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International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963

THE CIGARETTE FACTORY WASTE VERMICOMPOST
EFFECT OF CUCUMIS MELOL
Abu Talkah
Kadiri Islamic University, Kediri, Indonesia

ABSTRACT
Target research to determine the effect of tobacco cigarette industry waste vermicompost on the growth and
production of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma varieties. Randomized block design (RBD) research methods
repeated three times with 4 treatments: S1 = vermicompost dose of 1000 kg / ha; S2 = vermicompost dose of
2000 kg / ha; S3 = vermicompost dose of 3000 kg / ha; S4 = vermicompost dose of 4000 Kg / ha, plus S0 =
control without treatment vermicompost; observation variable length of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit
weight per fruit, fruit volume and fruit brix; statistically analyzed with ANOVA F test. Tools used, meter, scales
and refractometer. Materials used vermicompost tobacco waste, Aroma Red Cucumis melo seed varieties. The
results turned out tobacco cigarette factory waste can be used as organic fertilizer. It is shown to affect the
growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties, namely: plant length, number of leaves, leaf area,
fruit weight, fruit volume and sugar content in fruit.

KEYWORDS: vermicompost, tobacco cigarette industry waste, Cucumis melo L.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In the process of production in the industrial sector can produce more than one form of waste, and for
the sustainable development of the waste industry should be assessed although resources requires,
time, and costs, in accordance with the rules of the environment: adopted an idea [1]. Environmental
Assessment provides a rational approach to sustainable development. Development have led to an
adverse impact on the environmental in view of the deteriorating environmental Industrial condition
in and araund Industrial township It has become necessary to account for the environment while
planning for the such areas [1]. Waste if managed properly can provide benefits. Cigarette factories
in their production processes impacting waste plant called tobacco cigarette waste, every day throw
away more than 20 tons of waste. The alleged waste can be processed into vermicompost. Based on
the results of laboratory research cigarette factory warehouse salt [2], sewage plant tobacco cigarettes
contain Organic Carbon 50.97%, 1.83% total nitrogen, phosphorus as P2O5 0.41%, and Potassium as
K2O 1.89%. Nitrogen Carbon phosphorus and potassium is an essential element for plant growth,
Cucumis melo L is supposedly a response to vermicompost from sewage treatment plant tobacco
cigarettes. Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties is very preferred consumers for its taste, so it is
appropriate efficacy trials conducted tobacco cigarette factory waste vermicompost on growth and
yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties. With the aim to determine the effect of vermicompost
on growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties.

1.1 Tobacco Waste
Tobacco cigarette industry waste is the remains or waste tobacco mixing with sauce in cigarette
production process and smooth shape (powder), derived from the leaves of tobacco and clove that can
not be used as a cigarette [2]. Tobacco waste nutrient value analysis [4] containing pH 4.69; Eugenol
4.37%, 0.87% nicotine; Nitrogen total as N 1.83%, 0.41% phosphorus as P 2O5; Potassium as K2O
1.89%, organic carbon as C 50.97 %, C / N ratio 27.85 and Arsenic (As) 24.19 ppm. Expected waste

1942

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963
tobacco cigarette industry after being processed by the method of vermicompost can be beneficial and
useful for the future of organic fertilizer on all plants.

1.2 Earthworms
Lumbricus has flattened body shape, and body segments around 90-195. Klitelum lies in the 27th32th segment. Lumbricus rubellus has relatively small body size with a length of 8-14 cm; the body
color, especially the back, is light beige to reddish purple. Most part of the belly is beige, and tail is
yellowish; the shape of dorsal is rounded and vertically flat; the number of segment on the klitelum
are around 6 - 7 segments; the male sex hole lies in the 13th segment; its movement is slow; and its
body contains 70-78% of water [5].

