifs, (not, ives)
Note: The ves form may be used for hoof, scarf and wharf.
Hoof — hooves
Scarf — scarves
Wharf — wharves
Rule 09: Nouns ending in ful take s
Armful — armfuls
Cupful — cupfuls

Mouthful — mouthfuls
Spoonful — spoonfuls

Rule 10: Numerals/abbreviations
The plural of numerals (in figures) is formed by adding a small s. (optionally an
apostrophe before s).
1990—1990s or 1990’s
2008—2008s or 2008’s
Note: The plurals of abbreviations are formed by adding s:
MA - MAs or MA’s
MP — MPs or MP’s
The current trend is to use a small s for the plural form of abbreviations or
acronyms and leaves ‘s for the possessive case.
1. Our MPs represent the people. (not, MP’s)
2. The MP’s car was damaged. (not. MPs)
Note: The plural of numerals written in words is formed by adding a small s,
not ’s.
Two — twos, (not, two’s)
Four — fours (not, four’s)
Everything is at sixes and sevens. (Not, sixe’s and seven’s)

Note: The plural of letters of the alphabet is formed by adding ‘s.
t—t’s
d—d’s
p—p’s
I—I’s
But the plural of ‘p’ (page); ‘I’ (line), ‘n’ (noun), ‘v’ (Verb) and Ms
(manuscript) is formed by doubling these letters:
p — pp (pages)
I — II (lines)
Rule 11: Vowel change
A few nouns are put into plural by a vowel change:
Foot — feet
Tooth — teeth
Mouse — mice
Louse — lice

Man — men
Goose — geese

Note: The plural form of mongoose is mongooses (not, mongeese)
Note: The plural form of Englishman and Englishwoman is: Englishmen and
Englishwomen.
Note: But the plural of German is Germans, (not, Germen)
Note: The plural of specimen is specimens.
Note: The plural forms of ox and child are oxen and children
Rule 12: In compound nouns usually only the last word is made plural:
Boy-friend— boy-friends
Girl-friend— girl-friends
Close-up— close-ups
Take-off— take-of
Fountain pen— fountain pens
In-law— in-laws
Woman-hater— woman-haters
Break-down— break-downs
Grown-up— grown-ups
Forget-me-not— forget-me-nots
Rule 13: In noun + preposition + noun structure the first element is made
plural:
Mother-in-law— mothers-in-law
Grant-in-aid— grants-in-aid
Father-in-law— fathers-in-law
Man-of-war— men-of-war
Also,
Hanger-on— hangers-on
Passer-by— passers-by

Runner-up— runners-up

Rule 14: Both the elements are made plural where man or woman is the first
word:
Man servant— men servants
Woman student— women students
Woman doctor— women doctors
Woman servant— women servant
Man driver— men drivers
But the plural form of man eater is man eaters. (Not, men eaters)
Rule 15: Nouns ending in um:
There are quite a few loan words in English ending in um that change to a in
plural.
Addendum — addenda
Erratum — errata
Bacterium — bacteria
Ovum — ova
Corrigendum — corrigenda
Stratum — strata
Note: In current English agenda and data are used in both singular and plural
numbers. Agendum and datum have dropped out of use:
1. The agenda has/have been drawn up.
2. The data is/are not sufficient for the purpose.

Rule 16: Other nouns ending in um take an s.
Album — albums
Museum — museums ‘
Asylum — asylums
Premium - premiums
Harmonium — harmoniums
Referendum — referendums
Rule 17: Nouns having two plural forms:
Aquarium — acquaria, acquariums
Curriculum — curricula, curriculums
Forum — fora, forums
Medium — media, mediums

Memorandum — memoranda,
memorandums
Stadium — stadia, stadiums
Symposium — symposia, symposiums
Ultimatum— ultimata, ultimatums

