PDF Archive

Easily share your PDF documents with your contacts, on the Web and Social Networks.

Share a file Manage my documents Convert Recover PDF Search Help Contact

20I20 IJAET0520880 v7 iss2 464 469 .pdf

Original filename: 20I20-IJAET0520880_v7_iss2_464-469.pdf
Author: ijaet

This PDF 1.5 document has been generated by Microsoft® Word 2013, and has been sent on pdf-archive.com on 04/07/2014 at 07:56, from IP address 117.211.x.x. The current document download page has been viewed 570 times.
File size: 584 KB (6 pages).
Privacy: public file

Download original PDF file

Document preview

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963

C.V.Ravikumar1, Dhanamjayulu.C.2
Assistant Professor, School of Electronics Engineering,
VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India.
Assistant Professor, School of Electrical Engineering,
VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India.

Millimeter wave wireless communication offers high data rates and high security. It has the potential to offer
bandwidth delivery of fiber optics, but without the financial and logistic challenges of deploying fiber.
Millimeter wave generally corresponds to the radio spectrum ranges 30 GHz to 300 GHz, with wavelength
between one and ten millimeters. Today's improved technology is capable of providing a variety of devices in
the millimeter wave region. For example, solid-state IMPATT diodes have seen an extensive development.
These "state-of-the-art" devices now operate to nearly 300 GHz. As a result of the component and processing
advances, use of these higher frequencies has become an attractive possibility. This paper is intended to focus
on performance of various parameters as well as its limitations.

KEYWORDS-Channel capacity, 60GHz band communications, Beamforming, millimeterwaves.



Millimeter wave communication
The 30 to 300 GHz band of the electromagnetic spectrum (10 to 1 mm wavelength) is commonly
called the millimeter wave region. This region is also called the extra-high frequency (EHF) band
when using radar terminology. This portion of the spectrum lies above the microwave region and
below the electro-optic region. In recent years, advances in the development of transmitters,
receivers, devices, and components have drawn increased attention to the millimeter wave region.
The expanded development of millimeter wave components would provide systems with wide
bandwidths to support high date rate users and reduced sensitivity to propagation limitations
compared with electro-optical systems. Also, millimeter wave systems would relieve the spectral
congestion of the lower frequencies.



Millimeter waves have three primary key features.

1) Propagation Attenuation:
Radio signals of all types, as they propagate through the atmosphere, are reduced in intensity by
constituents of the atmosphere. This attenuating effect, usually in the form of absorption or scattering
of the radio signals, dictates how much of the transmitted signal actually makes it to a cooperative
receiver and how much of it gets lost in the atmosphere. The atmospheric loss is generally defined in
terms of decibels (dB) loss per kilometer of propagation. Since the fraction of the signal lost is a


Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963
strong function of the distance traveled, however note that the actual signal loss experienced by a
specific millimeter wave link due to atmospheric effects depends directly on the length of the link.
The propagation characteristics of millimeter waves through the atmosphere depend primarily on
atmospheric oxygen, humidity, fog and rain. The signal loss due to atmospheric oxygen, although a
source of significant limitation in the 60 GHz band, is almost negligible - less than 0.2dB per km in
the 70 and 80 GHz bands. The effect of water vapor, which varies depending on absolute humidity, is
limited to between zero and about 50% loss per km (3dB/km) at very high humidity and temperature.
The additional loss of signal as it propagates through fog or cloud is similar to the loss due to
humidity, now depending on the quantity and size of liquid water droplets in the air. Though 50% loss
of signal due to these atmospheric effects may seem significant, they are almost insignificant
compared to losses due to rain, and are only important for long distance deployments (more than 5
km). Of all atmospheric conditions, rain causes the most significant loss of 70 GHz and 80 GHz signal
strength, as is the case with microwave signals as well. The amount of signal loss due to rain depends
on the rate of rainfall, often measured in terms of millimeters per hour.
Type of Rain rate
Signal loss(dB/km)
Light rain
Moderate rain
Heavy rain
Intense rain



