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resistance welding equipment of
In ancient times, the process of welding was altogether different. People used to melt metals up to
their melting points and then press them to connect. This was known as forge welding ( click here
) that time. However, evolution lead to improvisation of technology too. With the advent of
technology; especially electricity, welding technology advanced significantly. Today there are
various welding technologies such as ultrasonic, friction, electron beam, plasma, laser welding,
etc. Though we hardly come across actual welding process in our daily lives, it's a fact that it is
applied broadly in a variety of industries today.
What exactly is resistance welding?
Resistance welding is one of the most widely used welding techniques. It involves use of
electrically generated heat and pressure that creates a connecting bond between materials. This
type of welding is very quick and efficient in its action mechanism. However, manual mistakes
during resistance welding may lead to formation of cavities, cracking, and deformed surface
The working mechanism
Resistance welding equipment usually includes the machines that operate with copper electrodes.
These electrodes serve to inject the materials with electrically generated heat. The amount of
heat and heating time can be controlled as per welding requirements. Once a sufficient amount of
heat is injected, outside materials cool down. Inner, molten materials cool down slowly. By the
time this cooling phase is accomplished, connecting bonds are formed.
Besides heat, resistance welding also requires force. The layers of connecting metals are held
together by means of pressure. The layers have to be pressurized while they undergo cooling for the sake of desired cohesion.
Principle of resistance welding
Resistance welding follows a simple principle based on the three keys – heat, pressure, and time.
It employs both electricity and force. The current through copper electrodes, contacts the metal
parts that are supposed to be joined. Resistance heat is generated at the interface of metal parts
and makes a nugget - which results in a melt joint.
There are different resistance welding bonds. Fusion bonding is the one that involves binding
materials till they reach their melting points; while a solid state bond is the one that involves least
melting of metal parts.
Spot welding and seam welding are the two most commonly used types of resistance welding.
Applications of resistance welding
Resistance welding ( click here ) is widely used in manufacturing of a number of items that we use
every day. These items include washers, dryers, microwaves, automobiles, buses, light bulbs,
fluorescent lamps, compressors, air conditioners, steel drums, tin cans, and many more. Motor,
terminal, halogen lamps, electronic guns, relay, pressure sensors are some other items that make
use of this type of welding.
Since this process is efficient and consumes short period of time, it is the best suitable one for
high volume production of low-cost products. The metals are less exposed to actual heat and
thus, the resulting workpiece has the least number of heat affected areas. This leads to good
looking appearance of the workpiece with much lesser indentation marks compared to others.