Note: The s-form is usually preferred in common speech.
Note: The plural form of medium is media when it means ‘a mode of mass
communication’. The form is mediums when the meaning is ‘a person who receives
messages from the spirits of the dead or from gods/goddesses’.
1. Radio and television are effective media. (Not, mediums)
2. My aunt is a medium in the field of spiritualism. (Not, media)
Rule 18: Nouns ending in is:
These characteristically change to es in plural. The e in es is pronounced as a long
ii.
Analysis — analyses
Synopsis — synopses
Hypothesis — hypotheses
Crisis — crises
Basis — bases
Ellipsis— ellipses
Oasis — oases
Diagnosis — diagnoses
Thesis — theses
Note: Precis has an unchanged plural form, so it does not become ‘preces.’
Note: Metropolises is the regular plural form of metropolis
Rule 19: Noun ending in us drop the us and add i:
Alumnus — alumni
Locus — loci
Bacillus — bacilli
Stimulus — stimuli
These are all foreign words.
Note: The plural form of genus is genera. (Not, generi)
Rule 20: Some nouns ending in us form their plural by adding i, or uses:
Cactus — cacti/cactuses
Radius — radii/radiuses
Focus — foci/focuses
Stylus— styli/styluses
Fungus — fungi/funguses
Syllabus — syllabi/syllabuses
Nucleus — nuclei/nucleuses
Terminus — termini/terminuses
Note: The i-form is foreign plural. The uses-form is the regular plural. This form is
usually preferred in common speech.
Note: Genius means a person with an exceptional quality of the mind. Its plural
form is geniuses:
Newton and Einstein were geniuses. (Not, genii)
Note: Genii is the plural form of genie, which means a spirit or goblin with
supernatural powers.
Note: The plural form of virus is viruses, (not, viri)
Rule 21: Some nouns ending in on drop on and take a to form the plural:
Criterion — criteria
Phenomenon — phenomena
What are the criteria for selecting the candidates? (Not, criterion)
This is a new phenomenon of nature. (Not, phenomena)

Rule 22: Other nouns ending in on add an s to form the plural:
Demon— demons
Neutron — neutrons
Electron — electrons
Proton — protons
Note: Automation has two plural forms: automatons/automata.
Rule 23: Nouns ending in a:
The ae-form is a foreign plural form. It normally occurs in science and technology.
The as-form is the regular plural form. It is normally used in common speech.
Antenna — antennae, antennas
Nebula — nebulae, nebulas
Formula — formulae, formulas
Vertebra — vertebrae, vertebras
Note: The plural form of alumna is alumnae. (Not, alumnas)
Rule 24: Nouns ending in eau form their plural by adding s or x:
Plateau — plateaus, plateaux
Bureau — bureaus, bureaux
Note: The plural form of tableau is tableaux. (not, tableaus)

Nouns: Gender
Gender is of four kinds:
 Masculine (denotes male)
 Feminine (denotes female)
 Common (denotes both male and female)
 Neuter (denotes neither male nor female)
Masculine
Boy
Man
Brother
Uncle
Tiger
Bull

Feminine
Girl
Woman
Sister
Aunt
Tigress
Cow

Common
Student
Teacher
Doctor
Child
Mountain
Diplomat

Neuter
Gold
Rice
Flower
River
Minister
Table

Note: The words masculine and feminine can be used as adjectives to describe the
looks or qualities of human beings. In this sense masculine means: having the
characteristics of a man, so it can he used of a woman or girl as well.
 The lady standing in the centre has masculine looks.
Similarly with feminine. Notice that in this sense masculine/feminine indicates
characteristics or attributes, not sex.

Masculine and feminine forms
The feminine of nouns is formed in two ways.
i) By adding ess to the masculine form
ii) By adding she/girl/woman to the masculine form
Rule 01: By adding ess to the masculine form
Actor — actress
Murderer — murderess
Lion — lioness
Duke — duchess
Baron — baroness
Priest — priestess
Master — mistress
God — goddess
Count/earl — countess
Prince — princess
Shepherd — shepherdess

Heir — heiress
Host — hostess
Tiger — tigress
Hunter — huntress
Waiter — waitress

Note: English has only a small number of feminine forms (noun + ess).
Professional activities are often referred to in the common gender.
The feminine forms authoress, poetess, directress, inspectress are no longer in
use.
She is the director of this institute. (Not, directress)
She is an inspector of police. (Not, inspectress)
Note: The feminine form of hero is heroine.
Rule 02: By adding she/girl/woman
Masculine
He-goat
Boy-friend
Student
Businessman
Policeman
Sportsman
Salesman
Statesman

Feminine
She-goat
Girl-friend
Woman student
Businesswoman
Policewoman
Sportswoman
Saleswoman
Stateswoman

Note: Sometimes a he/a she is used to indicate gender.
1. My cat is a he, not a she.
2. ls this puppy a he or a she?
Note: Lady is usually used as a term of direct address and as a form of common
courtesy to a girl or woman present.
1. Hey lady, you can’t stand here. (Not, girl/woman)
2. Can you give this lady a lift to the station? (Not, girl/woman)
Note: Male/female is usually used for human beings and animals to indicate their
gender or physical qualities: a male/female child
Note: Male/female is not used to indicate one’s profession/occupation,
Man/woman is used instead: A woman doctor (not, a female doctor)
Rule 03: But in many cases, the feminine form is not derived from the masculine
form. In the examples listed below, the feminine form is a totally new word, not
related to the masculine form phonetically.
Bachelor — spinster
Gander — goose
Boy— girl
Brother— sister
Cock— hen
Dog— bitch
Monk— nun
Man— woman
Uncle— aunt
Wizard— witch
Fox— vixen