Fig 1. Signal attenuation due to rain

2) Wide bandwidth and scalable capacity
The millimeter region has wide bandwidths available. The 60GHz band is more than twice the width
of the entire UHF band. In fact, the width of the millimeter region is over nine times the width
of all the lower frequencies combined . This feature would allow very high data-rate transmissions
and high bandwidth channel coding techniques. The key advantage of millimeter wave
communication technology is the large amount of spectral bandwidth available. The bandwidth
available in the 70 GHz and 80 GHz bands, a total of 10 GHz, is more than the sum total of all other
licensed spectrum available for wireless communication. With such wide bandwidth available,
millimeter wave wireless links can achieve capacities as high as 10 Gbps full duplex, which is
unlikely to be matched by any lower frequency RF wireless technologies. The availability of this
extraordinary amount of bandwidth also enables the capability to scale the capacity of millimeter
wave wireless links as demanded by market needs. Typical millimeter wave products commonly
available today operate with spectral efficiency close 0.5 bits/Hz. However, as the demand arises for
higher capacity links, millimeter wave technology will be able to meet the higher demand by using
more efficient modulation schemes.

3) Narrow beam width
Since the beam width depends on the frequency, size, and type of antenna, for a given antenna size a
smaller beamwidth is obtained with millimeter waves than with microwaves. The high degree of
directivity associated with narrow beam widths would help relieve the interference in Cross-city
communications. A narrow beamwidth reduces errors due to multipath propagation and minimizes
losses due to side lobe returns. Unlike microwave links, which cast very wide footprints reducing the
achievable amount of reuse of the same spectrum within a specific geographical area, millimeter wave
links cast very narrow beams. The narrow beams of millimeter wave links allow for deployment of
multiple independent links in close proximity. For example, using an equivalent antenna, the beam
width of a 70 GHz link is four times as narrow as that of an 18 GHz link, allowing as much as 16
times the density of E-band millimeter wave links in a given area.


Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963



1) High Gain
Antenna gain is inversely proportional the antenna's beamwidth. Since the millimeter wave antenna
possesses a narrow beamwidth, so antenna have the high gain. The antenna gain and beamwidth
related to the below given equations .
The maximal gain for the parabolic antenna is

𝜋𝑑 2

Gmax = 𝜆2 =( 𝜆 ) ---------- (1)
Where ‘A’ is effective area of antenna ,‘d’ is diameter of antenna , ‘λ’ is wavelength in meters.
The half power antenna beamwidth (parabolic antenna) is given as
BMW = d --------- (2)
Finally, from two equations the maximal gain is

Gmax =
From the above equation, the narrow beamwidth produce more gain.
The given table gave the relationship between antenna diameter, gain and beamwidth.







22.8 dB
27.5 dB
31.4 dB
26.3 dB
31.0 dB
34.9 dB
28.8 dB
33.5 dB
37.4 dB
32.3 dB
37.0 dB
40.0 dB
38.4 dB
43.0 dB
46.0 dB


2. Small Size
Generally, small wavelengths allow small components. This is true for millimeter waves. This
becomes especially important when size is a major consideration. For example, satellite, aircraft, and
missile systems all demand small size components. Also, hand-held radios capable of providing LPI
communication for covert operation are possible by choosing a carrier frequency in the millimeter

3) Low Probability-of-Intercept (LPI)
Atmospheric attenuation is usually considered to be a disadvantage; however, in short-range covert
communication, use of a high absorption band will practically reduce propagation overshoot. Thus,
concealing the signa1 from undesired intercept receivers. The degree of concealment is described
probabilistically by “probability-of-intercept”. High attenuation combined with its narrow beamwidth
provides millimeter waves a low probability-of-intercept.



1) Easy Failure Recovery

Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963
In applications requiring high end-to-end bandwidth, broadband connectivity by means of fiber optic
cables is often the technology of choice when access to fiber optic cables is readily available.
However, cases abound where fiber connections have been broken by accident, for instance during
trenching operations, often bringing down mission critical networks for a substantial period of time.
Therefore, it is highly desirable to design such mission critical networks with redundancies that
minimize probability of such failures.
A millimeter wave wireless link is very well suited to provide such redundancy. As an example, a
data center connected to a network service provider’s point-of-presence (PoP) by means of a fiber
optic network may also be connected to the PoP by means of a high capacity millimeter wave wireless
link. In the event that a failure is detected in the fiber optic network, the data traffic could be routed
through the millimeter wave link without impacting the availability or performance of the network.