1.3 Tobacco Waste Vermicompost
Vermicomposting is in the same page with the principle of healthy environment because it has the
value of resource conservation and sustainable practices, as a process for handling organic residue
which is an alternative approach in waste management, which is not dumped or incinerated but
recycled [6]. Vermitechnology is a system in which earthworms are utilized for the bio-conversion of
organic waste into vermicompost. Vermicompost has wide applications in organic waste management
and has been proven to be an efficient method to manage organic waste materials with diminutive
complexity and economic feasibility [7] Vermicompost is a process to convert organic waste into
fertilizer [8] Taking into account that the organic waste and compost application in agriculture has
many positive effects [9]. Cigarette factory waste can be processed vermikomposting using
earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), [10] Nutrient content of vermicompost containing cigarette factory
waste : Nitrogen (N) content 1,05 %; Total P2O5 content 0,71 %; K2O content 0,25 %; C-Organic
content 14,28 %; pH (10% In water) 6,99; C/N ratio 13,58 %; Moisture content 7,66 %; Iron (Fe)
content 1,72 %; Zinc (Zn) content 0,02 %; Manganese (Mn) content 0,06 %; Boron (B) content 38,73
ppm; Copper (Cu) content 74,41 ppm; Leed (Pb) content < 1,00 ppm; Cadmium (Cd) content < 1,00
ppm; Cobalt (Co) content 12,44 ppm; Molybdenum (Mo) content < 1,00 ppm; Arsenic (As) content
0,02 ppm; Mercury (Hg) content 0,09 ppm (Sucofindo, 2009).

1.4 Cucumis Melo
Cucumis melo L is the fruit of plants from annuals and valleys Persian, Mediterranean spread to
central and eastern Europe in the 14th century, Columbus brought the plant to America and then
grown in many areas of California, Texas, Colorado who subsequently experienced growth melon
types in Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Spanish, Uzbekistan and Iran and the fruit of Cucumis melo L.
enter Indonesia from intensively cultivated in 1970 and became a prestigious and expensive fruit.
Plants taxonomy Kingdom Plantae; Division Spermatophyta; Subdivisions Aglospermae; Class
Dikotiledoneae; subclass Sympetalae; Ordo Cucurbitaceae; genus Cucumis; Species Cucumis melo L
[3].

II.

RESEARCH METHOD

Research in January 2010 until May 2010 in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia, sandy loam soil type with
83 m height above sea level, soil organic C containing 0.37 ppm, with a pH of 7 [11]; randomized
block design (RBD) research methods is repeated three times with 4 treatments: S1 = vermicompost
dose of 1000 kg / ha; S2 = vermicompost dose of 2000 kg / ha; S3 = vermicompost dose of 3000 kg /
ha; S4 = vermicompost dose of 4000 Kg / ha, plus S0 = control without vermicompost treatment;
variable observation length of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight per fruit, fruit volume
and fruit brix; statistically analyzed with ANOVA F test. Tools used, meter, scales and refractometer.
Vermicompost waste materials used tobacco, melon seed are Red Aroma varieties.

III.

RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION

The making beds 8-15 feet long, 50 cm wide and 40 cm high, width of beds are used for a single row
of plants. Basic fertilizer use vermicompost treatment with appropriate dose, and plus TSP fertilizer,
KCL, the dose is 190 g / planting hole, and NPK fertilizer dose of 150 g / planting hole. Mulch

1943

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963
installation should be done on a hot day, mulch can expand to the maximum so as to cover the full
beds, make the planting hole with plastic hole punch tool. Continued installation of bamboo stakes
strong in order to support the melon fruit, in addition to facilitate counting the number of leaves and
length of plants in the study. Seeds planted in polybags for 15 days seedlings ready to be planted in
beds. Each pet is only one plant in fruit. At the age of 75 days after planting melons ready to be
harvested, the fruit is harvested by cutting the base of the fruit and each fruit is marked to the research
results.

IV.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The effect of vermicompost dose treatment towards the length of Cucumis melo L were presented in
Table 1
Table 1. The Plant Length (cm) in the Dose Range of Vermicompost
The average length plant (cm) at age of
14 dap
21 dap
28 dap
35 dap
No Vermicompost
6.10 a
21.37 a
100.90 a
174.00 a
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
7.73 b
23.33 b
103.93 b
177.20 b
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
8.66 c
23.89 bc
103.96 b
178.96 b
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
9.77 d
24.83 c
105.37 b
180.03 b
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
10.87 e
26.07 d
107.47 c
183.77 c
5% LSD
1.07
0.94
2.00
3.12
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different
at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting
Treatment