Boar — sow
Gentleman — lady
Buck— doe
Drone— bee
Drake— duck
Father— mother
Nephew— niece
Stag— hind

Common/dual gender
Rule 01: Nouns denoting profession.
Most of the nouns denoting profession/occupation are in the common gender.
Ambassador
Doctor
Minister
Artisan
Editor
Monarch
Artist
Enemy
Monitor
Engineer
Musician
Author
Fool
Neighbor

Baby
Foreigner
Novelist
Captain
Friend
Orphan
Child
Infant
Person
Clerk
Judge
Player
Collector
Lawyer

Poet
Cook
Lecturer
Politician
Cousin
Librarian
President
Criminal
Magician
Principal
Dancer
Magistrate
Professor

He is an artist.
She is an artist. (Not, artistess)
He is a poet/author.
She is a poet/author. (Not, poetess/not, authoress)
Note: a) The term cousin seems to cause some contusion. We often hear
expressions like cousin brother and cousin sister. Native speakers do not use nor
understand these. In English the word cousin stands for either male or female.

Masculine
Actor
Author
Bachelor
Boy
Boy Scout
Brave
Bridegroom
Brother
Conductor
Count
Czar
Dad
Daddy
Duke
Emperor
Father
Father-in-law
Fiancé
Gentleman
Giant
God
Governor
Grandfather
Headmaster
Heir
Hero
Host

Feminine
Actress
Authoress
Spinster
Girl
Girl Guide
Squaw
Bride
Sister
Conductress
Countess
Czarina
Mom
Mummy
Duchess
Empress
Mother
Mother-in-law
Fiancée
Lady
Giantess
Goddess
Matron
Grandmother
Headmistress
Heiress
Heroine
Hostess

Hunter
Husband
King
Lad
Landlord
Lord
Man
Manager
Manservant
Master
Mayor
Milkman
Millionaire
Monitor
Monk
Murderer
Negro
Nephew
Papa
Poet
Postman
Postmaster
Priest
Prince
Prophet
Proprietor
Protector
Shepherd
Sir
Son
Son-in-law
Step-father
Step-son
Steward
Sultan
Tailor
Uncle
Waiter
Washerman
Widower
Wizard
Nephew

Huntress
Wife
Queen
Lass
Landlady
Lady
Woman
Manageress
Maidservant
Mistress
Mayoress
Milkmaid
Millionairess
Monitress
Nun
Murderess
Negress
Niece
Mama
Poetess
Postwoman
Postmistress
Priestess
Princess
Prophetess
Proprietress
Protectress
Shepherdess
Madam
Daughter
Daughter-in-law
Step-mother
Step-mother
Stewardess
Sultana
Tailoress
Aunt
Waitress
Washerwoman
Widow
Witch
Niece

Verb & its Classification
Verb: Verbs are words that usually express an action.
Quick Tip 1: If a word can have should in front of it and the phrase sounds complete, the word
is a verb. Examples: should leave, should sail, should discover, should complain. Leave, sail,
discover, and complain are all verbs.
Quick tip 2: If a word can have to in front of it and the phrase sounds complete, it’s a verb.
Examples: to leave, to sail, to discover, to complain. Leave, sail, discover, and complain are all
verbs.
Here are some examples of verbs. You can see that they all meet the test with
should and the test with to.
Go: should go, to go
Tell: should tell, to tell
Disagree: should disagree, to disagree
Spell: should spell, to spell
In contrast, the following words do not pass the should or to test:
Coffee: *should coffee *to coffee
Beautiful: *should beautiful *to beautiful
Hardly: *should hardly *to hardly
Under: *should under *to under
Thus, coffee, beautiful, hardly, and under are not verbs.
Finite Verb: A Finite verb is limited by person and number of the subject and
changes its form according to tenses.
Example:
Natasha goes to school.
Natasha went to school.
Natasha is going to school.
Natasha has gone to school.
Non-finite Verb: A Non-finite verb is not limited by person and number of the
subject and does not change its form according to tenses.
Example:
Fabiha likes to eat pizza.
Fabiha has come to eat pizza.
Fabiha is going to eat pizza.
Principal verb: When a verb is used independently, it is called a Principal Verb. e.g.
Call, go, work etc.
Example:
I go to school.
They watch TV.
Auxiliary Verb: When a verb is used only to help some other verb to form voices,
tenses and mood, it is called an Auxiliary Verb. e.g. be, have. Shall, will, may, do
etc.
Example:
He is going to school.
We shall play chess.
They are watching TV.
Note: Most of the auxiliary verbs may also be used as Principal Verbs.
Auxiliary
He is going to school.
I am playing chess.
He does not know it.
He has gone.

