The memories of September 11, 2001 have been etched into the American conscience,
and have remained there for more than a decade. The acts of terrorism that occurred on
September 11, 2001 seem tragically familiar to us now.1 On the morning of September 11, 19
members of the bin Laden terrorist network boarded four commercial jets at East Coast airports.
Each of the jets was headed on a “cross country non-stop flight, which meant that they all had
maximum loads of jet fuel on board that became the incendiary device when each slammed into
its target.”2 After the airplanes took off, they were “commandeered by the terrorists, some of
whom had received pilot training in the United States, and directed toward their targets.”3 At
8:45am, the first of the hijacked planes, American Airlines Flight 11, slammed into the North
face of the North Tower. Eighteen minutes later, at 9:03am the second hijacked plane, United
Airlines Flight 175, crashed into the south face of the South Tower. The attacks caused “both
[buildings] to collapse, killing nearly 3,000 people.”4 The third plane, American Airlines Flight
77, having taken off from Washington Dulles airport was flown into the side of the Pentagon,
killing 189 more people.5 The fourth, and final plane, United Airlines Flight 93 “crashed in the
western Pennsylvania countryside after passengers apparently thwarted the terrorists, who were
directing the plane toward Washington as well.”6 Donald M. Snow, author of September 11,
2001: The New Face of War? explains “it was, by far, the largest terrorist act ever carried out
Donald M. Snow, September 11, 2001: The New Face of War? (New York, NY: Longman,
Craig A Warren, “‘It Reads Like a Novel ’: The ‘9/11 Commission Report’ and the American
Reading Public,” Journal of American Studies 41, no. 3 (2007): 535.
Richard J. Gray, After The Fall, Blackwell Manifestos (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). 26.
Snow, September 11, 2001: The New Face of War?. 22.
David Simpson, 911: The Culture of Commemoration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, Anti-Terrorism: Security and Insecurity After 9/11 (Halifax, N.S.:
Fernwood Pub., 2009).