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446

Wheelock's Latin

SUMMARY OF FORMS

NOUNS-DEClENSIONS
First

Second

Third

porta, -ae
f., gate
Sg.
N port-a
G. port-ae
D. port-ae
A. port-am
Ab. port-a
PI.
N port-ae
G. port-arum
D. port-is
A. port-as
Ab. port-is

amicus, -i
m.,ji-iend

puer, -i
m., boy

ager, -gri
m.,jield

donurn, -i
n., gift

rex, regis
rn., king

corpus, -oris
n" body

arnic-us l
amic-i
amic-a
arnie-lim
arnic-o

puer
puer-i
puer-o
puer-um
puer-o

ager
agr-i
agr-o
agr-um
agr-o

don-lim
don-i
don-a
don-um
don-a

rex
reg-is
reg-i
reg-em
reg-e

corpus
corpor-is
corpor-i
corpus
corpor-e

amic-i
amic-orum
amie-is
arnie-os
amie-is

puer-i
puer-orum
puer-is
puer-os
puer-is

agr-i
agr-orum
agr-is
agr-os
agr-is

don-a
don-arum
don-is
don-a
don-is

reg-es
reg-UlTI
reg-ibus
reg-es
reg-ibus

corpor-a
corpor-um
eorpor-ibus
corpor-a
eorpor-ibus

Third (I-Stems)
cTVIS, -IS
rn., cifizen
Sg.
N civ-IS
G. cTv-is
D. cTv-i
A. civ-em
Ab. civ-e
PI.
N cTv-es
G. cTv-ium
D. civ-ibus
A. elV-CS
Ab. eiv-ibus
Vf.\' is irregular: Sg.,
Ab. viribus.

Fourth

Fifth

urbs, -is
C, city

mare, -IS
n., sea

frOctus, -OS
m.,ji-uit

cornu,-us
n., horn

dies, -eT
m.,day

urb-s
lu·b-is
urb-i
urb-em
urb-e

mar-e
mar-is
rnar-i
mar-e
mar-i

frOct-us
frOct-us
frOet-lii
frOct-um
frOct-u

corn-fl
corn-Os
eorn-u
corn-O
corn-U

di-es
di-ei
di-ei
di-em
di-e

urb-cs
urb-ium
urb-ibus
urb-es
urb-ibus
N., vis, G. (vIs).

mar-Ja
mar-ium
mar-ibus
mar-ia
mar-ibus
D. (vI), A. vim. Ab.

frOct-us
frnct-uum
rrnet-ibus
frOct-us
frOct-ibus
vi; Pl., N. vires, G.

I The vocative singular of nouns like amicus and
of masculine adjectives like magnus ends in -e. The
vocative singular of filius and or names in -ius ends in
a single -I (fili, Vergili); the vocative singular of the

corn-ua
di-es
corn-uum
di-erum
corn-ibus
di-ebus
corn-ua
di-es
corn-ibus
di-ebus
virium, D, viribus, A. vires,

masculine adjective meus is mi; the vocative singular
of masculine adjectives in -ius ends in -ie (egregius;
cgregie). Otherwise, the vocative has the same form as
the nominative in all declensions.

Appendix

ADJECTIVES-DECLENSIONS
Adjs. in -us, -a, -urn

M.

First and Second Declensions
Adjs. in

-Cl,

M.

N.

F.

O1ag111

D.

magno

magnus

magna
magnae
magnae
magnam
magna

A. magnum
Ab. magno

Sillgular2
magnum

magnT
magn6
magnum

magn6

lIber
Ilbed
llber5
lIberum
llbero

magn6rum

D.

magnTs

magnI

A. magnos
Ab. magnTs

magnas

magnTs

l\vo endings

fortis, forte
brave
M.&

~~

Sg.
N fortis
fortis
G.
D.
forti
A. fortem
forti
Ab.

magnae
magnarull1
magnIs

N.
forte

forte

PI.
fortia
N fortes
G.
fortium
D.
forti bus
A. fortes 4
fortia
rortibus
Ab.

lIhera
!Theme
lIberae

liberum
lIber!
lIbera

ITbcram

ITberum

Ilbera

IIbera

Singular2

Plural

N
G.

N.

F.

Singular

N
G.