Principal
He is happy.
I am ill.
He did it.
He has a cat.

Transitive Verb: Transitive Verbs are those that require an object to make the
sense clear.
Example:
Fabiha did this.
Fabiha bought a ring.
I love him.
We saw Fabiha reading a book.
Fabiha helped me.
Fabiha wanted some notes.
Intransitive Verb: Intransitive Verbs are those that do not require any object to
make the sense clear.
Example:
Fabiha sleeps.
The moon shines at night.
Fabiha runs.
Fabiha died yesterday.
Birds fly.
Fabiha cries for her mother.
Factitive Verb: Factitive Verbs are those that cannot complete the sense without
two objects.
Example:
We made Fabiha captain.
We regard Fabiha as honest.
They found Fabiha asleep.
They elected Fabiha their leader.
We consider Fabiha dishonest.
I named her Fabiha.
Cognate verb: When an intransitive verb takes an object that is similar to the verb,
then it is called cognate verb.
Example:
Fabiha ran race.
Fabiha laughed a hearty laugh.
Fabiha sang a sweet song.
Fabiha died a glorious death.
Fabiha dreamt a dream.
Fabiha cried a bitter cry.
Causative Verb: Causative verbs indicate that one thing or person causes another
thing or person to do something or be something.
Example:
Fabiha showed me a picture.
Fabiha found her eyeglass broken.
Mother feeds her baby.
Fabiha walk a child.
I got the letter written.
Fabiha boils water
Quasi-Passive Verb: Quasi-passive verbs show passive meaning though being
active in structure.
 The mango tastes sweet.
 Rice sells cheap.
Reflexive Verb: When transitive verb takes a reflexive pronoun as object, it is
called reflexive verb.
 Tashnuva killed herself.
Linking Verb: Link verb is a verb, such as a form of be or seem, that joins the
subject of a sentence to a complement.
 Tashnuva is a student.
 Tashnuva seems happy.
A. Pick out the verbs and state whether they are transitive or intransitive.
01. The sun shines brightly
02. The guard showed the green flag.
03. Cocks crow in the morning.
04. I could not spare any time for you.
05. Please look into the matter carefully.
06. The tiger killed a goat and carried it away.
07. The teacher rebuked the Fabiha.
08. Fabiha cut her hand with a knife.

09.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Your book lies on the table.
My new watch does not keep good time.
Fabiha took shelter under a tree.
I know a funny little man.
Fabiha works round the clock.
Time changes all things.
We had a devastating flood this year.
Fabiha loved a long happy life.
Fabiha went home and gave a doll to her sister.
Every mother loves her child.
The police blew his whistle.
We eat three times a day.
I could not spare the time.
Fabiha wrote a letter to her brother.
I shall bring my camera with me.

B. Use the following verbs in their correct form to fill in the blanks.
Remember-do-improve-gape-joke-use-tell-greet-agree-cause
01.
02.
03.
04.
05.
06.
07.
08.
09.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

The child is _____ at the elephant.
We must _____ our duty.
_____ me about your school/
We should _____ our friend when we meet them,
This is serious matter. Don’t _____ about it.
Floods _____ a lot of damages in our country.
I can’t _____ her name.
Don’t _____ too much salt in your food.
Your health has _____ recently.
She has _____ to lend me her pen.
Fabiha is always _____ trouble for people.
Do you _____ about the need for more schools?
My health is gradually _____ after illness.
They _____ their money to set up an irrigation project.

Conjunctions
Connectors
Linking words
Conjunction: Conjunction is a word used for joining one word to another
word; one word to a clause and one sentence to another sentence.
 Wasp and Justin are good friends.
 Wasp is sad but hopeful.
 Wasp is both wise and good.
 Either Wasp or Justin has done this.
Connectors or Linking Word: Sentence connectors or linking words act as
a conjunction in a sentence and join two or more words; phrases and
clauses.
 I know the girl who helped Wasp.
 Wait till Wasp comes back.
 It is a month since Wasp came here.

Conjunctions and Connectors
And, or, but, both---and, either---or, neither---nor, not only---but also, so--that, so that, such---that, no sooner---than, hardly---when, scarcely---when,
else---that, else---but, because, if, together with, along with, whether---or,
lest, unless, until, till, as, since, how, when, where, whence, while, why, for,
after, before, provided, however, as soon as, as well as, though, than,
otherwise, still, so, yet, whereas, though, although, as if, as though, as---as,
so---as, in order

to, during, whatever,

so long,

but for,

however,

nevertheless, indeed, besides, therefore, consequently, actually, naturally,
finally, after all, any way, for example, in fact, as a result, only, of course, on
the whole, on the contrary, on the other hand.

