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ol§i",ju

English consonant allophones

O

Voiceless plosives r

filr

syllable.

\'

ir
*l* t,\oł.v

Ę tx{;"#':;#*
ń'y -hąJĘ
iŃi 'u,t ,l *"} 7W:**'"

F,t-J

r)"when they
thev at the
beoinnino of a
tE_!s§.!!ĘŁg!
are aspirated (i.e. fo llowed by an extra puff of air)"when

potato
caught $.
1yhitJ top
tpjiti ł>,]
łt, l are unaspirate a after/s/.rhtpt't( #5?'n^oy.*
skin
2. Voiceless plosives r -r-,
P
stressed

D,ffiiifl-

3.

pit

Voiced plosives (and all obstruent;) are fully voiced when they appear in voiced contexts (between voiced sounds)

Jiffi.iłm-,S W

eager

;1tflt'[t"t'1
4.

l

toąkŹt

Voiced plosives (

'OJ q,

,,

.*

,J*'j''iWffii"*t

,\kĘ yo,.c\rzr Ł,rrviroą*ł^l

to

l

uoi..l"rs obstruent or

obligatory both inside words and across word Poundarie_s.
Diacritic:

5.

6

[bĘ]

ffi:]:'ff;'ffi:T

bud

website

|,uP.s;atł/

,J

:

H:

.

in clusters of thre; plcJiiues - ttE.uitr"ul on"

ffi,.::;l,ł;iJ,,|,"t[

*,*d ;t. vrołJ jęI-*

]"oo"o'":

[,i,,l.,ł.,t lptttiou,

L"
9YbP.d,

Ll

In many accents of English, syllable

pt

fiĘl /p, t, kl

submit
*

lł"

LJ*a'
"lv

r

i l$

"il

are accompanied by a

Uhpł^b;-,}"

butter

[wIł0]

11. Velar plosives /k,

h

Diacritic:

g/

lihl,t')
-. t

,1-\

Y

[trall

Bilabial plosives

]"3.

"ffiŁ

/p,b/

a
r,-tpnt

vowel.

til }ll
f
+-l"

h

Lip

rounding

Lip

spreading ltjil

rain

[t*u:]
n

15.

t'd^§ ri
']'":" iN,ą
LJ-)
Gi{-irTi ,
5"tor."|uffisffiŃfr"'Ju, "[o§ń' J

ov$4lrąi]

arelabiodental

rpoJąjo,\e"q"n, r

homorganic sounds: with the same place and manner of articulation, but different voicin9,

boy

white

1\

o .nw.!*

hr,qŁh



big car

*v§.
oVtN

\"jo,{ń.J^

L

dog

t

ią Ę^*rL Th.ń"
lt 1^ l

są]

followed by a nasal sound):

Alveolar plosives /t, d/ ą|e retracted when before post-alveolar and pólato-alveolar sounds.
cold
Diacritic

12.

LrWr"Ń

§"iJ""J \Ę6""

00

uJ

lnt']

wealth

the neighbourhood of

Il5i:]

a bit nicer

Luipi-",gi

glottal stop (are glottally reinforced).

!o 1

are advanced when in

bitterly

betterfbu7a]

[b/l)l

Ler

Ę:;,lł:] r,h,iflT

ti\(1l

Alveolar plosives become dental before dental consonants
tenth
eighth
Diacritic

k

I

"!et.fł'

In some accents /t/ is replaced by a glottal ,stop (usually intervocalic or

beatenlti;?|i

e.9. wept

[5atl"ilą

good luck

[pdt]

"

fi-ąiool

61o|l["{,-x, Ę
" --;o*-rrXł'

,*.ri.]il;-,,rł'-t''-'

robe

rli]*o JuaiOt"rJ"lre,

N.A-§,ĄL

l;ffiji:y?;,nasalPlosion..:.ffr$^łi;1
Plosive have a lateral plosion before /l/

top

,n,, o.u

Plosives have no plosion (are unexploded or have no audib,le release): Diacritic [stłb'd]

7.

e.9.

a pau'e, This process is


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