-era, -erom; -er, -fa, -rum

magna
magn6rum

magnTs
magna
magnTs

Three endings
aeer, [ens, acre
keen, severe
M.&F.
N.

pulcher
pulchrI
pulchro
pulchrum
pulchro

Third Declension
One Ending
potens 3
P01VClful
M.&F.

aeer acris
acris
acri
acrem
aerl

acre

acres
acrium
acribus
acres 4
acribus

acria

aere

acria

2 The plural follows the pattern of the singular except that it has the plural endings.
3 Present participles follow the declension or potens except that they have -c in the ablative singular

pulchra
pukhrae
pulchrae
pUlchram
pu1chra

pulchrum

pulchrT
pulchr6
pulchrum
pulchro

Compuratives 5

fortior, fortius
N.

braver
M.&F.

N.

potens
potens
potent is
potent!
potentem
potens
potent!

fortior
fortius
fortioris
fortiorI
fortiorem
fortius
forti6re

potentes
potentia
potentium
potentibus
potentes>l
potentia
potenlibus

forti6res
lorti6ra
forti6rU111
forti6ribus
rorti6res
fortiora
fortiori bus

when used as genuine participles.
>I For -is (acc. pI.) see Ch. 16.
5 For irregular pIUs see eh. 27.

447

448

Wheelock's Latin
PRONOUNS
Demonstrative

hic, this

ille, thar

M.
Sg.
N hie
G. huius
D. huie
A. hunc
Ab. hoc
PI.
N hI
G. horum
D. his
A. hos
Ab. hIs

F.

N.

M.

F.

N.

haec
huius
huic
hanc
hac

hoc
huius
huie
hoc
hoc

ille
imus
illT
illum

ilia

ilia

illIus
illT
illam
ilIa

illud
illlus
illT
illud
illa

hae
harum
hIs
has
hIs

haec
horum
hIs
haec
hIs

illT
illorum
illIs
illas
illIs

illae
ilIa rum
illIs
illas
illIs

Relative
quI, who, which

M.
Sg.
N quI
G. CUiUS
D. cui
A. quem
Ab. quo
PI.
N quI
G. quorum
D. quibus
A. quos
Ab. quibus

F.

N.

Interrogative'
quis, who?
M.&F.
N.

quae
cui
quam
qua

quod
cuius
cui
quod
quo

qUlS
cuius
cui
quem
quo

quae
quarllm
qllibus
quas
quibus

quae
quorum
qui bus
quae
quibus

ClUllS

quid
eUlUS
cui
quid
quo

(Plural is same
as that of
relative.)

6The interrogative adjective qui? quae? quod?
meaning what? which? what kind oj? has the same declension as that of the relative pronoun.

ilia
illorum
iIlTs
illa
illIs

Intensive
ipse, himself; etc.
M.
F.

N.

Ipse
Ipslus
ipsI
ipsum
ipso

ipsa
Ipslus
ipsI
ipsam
IpSa

ipsum
lpslus
IpsI
ipsum
ipso

IpsI
ipsa rum
ipsIs
ipsos
IpsIs

Ipsae
ipsarum
ipsls
ipsas
IpsIs

Ipsa
lpsorum
ipsls
ipsa
ipsIs

Appendix

449

PRONOUNS
Demonstrative
is, this, that, he, she, il
M.
F.

idem, the saine
M.

N.

F.

N.

Sg.

N.

is

ea

id

G

eills

eills
ej

eills

cam

id

Idem
eiusdem
cIdem
eundem

ea

eo

eadem

PI.
N. cT, iI
G carum
D. eIs, iIs
A. cas

cae
carum
cis, iTs
cas

ea
ea

eIdem, Idem
e6rundem
eTsdem 7
cosdcm

Ab. eTs

CIS

CIS

eTsdem

D. cj
A. eum
Ab. eo

Irregular Adjectives 8
salus, alone, only
M.
F.

cj

corum
CIS, iTs

eadem
eiusdem

idem

eidem

eiusdem
eIdem

eandem
eadem

e6dem

caedcm

earundem
eTsdem
easdcm
cTsdcm

Personal<J

idem

eadem
e6rundcm
eIsdem
eadem
e1sdem

Reflexive9
suT, himselj;
herseft:

itserr

N.

ego, J

to, you

solum
sollus

ego

tn

meT

tul

SUTIO

mihi

tibi

me

sibi

salam

sail
solum
s616

to
to

Se"

soja

s61ae

sola

Sg.