A. Fill in the gaps using conjunctions, connectors
and linking words given in the title.
01. And-or-but
a. Wasp _____ I do the work.
b. A cat moves slowly _____ silently.
c. They are sad _____ hopeful.
d. Do _____ die.
e. Justin is rich _____ cheat.

02. so that-because-both….and-if-that
a. Wasp is _____ a fool _____ a knave.
b. Wasp says _____ this book is mine.
c. Wasp works hard _____ he can shine in life.
d. I trust his word _____ he speaks the truth.
e. Wasp will come _____ you invite her.
03. unless-as-whether- lest-how
a. I wish to know _____ you will come or not.
b. Wasp walks slowly _____ she should fall down.
c. Wasp will do this _____ she is stopped by you.
d. You may go out _____ the rain has stopped.
e. I wish to know _____ the sick man is today.
04. why-while-till-and-when
a. Wasp left her bed _____ the sun peeped through the window.
b. The mice will play _____ the cat is away.
c. You must wait here _____ your sister comes.
d. They could not tell _____ they were fined.
e. Wasp is quick _____ reads very well.
05. after-provided-but-before-for
a. Wasp is clever _____ cannot do the work quickly.
b. She went to bed _____ she felt very tired.
c. Wasp closed her door _____ her mother had gone.
d. Wasp had gone to school _____ her mother came.
e. I will trust you _____ you sign your name.
06. as soon as-however-though-since-though
a. He will not escape death _____ rich may be.
b. He left the house _____ the rain stopped.
c. She could not pass _____ she tried hard.
d. Your uncle is older _____ your aunt.
e. It is long time _____ I saw you last.
07. still-as well as- so-or-that
a. Wasp said _____ she would kill Natasha.
b. Read _____ you will fail.
c. Wasp _____ Tanisha honest.
d. She worked hard _____ she failed.
e. Wasp did not try hard _____ she could not pass.
08. but also-while-yet-whereas-either
a. Life is full of tears _____ none wishes to die.
b. Wasp failed _____ Tanisha passed.
c. Wasp is brilliant _____ her sister is dull.
d. Not only Wasp _____ Justin will do this.
e. _____ do this or leave the room.
09. in order that-although-so that-nor-if
a. She will neither do this _____ leave the room.
b. Shut the door _____ Wasp may not go out.
c. He tried hard _____ he could get a ticket.
d. Wasp will go _____ you go.
e. _____ Natasha is brilliant, she is lazy.

10. whatever-as-whenever-wherever-whichever
a. Do _____ you like.
b. Go _____ you want.
c. Eat _____ you want.
d. Come _____ you want.
e. Take _____ you need.
11. until-where-since-because-when
a. _____ I am ill, I cannot go.
b. Wasp cannot go out _____ she is busy.
c. Wasp came _____ I was there.
d. You may go _____ you like.
e. Do not detrain _____ the train stops.
12. as-or-and-since
a. Wasp _____ her friends was the guests.
b. Wasp _____ her friends will arrange the party.
c. Wise _____ Wasp is, she will understand it.
d. Wasp attended the programme _____ the chief guest.
e. _____ the water was very salty, Wasp could not drink it.
13. in order that-as-since-than-for
a. I have been known Wasp _____ she was twelve.
b. Wasp is wiser _____ Trinity.
c. Everybody loves Wasp _____her honesty.
d. Wasp is _____ honest as I.
e. Wasp took medicine _____ she might get well.
14. whereas-lest-as-until-though
a. Wasp study _____ she might fail in the exam.
b. Wasp is happy _____ she is ill.
c. Justin is always gloomy _____ Wasp is happy even with her illness.
d. I won’t stop shouting _____ you let me go.
e. Wasp failed to go there _____ she had not time.
15. lest-together with-nor-during-as well as
a. Wasp got an accident _____ night.
b. Neither Wasp _____ her brother went there.
c. Wasp is running fast _____ she should miss the class.
d. Wasp _____ I hate Justin.
e. Wasp _____ Justin made a plan.
16. when-what-how-where-which
a. Last year, Wasp bought a book _____ is now out of print.
b. Wasp asked me _____ she would read that book.\
c. Wasp wanted to know _____ will Justin be free,
d. Wasp wanted to know _____ will Justin meet me.
e. I do not know _____ Wasp wants.
17. whatever-together with-but for-while-as if
a. Shall I have a coffee _____ I am waiting for Wasp?
b. Wasp acts _____ she knew nothing.
c. Wasp _____ Justin will pay me visit.
d. Let Wasp do _____ she likes.
e. _____ your help, Wasp would have failed in the exam.