Test results 5% LSD (Table 1) produced by the plant the longest treatment vermicompost fertilizer 4
tons / ha and significantly different from other treatments, whereas control without vermicompost
plants produce most short term growth. Allegedly giving vermicompost effect on soil fertility,
because the nutrient content of vermicompost greatly assist in the growth and development of plants,
so plant growth is better and faster. Organic fertilizers contain macro and micro elements in small
amounts, however, organic fertilizer is superior compared to inorganic fertilizers, because it has the
function of improving soil structure, increase soil absorption against a given N elements, raise the
living conditions of the ground and food source for plants. Nitrogen contained in each amino acid is a
major component of proteins that form the matrix of protoplasm and is required for the synthesis of
enzymes, as a component of chlorophyll pigment chlorophyll molecules that are part A and B, the
effect of nitrogen in the process and provide fotosontesa pigment chlorophyll green leaves. Results
photosynthesis used overall plant growth mainly stems, branches and leaves. Nitrogen has an
important role for the plant, which stimulates vegetative growth adds height.
Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the number of Cucumis melo leaves were presented in Table
2.
Table 2. Number of leaf (blade) in the dose range of Vermicompost
The average number of leaf (blade) at the age of
14 dap
21 dap
28 dap
35 dap
No Vermicompost
3.78 a
6.85 a
15.57 a
22.50 a
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
4.50 b
7.77 b
16.04 b
24.40 b
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
4.56 b
8.06 b
17.06 bc
24.57 b
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
4.78 b
8.22 b
17.94 c
24.94 b
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
4.89 b
8.06 b
17.99 c
25.61 b
5% LSD
0.42
0.71
1.43
1.65
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different
at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting
Treatment

The test results 5% LSD (Table 2) the number of leaves on the highest dose treatment vermicompost 4
tons / ha, not significantly different from other treatments vermicompost dose and significantly
different from the untreated control vermicompost. It is suspected the influence of macro and micro

1944

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963
nutrients contained in the vermicompost, consequently plants showed better growth and fertile.
Organic fertilizers can increase the levels of nutrients N, P and K in the soil, the addition of organic
fertilizer can also improve soil physical properties and provide development opportunities
microorganisms in the soil.
Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the area of Cucumis melo leaves were presented in Table 3.
Table 3. leaf area (cm2) in the dose range of Vermicompost
The average leaf area (cm2) at age of
14 dap
21 dap
28 dap
35 dap
23.93 a
89.90 a
166.23 a
179.63 a
No Vermicompost
29.06 ab
94.40 a
170.67 ab
184.00 ab
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
31.25 ab
101.69 b
176.52 bc
190.15 bc
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
37.40 bc
103.50 bc
179.53 cd
192.70 cd
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
40.57 c
109.37 c
184.40 d
197.90 d
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
5% LSD
8.44
7.18
6.16
6.47
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different
at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting
Treatment

The test results 5% LSD (Table 3) doses of vermicompost treatment 4 tons / ha yield greater leaf area
and no significant difference with treatment doses of 3 tons / ha. It is expected the plant will need the
macro and micro elements are met by making vermicompost better vegetative growth. Vermicompost
to improve soil structure, increase soil absorption of the nutrients are given, raise the living conditions
of the ground and food source for plants for metabolic processes. Organic fertilizer can increase the
levels of nutrients N, P and K in the soil, the addition of organic fertilizer can also improve soil
physical properties and provide development opportunities microorganisms in the soil, this is proved
by the results of soil analysis.
Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Weight of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Fruit Weight (kg) in the dose range of Vermicompost
The average Fruit Weight Harvest At Age
70 dap
No Vermicompost
1.23 a
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
1.70 b
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
1.93 c
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
2.17 d
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
2.30 d
5% LSD
0.21
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little
Significant Difference), dap = days after planting
Treatment

The test results LSD 5% (Table 4), highest weight of 2.3 kg melon fruit / fruit produced by treatment
vermicompost 4 tons / ha did not differ significantly with treatment doses of 3 tons / ha (2.17 kg /
fruit), and significantly different from the untreated control vermicompost (1.23 kg / fruit). It is
thought to vermicompost significantly affect plant growth vegetaqtif ie length, number of leaves and
leaf area (Table 1, 2 and 3) will further affect the growth of plants generative, so that makes the
production of vermicompost treatment melon and weighs more contained compared with no treatment
vermicompost. Previous research has the potential to improve the vermicompost plant growth when
added to the soil [12].
Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Volume of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 5.
Table 5. Fruit Volume (liters) in the dose range of Vermicompost
The Average Fruit Volume (liters) At
Treatment
Harvest Age 70 dap
No Vermicompost
1.50 a
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
2.00 b
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
2.37 c
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
2.50 cd

1945

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
2.70 d
5% LSD
0.30
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little
Significant Difference), dap = days after planting