N.
G

salus
s6ITus
soli
solum

D.
A.
Ab. s515

PI.
N. s6lf
G

s6J6rum

D. solis
A. solos
Ab. soils

s61a
selTus
solT

s6iarum

s616rum

solis
soUts
salls

solis
sola
solis

Also isdem.
Similarly finus, tUtus, filius, lliill1ls, alius, aiter,
uter, neuter (see eh. 9).
'I All forms of the pronouns of the first and second persons except the nom. sg. and the nom. pI. may
7

8

me
n6s
{nostrum
110strI
nobIs
nos
nobIs

Sell

vas

{vestrum
vestrI
vobIs
vos
vobIs

suI
sibi
Sell
Sell

also be used as reflexive pronouns.
10 These forms are reHexive only. The nonref'lexive
forms of the third person are supplied by is, ca, id (see
Chs.II,13).
11 The form sese is also frequently found.

450

Wheelock's Latin

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Positive
Regular
longus, ~a, wum (long)
fortis, -e (brave)
felIx, gen. IelIcis, (happy)
sapiens, gen. sapient is (wise)
racilis, -e (easy)
llber, -era, -erum (free)
pulcher, -ehra, wehrum (beaut(fiil)
aeer, acris, aere (keen)
Irregular
bonus, wa, -urn (good)
magnus, -a, -urn (large)
malus, wa, wum (bad)
muitus, -a, -um (much)
parvus, -a, -um (\'/Jut/I)
(prae, pro)
superus, -a, -urn (that above)

Comlmrative

Superlative

longior, -ius
fortior, -ius
IelIcior, -ius
sapientior, -ius
facilior, -ius
lIberior, -ius
pulchrior, -ius
aerior, -ius

longissimus, -a, -urn
fortissimus, -a, -urn
IelIeissimus, -a, -um
sapientissimus, -a, -um
facillimus, -a, -urn
liberrimus, -a, -um
pulcherrimus, -a, -urn
aeerrimus, -a, -urn

melior, -ius
maior, -ius
peior, -ius
-', plUs
1111110r, m1l1us
prior, -ius (fhrmer)
superior, -ius

optimus, -a, -um
maximus, -a, -um
pessimus, -a, -um
plUrimus, -a, -um
minimus, -a, -um
prImus, -a, -um
summus (supremus), -a, -urn

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
Positive

Regular
longe (fill')
fartiter (bravely)
IelIeiter (happily)
sapienter (wisely)
racile (easily)

IIbere (jiwly)
pulchre (beal/I(fi/lly)
acriter (keenly)
Irregular

bene (lVell)
magnopere (greatly)
male (badly)
muitUlll (much)
parum (lillie)
(prae, pro)
din (a long lime)

Comparative

Superlative

longius
fortins
IelIeius
sapientius
facilius
IIberius
pulchrius
aenus

longissime
fortissime
IelIcissime
sapientissime
faeillime
liberrime
pulcherrime
aeerrime

melius
magis
peius
plfls
minus
prius (befhre)
diutius

optime
maxime
pessime
plUrimum
minime
primum; prImo
diutissime

Appendix

NUMERALS
Cardinals
1. unus, -a, -um

2. duo, duae, duo
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
IS.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
30.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
101.
200.
300.
400.
500.
600.
700.
800.
900.

tres, tria
quattuor
quInque

sex
septem
octO

novem
decem
lindecim
duodecim
tredecim
quattuordecim
qUlndecim
sedecim
septendecim
duodevIginU
undevfgintI
vIginU
vlgintI Gnus, linus et vIginU
trIginta
quadraginta
qulnquaginta
sexaginta
septuagint§.
octBginta
nonagintii
centum
centum unus
ducenU, -ae, -a
trecentI
quadringentI
qulngenU
sescentI
septingenU
octingenH
nongentI
1000. mll1e
2000. duo mIlia

Ordinals

Roman Numerals

primus, -a, ~Ul11
secundus, alter
tertius
quartus
quintus
sextus
septimus
octavus
nOllUs
decimus
lmdecimus

]

duodecimus
tertius decimus
guartlls decimus
quIntus decimus

sextus decimus
septimus decimus
duodevlcesimus
undevfcesimus

vlcesimus
vlcesimus prImus
trTcesimus
quadragesil11l1s
quinquagesimus
sexagesimus
septuagesimus
oct6gesimus

n6nagesimus
centesimus
centesimus prImus
duoccntesimus

trecentesimus
quadringentesimus
qUTngentesinms
sescentesimus
scptingentesimus
octingentesimus
n6ngentcsimns
mTllcsimus

bis mIlJesirnus

lJ
1II
lJlJ; IV
V
VI
VlJ
VlII
VIllI; IX
X
XI
XII
XlII
XlIII; XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVlII
XVIlII; XIX
XX
XX]
XXX
XXXX,XL
L
LX
LXX
LXXX
LXXXX; XC
e
eI
ee
eee
ecce
D
DC
Dec
Dcee
DCeee

M
MM

Declension of Numerals
For the declension of finus see Ch. 9 or sohls above.
For duo, tres, and mille see Ch. 15.
The forms from trecenti through nongenti are declined in the plural like ducentI, -ae,
The ordinals are declined like primus, -a, -urn.
The other forms are indeclinable.

