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276

R. Lynn / Personality and Individual Differences 32 (2002) 273–316

During the 60 or so years following its publication the MMPI has been administered to
numerous groups. Normative data for the means obtained in the United States by ‘‘normal’’ (i.e.
non-psychiatric) samples of blacks, whites, ethnic Japanese Americans, Hispanics and Native
Americans have been published by Dahlstrom, Lachar, and Dahlstrom (1986). I have calculated
these data as d scores (differences expressed in standard deviation units) in relation to a white
value of zero, positive signs indicating scores higher than those of whites and negative signs
indicating signs lower than those of whites. Scores of males and females have been combined
giving equal weight to both sexes. The results of these calculations are shown in the first row of
Table 1. The ethnic Japanese are entered in the table under ‘‘E. Asians’’ (East Asians) because
‘‘Asians’’ is the term most frequently used for this group in the American literature and I have
added the prefix ‘‘East’’ to differentiate them from South Asians from the Indian sub-Continent.
Most American Asians are ethnic Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Filipinos, although they also
include Vietnamese and some others from southeast Asia. Hispanics are not a homogeneous
racial group but rather an ethnic group from Spanish speaking Latin America and the Caribbean
which includes ethnic Europeans, Native Americans, blacks and racial hybrids. The data set out
in the first row of Table 1 show that blacks and Native Americans obtain higher means than
whites on the scale (by 0.29d and 0.44d, respectively), Hispanics obtain the same mean as whites,
while Japanese Americans obtain a lower mean ( 0.31d).
The MMPI was revised and standardised in the second half of the 1980s. The revised version of
the test is called the MMPI-2 and much useful information about the test is provided in the
manual (Hathaway & McKinley, 1989). The standardisation sample numbered 2500 and was
selected to match the national population of the United States in terms of geographical location,
age, educational level, socio-economic status, earnings, marital status and ethnicity. Of the 54
questions in the Psychopathic Deviate scale of the original test, four were replaced in the MMPI2. The manual provides means and standard deviations for five racial and ethnic groups in the
standardisation sample. These are whites, blacks, Asians, native Americans and Hispanics. No
details are given regarding the national or ethnic origins of the Asian group, but as noted the
majority of these in the United States are ethnic Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Filipinos. I have
converted the means of the five groups to d scores in relation to a white zero and combined males
and females, in the same way as for the original MMPI. These results are shown in row 2 of
Table 1. The results are consistent with those of the original MMPI in so far as blacks and Native
Americans obtain higher mean scores than whites, while East Asians obtain lower scores. The
result for Hispanics is discrepant in so far as they obtain a substantially higher mean than whites
Table 1
Psychopathic deviate scale of the MMP1 (d)
No.

Location

Test

Blacks

1
2
3
4
5

USA
USA
Japan
Nigeria
USA

MMP1
MMP1-2
MMP1-2
MMP1-2
MMP1-A

0.29
0.48

6

Mean

E. Asians
0.31
0.18
0.36

0.50
0.33
0.40

Hispanics

N. Americans

Whites

Reference

0.00
0.70

0.44
0.74

0.00
0.00

Dahlstrom et al., 1986
Hathaway & McKinley, 1989
Japanese MMP1, 1993
Nzewi, 1998
Archer, 1997

0.36
0.28

0.35

0.00
0.59

0.00