The test results 5% LSD (Table 5) in the control plots were not fertilized plants produce
vermicompost melon volume was the smallest and significantly different from that fostered
vermicompost. Vermicompost dose of 4 tons / ha produced the largest volume of 2.70 liters melon
fruit / fruit but not significantly different from vermicompost dose of 3 tons / ha. It is thought to
implementation in the field vermicomposts improve soil quality by increasing microbial activity and
microbial biomass is a key component in nutrient cycling, vermicomposts can boost growth,
flowering and yield [13].
Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Brix of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 6.
Table 6. Fruit Brix in the dose range of Vermicompost
The Average Fruit Brix At Harvest Age 70
dap
No Vermicompost
7.0 a
Vermicompost 1 t/ha
8.6 b
Vermicompost 2 t/ha
8.9 bc
Vermicompost 3 t/ha
9.5 cd
Vermicompost 4 t/ha
9.9 d
5% LSD
0,78
Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little
Significant Difference), dap = days after planting
Treatment

The test results 5% LSD (Table 6) in the control plots were not fertilized plants produce
vermicompost brix most small melon and significantly different from that fostered vermicompost.
Vermicompost dose of 4 tons / ha produced the largest melon fruit brix 9.90 but not significantly
different from vermicompost dose of 3 tons / ha. This is presumably because vermicompost contains
elements of K2O were applied which can serve to increase the sugar content (brix) in cucumber fruit,
nutrients absorbed by plants to meet the metabolic needs of the body in preparing the framework
mainly plants increased levels of sugar and fruit quality [14].

V.

CONCLUSION

The results turned out tobacco cigarette factory waste can be used as organic fertilizer. It is shown to
affect the growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties, namely: plant length, number of
leaves, leaf area, fruit weight, fruit volume and sugar content in fruit.
REFERENCES
[1] Munandir Yodi. 2007. Environmental Impact and Accompanying Analysis. Malang. Indonesia
[2] Budiono. 2003. Waste solving twisted Cigarette Factory. PT. GG Kediri. Indonesia.
[3] Samadi. 2007. Cucumis melo Cultivation. Pusat Pustaka. Jakarta. Indonesia.
[4] Sucofindo. 2004. Report of Analisis Compost. Attechment to Certificate N0 212.37.20/0407/ 04/2004/02.
OC : 0016089. Indonesia.
[5] Khairuman dan Khairul Amri. 2009. Fortunately dredge of Raising Worms. Agromedia Pustaka. Jakarta.
Indonesia.
[6] Aalok Asha, A.K. Tripathi and P. Soni. 2008. Vermicomposting: A Better Option For Organic Solid Waste
Management. Journal Ecology and Environment, 24(1): 59-64. India.
[7] Arun Karnwal and Ravi Kumar. 2012. Effect of Earth Worms on Solid Waste to Get Nutrient Rich
Vermicompost for Plants. Journal of Environmental Researt and Protection (JERP), No. 32. Bhojia. India.
[8] Punde,B.D. and R.A. Ganorkar. 2012. Vermicomposting-Recycling Waste Into Valuable Organic Fertilizer.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) Vol. 2, pp.2342-2347. India.
[9] Termorshuizen, J. S.W. Moolenaar. A.H.M. Veeken and W.J. Blok. 2005. The value of compost. Reviews in
Environmental Science & Bio/Technology. Springer 3: 343-347. Netherlands.
[10] Sucofindo. 2009. Report of Analisis Vermicompost. Attechment to Certificate N0 03914/0880AC. Date
April 23, 2009. Indonesia.
[11] Anonymous. 2009. Institute for Agricultural Technology (BPTP). Malang. Indonesia.

1946

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013.
©IJAET
ISSN: 22311963
[12] Atiyeh, R. M., S. Subler, C.A. Edwards, G. Bachman, J. D. Metzger and W. Shuster. 2000. Effects of
vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticultural container media and soil. Journal Pedo biologia,
44, 579–590. Ohio State University. USA.
[13] Arancon N.Q. and Clive A. Edwards. 2005. Effects Of Vermicomposts On Plant Growth. Soil Ecology
Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
[14] Siswanto. 2010. Melon Fruit Sugar Levels increase. Agroteknologi Studies Program. Faculty of
Agriculture. UPN Veteran East Java. Indonesia. ISBN 978-602-9372-00-7.

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY
Ir. H. Abu Talkah, MM. is the Rector of Universitas Islam Kadiri (Kadiri Islamic University)
Kediri, Indonesia.

1947

Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947


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