-3.

451

452

Wheelock's Latin

CONJUGATIONS 1-4
Principal Parts
Is(: laudo
2nd: maneo
3rd: ago
4th: audio
3rd (~io): capin

laudare
monere
agere
audlre
capere

laudITvT
monu!
egI

audTvT

eerY

laudatUlll
monitum
actum
audItum
captum

Indicative Active
Present
laude

laud as
lauclat
laudamus
laudatis
laud ant

moneo
mones
monei
monemus
monetis
manent

ago
agis
agit
agimus
agi1is
agul1t

audio

Imperfect
laudabam
laucl5b5s
laudabat
laudrrbamus
laudabatis
laudabant

monebam
monebas
monebat
monebITmus
monebITtis
monebant

agebarn
age bas

audiebam
audiebITs
audiebat
audiebamus

capiebam
capiebITs
capiebat

agebatis
agebant

aucliebatis
audiebant

capiebatis
capiebant

Future
laudab6
laudabis
laudabit
laudabimus
laudabilis
laudabunt

moneb6
monebis
monebit
monebimus
monebitis
monebunt

agam
ages
agel
agemus
agetis
agent

audiam
audies
audiet
audiemus
audietis
audient

capiam
capies
capiel
capiemus
capietis
capient

Perfect
laudavI
laudavistT
laudavit
laudavimus
laudavislis
laudaverunt

monuT
monuisti
monuit
monuimus
monuistis
monuerunt

egT
egistT
egit
egimus
egistis
egcrunt

audTvT
audTvistT
audTvit
audTvimus
audTvistis
audlverunt

cepT
cepistT
cepit
cepimus
cepistis
ceperunt

Pluperfect
laudaveram
laudaveras
laudaverat
laudaveramus
laud avera tis
laudaverant

monueram
monueras
monuerat
monueramus
monueratis
rnonuerant

egeram
egeras
egerat
egeramus
egeratis
egerant

audTveram
audlveras
audlverat
audlveramus
audlveratis
audlverant

ceperam
cepcras
ceperat
ceperamus
ceperatis
ceperant

Future Perfect
laudaver6
laudaveris
laudaverit
laudaverimus
laudaveritis
laudaverint

rnonuero
rnonueris
monuerit
monuenmus
monueritis
monuerint

cgero
egeris
egerit
egerirnus
egcritis
egerint

audTvero
audTveris
audTverit
audTverimus
audTveritis
audTverint

cepero
ceperis
ceperit
ceperimus
ceperitis
ceperint

age bat
agebamus

audIs
audit
audTmus

audTtis
audiunt

capiB
caplS

capit
capimus
capitis
capiunt

capiebITmus

Appendix

Subjunctive Active
Present

laudern

moneam

iaudes
laudet

moneas

laudernus
laudetis
laudent

agam
agas

maneat
moneamus
moneatis

agat
agamus
agiHis
agant

maneant

audiam
audias
alldiat
audiamus

audUUis
audiant

capiam
capias
capiat

capiamus
capi5tis
capiant

Imperfect
laudarem
laudares
landuret
laudaremus
laudaretis
laudarcnt

monerem

agerem
ageres
agerct

moneres
moneret
moneremus
moneretis
monerent

ageremus
ageretis
agerent

audTres
audTret
audlremus
audlretis
audlrent

caperem
capcrcs
caperet
caperemus
caperetis
capercnt

audTrem

Perfect
egerim
egerIs
egerit

audlverim

cepenm

audlvcrTs

ceperTs

laudaverit

monuerim
monuerIs
monuerit

audTverit

ceperit

laudaverTl11us
laudaverTtis
laudaverint

monuerTmus
monuerTtis
l110nuerint

egerTmus
egerTtis
egerint

audTverTmus
audTverTtis
audTverint

ceperTmus
ccperTtis
cepcrint

monuissem
monuisses
monuisset
mOl1uissemus
monuissetis
monuissent

egissel11
eglsses
egisset
egissemus
egissetis
egissent

audTvissem
audTvisses
audTvisset
audTvissemus
audTvissetis
audTvissent

cepIssem
ceplsses
cepisset
cepisscmus
cepissetis
cepisscnt

audT
audTte

cape
capite

laudaverim
laudaverTs

Plupel'fect
laudavissem
laudavisses
laudavisset
laudavissemus
laudavissetis
laudavissent

