KPDS Ders Notları.pdf


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İÇİNDEKİLER
TENSES (ZAMANLAR) ................................................................................................................................................. 2
1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ..................................................................................................................................... 2
2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................................ 3
3. SIMPLE PAST TENSE........................................................................................................................................... 4
4. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (Hikaye Zaman) .......................................................................................................... 4
5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ................................................................................................................................... 5
6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................... 6
7. PAST PERFECT TENSE......................................................................................................................................... 6
8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE .................................................................................................................... 7
9. GOING TO / WILL / SOON (Future Tense) ............................................................................................................. 7
10. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................................ 7
11. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE (Will + Have + V3) ....................................................................................................... 8
12. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................................................................................................... 8
13. FUTURE IN THE PAST........................................................................................................................................ 8
14. ACTIVE / PASSIVE ............................................................................................................................................ 9
TENSE UYUMU ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
TENSE’LER HAKKINDA EK BÖLÜM............................................................................................................................... 10
MODALS ................................................................................................................................................................. 12
1. SIMPLE MODALS .............................................................................................................................................. 12
2. CONTINUOUS MODALS ..................................................................................................................................... 15
3. PAST MODALS (Perfect Modals) ......................................................................................................................... 16
DETERMINERS AND QUANTIFIERS (BELİRTME SIFATLARI) ............................................................................................ 17
DETERMINERS ..................................................................................................................................................... 17
PRONOUNS (ADIL - ZAMİR) ....................................................................................................................................... 20
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ......................................................................................................................................... 20
CONDITIONALS (IF CLAUSE) ..................................................................................................................................... 21
0. ZERO CONDITIONAL (Pesent - Real) ................................................................................................................. 21
1. FIRST CONDITIONAL (Present / Future - Real) .................................................................................................... 21
2. SECOND CONDITIONAL (Present / Future - Unreal) .............................................................................................. 22
3. THIRD CONDITIONAL (Past - Unreal)................................................................................................................. 23
MIXED TYPE (3  2) (Cümlelerde Time expression var ise geçerlidir. Yoksa kullanılmaz). ............................................. 23
CONDITIONALS INVERSION (IF CLAUSE'NIN DEVRİK HALİ) .......................................................................................... 25
1. FIRST CONDITIONAL ( SHOULD )....................................................................................................................... 25
2. SECOND CONDITIONAL ( WERE ) ....................................................................................................................... 25
3. THIRD CONDITIONAL ( HAD ) ............................................................................................................................ 25
WISH CLAUSE (KEŞKE...) .......................................................................................................................................... 26
1 - PRESENT VE FUTURE ANLAM (second conditional yapısı kullanır) .......................................................................... 26
2 - PAST ANLAM (Third conditional yapısı kullanır) ................................................................................................... 26
ADJECTIVE / ADVERB (Sıfat / Zarf) ............................................................................................................................ 28
SO THAT / SUCH THAT ............................................................................................................................................. 29
COMPARATIVE (İki grubun karşılaştırılması) / SUPERLATIVE (2 den fazla grubun karşılaştırılması) ..................................... 29
SUPERLATIVE (En.. leri verir) .................................................................................................................................... 30
EŞİTLEME YAPMAK VEYA BOZMAK (as __ as / so __ as)................................................................................................ 31
"THE ... , THE ..." YAPISI .......................................................................................................................................... 32
RELATIVE CLAUSE (Sıfat Cümlecikleri) ........................................................................................................................ 32
THAT CLAUSES (Relative Pronouns)............................................................................................................................ 36
RELATIVE CLAUSE İNDİRGEMESİ (REDUCTION) ........................................................................................................... 37
NOUN CLAUSE ......................................................................................................................................................... 39
1) Object (ÖZNE) konumunda noun clause ............................................................................................................. 39
2) Subject konumunda noun clause ....................................................................................................................... 40
İNDİRGEME - REDUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 41
URGENCY FİİLLERİ (SUBJUNCTIVE - Çekimsiz fiil yapıları – DİLEK KİPİ) .......................................................................... 42
1) Fiil ile Kullanımı ............................................................................................................................................... 42
2) Sıfat ile Kullanımı ............................................................................................................................................. 42
3) İsim İle Kullanımı............................................................................................................................................. 42
QUESTION TAGS (, değil mi?) .................................................................................................................................... 42
SHORT REPLIES - Agreement "Ben de" ....................................................................................................................... 43
BAĞLAÇLAR ............................................................................................................................................................. 44
AS / LIKE FARKI .................................................................................................................................................. 47
LIKE / ALIKE FARKI. ............................................................................................................................................. 48
NO MATTER HOW (,) ................................................................................................................................................ 51
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS (Sınavlarda bolca çıkar) ................................................................................................ 51
INFINITIVE / GERUND AYRIMI ................................................................................................................................... 52
PERFECT INFINITIVE (to + have + V3), PERFECT GERUND (having + V3) ....................................................................... 54
CAUSATIVE (ETTİRGEN) "Yaptırmak" .......................................................................................................................... 55
PARTICIPLES (Adverbial Clause’lerin indirgemesi) ........................................................................................................ 55
INVERSION (DEVRİK CÜMLE YAPISI) .......................................................................................................................... 57
JUST VE ALREADY FARKI ........................................................................................................................................... 58
ÇEVİRİ, CÜMLE TAMAMLAMA, ANLAM BÜTÜNLÜĞÜ, PARAĞRAF SORULARI ...................................................................... 59
1) CLOZE TESTLER .............................................................................................................................................. 59
2) CÜMLE TAMAMLAMALAR: .................................................................................................................................. 59
3) ÇEVİRİLER: ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
4) PARAĞRAFTA ANLAM BÜTÜNLÜĞÜNÜ SAĞLAYAN / BOZAN CÜMLE : ...................................................................... 61
5) DURUMA UYGUN DÜŞEN CÜMLEYİ BULMAK: ....................................................................................................... 62
6) ANLAMCA EN YAKIN CÜMLEYİ BULMA (Re-Write / Re-Statement): ......................................................................... 62
7) DİYALOG TAMAMLAMA: .................................................................................................................................... 63
8) READING (PARAĞRAF SORULARI): ..................................................................................................................... 63
GENEL BİLGİLER - YAPILAR – KALIPLAR (KARIŞIK) ...................................................................................................... 63

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