18. as-and-because-when-unless
a. Wasp could not do it in time _____ she was ill.
b. Wasp gave it food _____ water.
c. Wasp acted _____ I advised her.
d. Wasp will not do it _____ she is compelled.
e. Wasp came here _____ she was thirteen.
19. so that-when-as-till
a. _____ Justin is a cheat, he cannot prosper in life.
b. Wasp was glad _____ she received her mother’s letter.
c. Wait here _____ my arrival.
d. I read them _____ I might have pleasure.
e. _____ Wasp woke up, it was raining.
20. as-so-and-both-although
a. Justin reached home _____ found his pen stolen.
b. Justin could not reach his goal _____ he worked hard.
c. _____ Wasp and Justin are cheat.
d. _____ she stayed in Cox’s Bazar, she was in good health.
e. Wasp is _____ honest that she cannot show any excuse.

B. Fill in the gaps using conjunctions, connectors
and linking words from your own.
01.
02.
03.
04.
05.
06.
07.
08.
09.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

A boy _____ is industrious will shine in life.
We eat _____ we may live.
Wasp is both intelligent _____ diligent.
Justin worked _____ time to return to the orphanage.
Wasp spoke so strangely _____ the guest stood still.
_____ you fail, you must take another attempt.
There was no help for me _____ to go there.
I want a friend _____ is not cheat.
No sooner had wasp got the letter _____ she left for home.
It was year _____ I know the cheat.
No one knows _____ Wasp is reading.
The sun set _____ the end of the battle.
_____ you go, Wasp shall follow you.
Justin failed _____ Wasp passed.
I do not like Justin _____ he is a cheat.
Run fast _____ you should miss the train.
Wasp is more intelligent _____ Justin.
Is that not _____ Wasp deserves?
Wasp is _____ wise but also clever.
We shall win _____ Justin leaves us.
Wasp is either a cheat _____ tricky girl.
Wasp said _____ she had gone in a hurry.
Wasp will go to Norway _____ she has got a visa.
_____ a borrower, nor a lender be.
_____ in the Rome, do as Romans do.
Hurry up _____ you miss the bus.
Nobody knows _____ will happen next.
Wasp was reading _____ I saw her.
Better to reign in hell _____ to serve in heaven.
Wasp is taller _____ Justin.
Justin is not _____ tall as Wasp.

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

Wasp _____ Justin are completely different in nature.
Walk carefully _____ you might fall down.
I won’t forget you _____ you apologize.
Easier said _____ done.
I would rather starve _____ steal.
Don’t do it _____ you will be punished.
You can go _____ your work is done.
Do not go out _____ bell rings.
I trust _____ Wasp nor Justin.
I did not ask Justin anything _____ he feels ashamed.
Justin earns money _____ a post master.
_____ Justin was poor, he could not buy a shirt.
I do not know _____ Justin came.
Stay here _____ Wasp does not come.
Wait _____ it is night.
Will you help me? _____, I will help you.
Wasp tried lots of times. _____ she has got this.
_____ I don’t like Justin at all.
Can you guess _____ Wasp and Justin are?

IT MAY BE YOUR INTEREST TO BE OUR MASTER BUT
HOW CAN IT BE OUR INTEREST TO BE YOUR SLAVES?
…One Man’s Agony
So, this is high time to get packed. If you don’t
have your own philosophy, stay away from
your life. Never try to lead your life rather let
your life lead you!

…SJD_bourne

Tense
Definition:
 Tense denotes the time of a verb.
 The tense is the change of form in a verb to express the time of an
action.
 Tense is the time of a verb’s action or state of being, such as present or
past.
 Tense is a form of verb used to indicate the time, and sometimes the
continuation or completeness, of an action in relation to the time of
speaking.
 Tense is a category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the
situation takes place.

Class, structure, example and Details
Present indefinite tense: This tense is used to indicate present time.
 Fabiha goes to school everyday.
 Fabiha eats chocolate.
Affirmative: Subject+ present form of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ do not/does not+ present form of verb+ object
Interrogative: Do/Does+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Don’t/Doesn’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha writes a letter.
Negative: Fabiha does not write a letter.
Interrogative: Does Fabiha write a letter?
Neg-Int: Doesn’t Fabiha write a letter?
Present continuous tense: This tense is used to indicate an action that is
happening now.
 Fabiha is playing chess.
 Fabiha is reading now.
Affirmative: Subject+ am/is/are+ verb(ing)+ object
Negative: Subject+ am/is/are+ not+ verb(ing)+ object
Interrogative: Am/Is/Are+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Neg-Int: Isn’t/Aren’t+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha is writing a letter.
Negative: Fabiha is not writing a letter.
Interrogative: Is Fabiha writing a letter?
Neg-Int: Isn’t Fabiha writing a letter?

