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TOC 2839FINAL .pdf


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Vi
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i
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Three

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

iv     Contents

Four

Fostering Oral Language     63

Vocabulary Instruction     91

Focus Questions     63
In the Classroom     64

Focus Questions     91
In the Classroom     92

Introduction     65

Introduction     92

Informal Speaking     66

Types of Vocabulary     93

Conversations     66

Selecting Vocabulary Words to Teach     94

activity  Just Suppose     68

Levels of Word Knowledge     95

activity  Campfire     68

Principles of Vocabulary Instruction     96

Directed Group Discussions     69

Word Study     98

Discussions About Text     71

A Review of Reading and Spelling Stages     99

Informal Debates     72

Early Word Study Instruction     100

Formal Speaking     73
Oral Reports     73
Interviews     74

Advanced Word Study Instruction     100
activity  Roots and Branches     104

Teaching Individual Word Meanings     107

activity  Getting to Know You     76

Incidental Learning     107

Oral Histories     76

Explicit Instruction     108

Panel Discussions     77
activity  Controlled Participation (CONPAR)     78    

Impromptu Speeches     78
Drama     79

Effective Strategies for a Comprehensive Vocabulary
Program     109    
Relate New Words to Known Words     109
activity  Semantic Map     110    

Role Plays     79

activity  Constructing and Using a Clarifying Table     111

activity  Role Play     80

activity  Creating a Semantic Feature Analysis     112

Simulations     82    

Use Context     112

activity  Prejudice     83

activity  C(2)QU     114

Creating Original Drama     83

Consult Resources to Discover the Meaning of Words     115

Listening Instruction     85
Designing Listening Instruction     85
activity  Listening Comprehension     86

Troubleshooting     87
Dominating a Discussion     87
Lack of Verbal Skills in English     87        
Lack of Participation     88
Limited Voice Projection     88
Summary     88
questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     89
suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     89
References     89

activity  Very Important Term Word Book     116

Learn to Determine the Meanings of Polysemantic
Words     118
activity  How Is It Used?     119
activity  Possible Sentences     119

Infuse New Vocabulary into Writing and Speaking     120
activity  Semantic Gradient     120

Commit to Learning New Words     121
activity  Hinky Pinkies     122
activity  Paraphrastics     123

Troubleshooting     124
Limited Interest/Experience in Independent Reading     124
Limited Schema for Remembering New Vocabulary     125
activity  Virtual Field Trips     126

Summary     126
questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     127
suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     128
References     129

CHAPTER

Contents      v

Five

Reading Comprehension     131
Focus Questions     131
In the Classroom     132

Defining Comprehension     132

Difficulty Making Connections Before Reading     170
Difficulty Making Connections During Reading     170
Difficulty Making Connections After Reading     172
Summary     173
questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     175
suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     175
References     176

Factors External to Readers     133
Readers’ Internal Characteristics     134
Assessing and Selecting Texts     136
Determining Text Demands     136
Estimating Reading Difficulty     138
Comprehension Strategies For Readers To Use     139
Predicting     140

CHAPTER

Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension     133

Six

Writing Instruction     179
Focus Questions     179
In the Classroom     180

Generating Questions     140

How Instruction in Writing has Changed     180

Checking Back     140

The Writing Process     181

Imagery/Visualizing     141

Planning/Prewriting     182

Summarizing     141

Composing/Drafting     185

Effective Direct Instructional Practices     141
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) (Focus on
Process)     142
Think Aloud     143

Revising     185
Editing     186
Publishing     187
Writing Workshop     188

activity  Think Aloud (Focus on Process)     143

Minilessons     188

Guided Reading     143

State-of-the-Class Conference     189

Directed Reading–Thinking Activity     144

Writing and Conferencing     189

activity  DRTA (Focus on Content and Process)     145

Group Sharing     190

GIST     145

Using Technology in the Writing Process     190

activity  GIST (Focus on Content)     145

Teaching the 6 + 1 Traits of Effective Writing     191

Reciprocal Teaching     149

Ideas     192

activity  Reciprocal Teaching (Focus on Content and

Organization     193

Process)     149

Voice     193

Dyad Reading     150

Word Choice     194

activity  Dyad Reading (Focus on Content)     150

Sentence Fluency     195

Question–Answer Relationships     150

Conventions     195

activity  QARs (Focus on Content and Process)     151

Novel Study     151
Implicit Instruction     154

Presentation     196    
Inspiring Students to Write     196
Dialogue Journals     197

Independent Reading     154

Extended Narrative Text     199

activity  Literature Circles/Book Clubs     159

Poetry     200

activity  Jigsaw: Read a Book in an Hour     161

activity  Writing Poetry Using a Literacy Scaffold     201

Reader Response Activities     162

Enhancing Writing Using Technology Tools     204    

activity  Sketch to Stretch     165

Troubleshooting         204

activity  Going Beyond Visualizing     166

No Confidence     204

Reading Comprehension and Technology     167

No Ideas     204

Troubleshooting     169

Too Many Ideas     205

vi     Contents
Unfamiliar Organizational Patterns     206

questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     246

No Interest in Writing     206

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     246

Summary     206

References     246

questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     207

CHAPTER

References     208

Seven

Literacy in the Content Areas
Learning from Informational Text     209

CHAPTER

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     207

Fluency     249

Focus Questions     249
In the Classroom     250

Introduction     250
Increasing Reading Fluency     251
Readers Theatre     253

Focus Questions     209
In the Classroom     210

activity  Readers Theatre     253

Use of Phrase Markings     255

What is Content Area Literacy?     210

activity  Using Phrase Markings to Increase

What is Displinary Literacy?     212

Fluency     255

Literacy Standards and Content Standards
vs. Discipline-Specific Literacy Activities     212

Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction     256
activity  Using Fluency-Oriented Reading

Reading in the Content Areas     214

Instruction     256

Content Area Materials     215

Oral Recitation Lesson     256

activity  The FLIP Strategy     215

Content Area Reading Strategies/Activities     218
activity  Study Strategy Tryout     221

activity  Initiating an Oral Recitation Lesson     257

Fostering Writing Fluency     257
Speed     258

Writing in the Content Areas     222

activity  Free Writing     258

Writing Expository Paragraphs/Essays     224
Writing Persuasive Essays and Arguments with
Support     225
activity  Proposition/Support Outline for Persuasive

Writing     226

Writing Summaries     228
activity  Writing a Summary     228

Digital Storytelling     229

Eight

Automaticity     258
Troubleshooting     259
Lack of Verbal English Skills     259
Summary     260
questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     260
suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     260
References     260

Using Expository Text Structures in Writing     230
Researching in the Content Areas     236
Locating Information     236
activity  I-Search Process     237

Online Search Skills     238
activity  Online Search Using a Data Chart     239

Evaluating the Reliability of Sources     241
Troubleshooting     243

CHAPTER

activity  Multiple Uses of a Graphic Organizer     233

Nine

Differentiating Instruction
for Diverse Classrooms     263
Focus Questions     263
In the Classroom     264

Lack of Familiarity with Expository Text Structures     244

Why Differentiate Instruction?     264

activity  Dictoglos     244

The Concept of Differentiated Instruction     265

Summary     245

Planning and Implementing a Differentiated Lesson     266

Achieving Differentiation Through Tiered
Activities     268
Sixth Grade Science Example: The Biosphere     268
Diverse Learner Groups     271
Students Who Are Linguistically Diverse (English
Learners)     272

CHAPTER

Contents      vii

Eleven

Connecting School and Home    313

Students Who Are Gifted and Talented     276

Focus Questions     313
In the Classroom     314

Students Who Are Learning Disabled     279

Literacy Growth at Home     314

Students Who Have Disorders That Affect
Communication     281

Understanding Differences in Home
Practices     316

Students Who Are Physically Challenged     282

Communicating with Parents and Caregivers     317

Students Who Have Behavioral Disorders     283
Summary     286

What Parents Should Know About Literacy in Grades
4–8     317

questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     286

Parent–Teacher Conferences     318

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     287

Working with Parents to Help Their Children     320

References     287

Other Communication with Parents     321

CHAPTER

What is Family Literacy?     322

Ten

Fostering Literacy In
and Beyond the Classroom     289

Family Literacy Programs     322
Troubleshooting     324
Interfering Work Schedules     324
Reluctance to Attend School Functions     325
Lack of a Common Language     325
Summary     325

Focus Questions     289
In the Classroom     290

questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     326

Expanded Goals for Literacy Instruction     291

References     326

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     326

Developing Motivated Literacy Learners     292
activity  Media Portrayals of People and

Cultures     298

Service-Learning: Taking Literacy Beyond the
Classroom     301

CHAPTER

Establishing Lifelong Literacy Habits     294

Twelve

Garden Project: Chenowith Elementary School     302

Literacy in Grades 4–8

History of the Community Project: Horace Mann
Academic Middle School     302

Orchestrating a Balanced
and Comprehensive Program     329

Real-World Classroom Activities     303
activity  Bike Repair     303

Focus Questions     329
In the Classroom     330

activity  Job Market     304

Introduction     330

activity  Developing Discriminating Consumers of

A Classroom Climate Conducive to Literacy     332

Media     304

Setting Objectives     332

activity  Reading Can Save You Money     304

Providing for Differentiated Instruction     333

activity  The World When You Were Born     305

Into the Real World: Information Literacy     306

Implementing Powerful Activities and
Assignments     333

Summary     308

Teaching for Depth and Connections     334

questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     308

Organizing the Classroom for Instruction     335

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     309

Materials and Equipment     335

References     309

Centers     335

viii     Contents
Devising an Instructional Plan     337
9:00–9:30 Journal Writing/Silent Reading/Computer
Buddies     338
9:30–10:15 Directed Reading–Thinking
Activity     338
10:15–11:15 Language Arts/Social Studies/Writing
Workshop     339
11:15–12:00 Math     339
12:00–12:40 Lunch and Recess     339
12:40–1:20 Physical Education/Library     339

Appendices
A Children’s and Young Adult Literature
References     343
B Literacy Websites     349    
C Informal Checklists and Assessment
Devices     352

1:20–2:30 Integrated Curriculum Block     339

D Word Lists     383    

2:30–2:45 Homeroom/Debriefing Session     340

E A Typical Week’s Word Study Plan     385    

Summary     340
questions for Journal Writing and Discussion     341

Glossary     387

suggestions for Projects and Field Activities     341

Author Index     398

References     342

Subject Index     401


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