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R. Lynn / Personality and Individual Differences 32 (2002) 273–316


implicit in virtually all the listed behaviors. Despite the replacement of the concept of psychopathic personality with that of anti-social personality disorder by the American Psychiatric
Association, many psychiatrists and psychologists such as Hare (1994) and Lykken (1995) regard
the term psychopathic personality as preferable and continue to use it.
In recent years the most frequently used instrument for the assessment of psychopathic personality is Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist (Hare, 1991, 1994; Harpur, Hart, & Hare, 1994). This
consists of a list of 20 symptoms of psychopathic personality which are identified as present or
absent by raters or by self-assessment. These symptoms fall into two main clusters or factors
identified by factor analysis. The first of these is a syndrome of eight ‘‘emotional-interpersonal’’
characteristics (glibness/superficial charm; grandiose sense of self-worth; pathological lying; conning/manipulative; lack of remorse or guilt; shallow affect; callous, lack of empathy; failure to
accept responsibility for actions). The second factor consists of a syndrome of nine ‘‘social
deviance’’ characteristics (need for stimulation/proneness to boredom; parasitic lifestyle; poor
behavior controls; early behavior problems; lack of realistic long-term goals; impulsivity;
irresponsibility; juvenile delinquency; revocation of conditional release). The Psychopathic
Checklist contains three further characteristics which load about equally on both factors.
These are promiscuous sexual behavior; many short-term sexual relationships; and criminal
versatility. The twenty items of the Psychopathy Checkist are scored 0 (No), 1 (Maybe) or 2
(Yes). This treats psychopathic personality as a continuously distributed personality trait
with scores ranging between 0 and 40. Research using this instrument has shown a number
of informative features of psychopathic personality such as the higher scores normally
obtained by males but it has not been used to any significant scale to investigate racial and
ethnic differences.
2.1. The MMPI Psychopathic Deviate Scale
The MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) is a questionnaire consisting of a
series of scales for the measurement of a variety of psychiatric conditions regarded as continuously distributed in the population, such as hysteria, mania and depression. The MMPI was
constructed in the late 1930s by Hathaway and McKinley (1940) and is one of the most widely
used instruments in personality research. It contains a scale for the measurement of psychopathic
personality known as the Psychopathic Deviate Scale. This was constructed by writing a number
of questions, giving them to criterion groups of those manifesting psychopathic behaviour and
‘‘normals’’, and selecting for the scale the questions best differentiating the two groups. The criterion group manifesting psychopathic behaviour consisted of 17–24 year olds appearing before
the courts and referred for psychiatric examination because of their ‘‘long histories of delinquenttype behaviours such as stealing, lying, alcohol abuse, promiscuity, forgery and truancy’’ (Archer,
1997, p. 20). The common feature of this group has been described as their failure to ‘‘learn those
anticipatory anxieties which operate to deter most people from committing anti-social behaviour’’ (Marks, Seeman, & Haller, 1974, p. 25). The manual describes those scoring high on the
scale as follows: irresponsible, antisocial, aggressive, having recurrent marital and work problems, and underachieving (Hathaway & McKinley, 1989). A number of subsequent studies have
shown that the Psychopathic Deviate scale differentiates delinquents and criminals from nondelinquents and non-criminals (e.g. Elion & Megargee, 1975).