Present perfect tense: This tense is used to indicate an action that
happened in an indefinite time in the past and its effect is still alive.
 Fabiha has sent me a letter.
 Fabiha has eaten chocolate.
Affirmative: Subject+ have/has+ past participle of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ have/has+ not+ past participle of verb+ object
Interrogative: Have/Has+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Haven’t/Hasn’t+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha has written a letter.
Negative: Fabiha has not written a letter.
Interrogative: Has Fabiha written a letter?
Neg-Int: Hasn’t Fabiha written a letter?
Present perfect continuous tense: This tense is used for an action that
began in the past and is still occurring in the present.
 Fabiha has been writing a letter since January.
 Fabiha has been reading a book for three hours.
Affirmative: Subject+ have /has+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Negative: Subject+ have /has+ not+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Interrogative: Have/Has+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Neg-Int: Haven’t/Hasn’t+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Affirmative: Fabiha has been writing a letter since January.
Negative: Fabiha has not been writing a letter since January.
Interrogative: Has Fabiha been writing a letter since January?
Neg-Int: Hasn’t Fabiha been writing a letter since January?
Past indefinite tense: This tense is used for a completed action that
happened at one specific time in the past.
 Fabiha gave me an ice cream.
 Fabiha wrote a novel.
Affirmative: Subject+ past form of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ did not+ present form of verb+ object
Interrogative: Did+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Didn’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha wrote a letter.
Negative: Fabiha did not write a letter.
Interrogative: Did Fabiha write a letter?
Neg-Int: Didn’t Fabiha write a letter?
Past continuous tense: This tense is used to indicate an action which was
occurring in the past.
 Fabiha was drinking coffee.
 Fabiha was singing a song.
Affirmative: Subject+ was/were+ verb(ing)+ object
Negative: Subject+ was/were+ not+ verb(ing)+ object
Interrogative: Was/Were+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Neg-Int: Wasn’t/Weren’t+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object

Affirmative: Fabiha was writing a letter.
Negative: Fabiha was not writing a letter.
Interrogative: Was Fabiha writing a letter?
Neg-Int: Wasn’t Fabiha writing a letter?

Past perfect tense: This tense is used to indicate an action that happened
before another action in the past.
 Fabiha had done the sum.
 Fabiha had slept before Nabiha slept.
Affirmative: Subject+ had+ past participle of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ had not+ past participle of verb+ object
Interrogative: Had+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Hadn’t+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Using ‘Before’: Past perfect+ before+ past indefinite
Using ‘After’: Past indefinite+ after+ past perfect
Affirmative: Fabiha had written a letter.
Negative: Fabiha had not written a letter.
Interrogative: Had Fabiha written a letter?
Neg-Int: Hadn’t Fabiha written a letter?
Using ‘Before’: Fabiha had written a letter before Nabiha wrote.
Using ‘After’: Fabiha wrote a letter after Nabiha had written.

Past perfect continuous tense: This tense is used to indicate an action
that began in the past and was still occurring in the past.
 Fabiha had been reading a book for five hours.
 Fabiha had been writing a letter since January.
Affirmative: Subject+ had been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Negative: Subject+ had not been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Interrogative: Had+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Neg-Int: Hadn’t+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Affirmative: Fabiha had been writing a letter for three hours.
Negative: Fabiha had not been writing a letter for three hours.
Interrogative: Had Fabiha been writing a letter for three hours?
Neg-Int: Hadn’t Fabiha been writing a letter for three hours?
Future indefinite tense: This tense is used to indicate an action that will be
done or will happen in future.
 Fabiha will go to school.
 Fabiha shall sing a song.
Affirmative: Subject+ shall/will+ present form of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ shall/will+ not+ present form of verb+ object
Interrogative: Shall/Will+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha will write a letter.
Negative: Fabiha will be writing a letter.
Interrogative: Will Fabiha write a letter?
Neg-Int: Won’t Fabiha write a letter?

Future continuous tense: This tense is used to indicate an action that is
thought to be going on in the future.
 Fabiha will be drinking coffee.
 Fabiha will be riding on horse.
Affirmative: Subject+ shall/will+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Negative: Subject+ shall/will+ not+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Interrogative: Shall/Will+ subject+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Neg-Int: Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha will be writing a letter.
Negative: Fabiha will not be writing a letter.
Interrogative: Will Fabiha be writing a letter?
Neg-Int: Won’t Fabiha be writing a letter?