Present Imllerative Active
lauda
laudate

mone
monete

age
agite

Indicative Passive
Present
laudor
la udaris( -re)
laudatur
laudamur
laudaminT
laudantur

moneor
l11oneris(-re)
monetur
monemur
moneminT
rnonentur

agor
ageris( -re)
agitur
agimur
agil11inT
aguntur

audior
audTris( -re)
audTtur
audTmur
audTl11inT
audiuntur

capior
ea peris( -re)
capitur
capimur
capil11inT
capiuntur

Impel'fect
laudabar
laudabaris( -re)
laudabiitur
laudabal11ur
iaudiibaminT
iaudabantur

l110nebar
rnonebaris(-re)
monebiitur
monebamur
l110nebarninT
monebantur

agebar
agebiiris( -re)
agebatur
agebiimur
agebarninT
agebantur

audiebar
audiebaris(-re)
audiebatur
audiebarnur
audiebaminT
audiebantur

capi§bar
eapiebaris(-re)
capiebiitur
capiebamur
eapiebaminT
eapiebantur

453

454

Wheelock's Latin

Future
laudabor
JaucWberis( -re)
laudabitur

monebar
moneberis(-re)
ll10nebilur

laudabimur
laudabiminT
laudabuntur

monebimur
monebiminT
monebuntur

agar

audiar

ageris( -re)

audieris(-re)
audietur

agctur
agemur
agcminT
agentur

audiemur

capiar
capieris(-rc)
capietur
capiemur

auclieminT
audientur

capientur

capic1111l11

Perfect

laudatus es
laudatus est
laudITtT sumus

monitus sum
monitus cs
monitus est
monitT SlmlllS

actus sum
actus es
actus est

audTtus sum
audHus es

actY

laudatT estis

monitT cstis

laudITtI sunt

monitT sunt

act! estis
actT sunt

audIt! sumus
audIU estis
audHI sunt

laud at us eras
laudatus erat
laudat"f eramus
laudatT era lis
laudatI erant

lllonitus cram
monitus eras
manitus erat
manit! eramus
maniU cratis
moniU erant

actus cram
actus eras
actus erat
acU eramus
act! era tis
actI erant

audItus cram
audHus eras
audTtus erat
audItI eramus
audHI era tis
audHI crant

captus eram
captus eras
captus erat
capU eramus
eaptT era tis
eaptI erant

Future Perfect
laudatus era
laudatus eris
laudatus erit
laudaU erimus
laud aU eritis
laudaH erunl

monitus era
monitus eris
monitus erit
monit! crimus
monit! eritis
moniU erunt

actus era
actus eris
actus erit
acU crimus
acH critis
act! erunt

audItus era
audHus eris
audTtus erit
audm erimus
audHI critis
audHl crunt

captus era
captus eris
captus crit
capt! erimus
eapH eritis
eaptI crunt

laudatus ' ?' sum

Pluperfect
laudatus eram

S1I111US

audTtus est

captus sum
captus es
captus est
captI SUITIUS

captY estis
eaptI sunt

Subjunctive Passive
Present
lauder
lauderis(-re)
laudetur
lauclemur
laudemin"f
laudentur

monear
monearis(-re)
moneatur
moncamur
Il1oneamin"f
Il10neantur

agar
agaris( -re)
agatur
agamur
agamin"f
agantur

audiar
audiads(-re)
audiatur
audial11ur
alldiaminT
audiantur

eapiar
eapiaris(-rc)
capiatur
eapiamur
eapial11inI
eapiantllr

Imperfect
laudarer
laudareris( -rc)
laudaretur
laudaremur
laudarcl11inT
laudarcntur

monerer
1110nereris( -re)
moncrctur
l110neremur
monereminT
monerentur

agerer
agereris( -re)
agcrctur
agcremur
agereminT
agerentur

aud"frer
audTreris(-re)
audTrctur
audTrcl11ur
audTrel11inT
audTrentur

eaperer
capcrcris(-re)
caperetur
caperemur
eapereminI
capcrcntur

12The participles lamHitus (-a, -lim), monitus (-<1,
-um), etc., are lIsed as predicate acijectives, and so
their endings vary to agree with the subject.


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