Future perfect tense: This tense is used to indicate the completion of an
action by a certain time in the future.
 Fabiha will have done the sum before Nabiha does it.
 Fabiha will have gone to school by 10 a.m.
Affirmative: Subject+ shall/will+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Negative: Subject+ shall/will+ have+ not+ past participle of verb+ object
Interrogative: Shall/Will+ subject+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Neg-Int: Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Affirmative: Fabiha will have written a letter.
Negative: Fabiha will have not written a letter.
Interrogative: Will Fabiha have written a letter?
Neg-Int: Won’t Fabiha have written a letter?

Future perfect continuous tense: This tense is used when the
doer/performer will have been doing the work by a certain future time.
 Fabiha will have been reading a book before Nabiha comes.
 Fabiha will have been drinking coffee.
Affirmative: Subject+ shall/will+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ extension
Negative: Subject+ shall/will+ not+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Interrogative: Shall/Will+ subject+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Neg-Int: Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Affirmative: Fabiha will have been writing a letter.
Negative: Fabiha will have not been writing a letter.
Interrogative: Will Fabiha have not been writing a letter?
Neg-Int: Won’t Fabiha have not been writing a letter?

Exercise
Go through the following structure and identify their root.
Haven’t/Hasn’t+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ have/has+ not+ past participle of verb+ object
Do/Does+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ was/were+ not+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ did not+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ had+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ shall/will+ not+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ had been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Subject+ shall/will+ have+ not+ past participle of verb+ object
Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ shall/will+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Shall/Will+ subject+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Subject+ shall/will+ not+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Subject+ shall/will+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Had+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Had+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Wasn’t/Weren’t+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ have/has+ past participle of verb+ object
Isn’t/Aren’t+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Have/Has+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ am/is/are+ not+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ do not/does not+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ have /has+ not+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Did+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ had not+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ shall/will+ present form of verb+ object
Shall/Will+ subject+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Shall/Will+ subject+ have+ past participle of verb+ object
Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ ext.
Hadn’t+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Hadn’t+ subject+ past participle of verb+ object
Subject+ past form of verb+ object
Subject+ have /has+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Haven’t/Hasn’t+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Am/Is/Are+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Don’t/Doesn’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ am/is/are+ verb(ing)+ object
Have/Has+ subject+ been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...

Didn’t+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Was/Were+ subject+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ was/were+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ had not been+ verb(ing) +object+ for/since…...
Shall/Will+ subject+ present form of verb+ object
Subject+ shall/will+ have been+ verb(ing)+ object+ extension
Shan’t/Won’t+ subject+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Subject+ shall/will+ not+ be+ verb(ing)+ object
Go through the following examples and identify their root.
Fabiha had played chess.
Fabiha is singing a song.
Fabiha does not go to cinema.
Fabiha will be reading a book.
Fabiha has done the sum.
Fabiha is not writing a novel.
Fabiha will not go to school.
Was Fabiha watching a movie?
Didn’t Fabiha go to Dhaka?
Fabiha will have made the cake.
Fabiha is singing a song.
Fabiha does not watch TV.
Hasn’t Fabiha watched a film?
Won’t Fabiha sing a song?
Fabiha has killed Nabiha.
Fabiha did not want to do this.
Fabiha was trying to escape from death.
Had Fabiha caught fish?
Fabiha will have been crying for three hours.
Fabiha used a pen.
Fabiha was drawing a picture.
Fabiha will have caught fish.
Fabiha will have done the sum before Fabiha does.
Fabiha had died before Nabiha was born.
Have you ever been met such a lady?
Fabiha left us.
We shall be singing a song.
We have been walking since 1990.
I have just finished my home task.
It is going to rain this evening.
The girls are going to school now.
I have been genius.

The aircraft has landed just now.
It has been raining.
Fabiha had been painting for ten years.
You will have not gone there.
They are doing the work.
Fabiha has painted a witch.
Fabiha has read the book.
You will have done this.
Fabiha is reading a book.
Fabiha is happy.
Fabiha reads a book.
Fabiha gives Tanisha a pen.
Was she playing?
You were playing chess.
They had not done the sum.
I had shut the door.
We have not been working for two hours.
Has Fabiha been furious?
Fabiha helped them?
Fabiha has been reading since morning.
Fabiha was angry.
Fabiha has written a poem.
Fabiha is singing a song.
Fabiha caught fish?
Fabiha had done the task.
They do not write.
Fabiha is watching a movie.
Fabiha is playing chess.
Fabiha had written a letter.
Fabiha has eaten a pizza.
I wrote a letter
Fabiha shall be doing the task.
Fabiha will be digging a hole.
Fabiha will see a whale.
Fabiha had read the book

War never ends… Love never begins… Until someone dies… And this is me…SJD


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