2) Long term and short term Networks
The needs of enterprises to extend LANs from one building to a neighboring building are often so
compelling that users in such applications have been the earliest adopter of point-to-point wireless
technologies. As organizations expand their facilities by growing into neighboring buildings, the cost
of leasing interconnecting communication services becomes significant, eventually persuading them
to look for alternate solutions. Whether for an organization that is growing its facility or a large
organization with a need to connect existing facilities by means of broadband networks, millimeter
wave links are highly suitable as both a long term and short term solution. With the ability to set up
wireless links in a matter of hours, as compared to the weeks it may take leased service to be turned
on, millimeter wave wireless can be a compelling short term solution. With long term interference
protection and sufficient bandwidth to provide for increasing demand, it also is a very compelling
long term solution. It is often the case that an organization deploying millimeter wave links can
quickly recoup the cost of such equipment from the savings realized by not leasing broadband

3) Efficient enhancement of network coverage
In cellular networks, it is often necessary or more efficient to enhance network coverage by
distributing a network of remote antennas instead of providing coverage by way of centrally located
antennas. Such distributed antenna systems (DAS) are basically extensions of the antenna of base
stations. DAS are often used to provide cellular coverage in spots that are shadowed by large
structures, such as buildings, from base station antennas. DAS may also be used to provide coverage
in areas where it is not efficient to install a base station. For example, an area behind a large
commercial building may be covered better by installing a remote antenna behind the building and
transmitting the radio signal back to the nearest base station. In another scenario, for a corporate
building with a large subscriber base, it may be desirable to distribute antennas throughout the
building and transport the signal to the base station over several wireless paths. The industry standards
covering DAS technology for cellular systems require digitizing the antenna signal before
transmitting it to a remote antenna. With this digitization generating as much as 3 Gbps of digital data
throughput, technology capable of transporting the signal to remote antenna is very limited. While it is
often the case that fiber optic cables are used to transport DAS signals, millimeter wave is an ideal
technology, if not the only technology, when DAS signals need to be transported wirelessly.

4) Cellular/WiMAX Backhaul
With the use of mobile handheld devices growing and newer bandwidth-intensive applications
emerging, the need to deliver higher bandwidth to mobile users will continue to rise. As newer
technologies such as WiMAX and new spectrum such as 700 MHz are used to serve these needs at the
access point, the need for a technology to transport the bandwidth from the point of access to the core
of the network will rise swiftly. To this day, most of those needs have been met by slower capacity
channels such as T1/E1 leased lines. However, these solutions will not be able to meet the needs of
the next generation of mobile networks in a practical manner.
Millimeter wave based technologies are well positioned to serve the needs of these applications well
into the foreseeable future. Solutions based on lower frequency microwave wireless systems may
perhaps be able to meet the short term bandwidth demand of the next generation of wireless networks.


Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963
However, when the cost of such solutions and the cost of spectrum licenses are factored in, millimeter
wave solutions begin to appear more attractive. When the ability to scale the bandwidth and
deployment density is considered, millimeter wave solutions become much more appealing.
Compared to the cost of laying fiber to a cell tower, the only other scalable solution, the millimeter
wave solution becomes an obvious choice.

5) Metro Network Services
With the economy becoming more information dependent, the bandwidth needs of corporations, large
and small, continue to grow apparently without bound. However, a large majority of corporate
buildings are still being served only by archaic copper wires barely able to deliver a few megabits per
second of bandwidth.
What is even more astounding is that while 90% of commercial buildings are “out of the loop,”
literally the fiber-loop of the metro rings, a large majority of these buildings are within a mile or two
of a high bandwidth metro ring. What has been missing is the practical ability to extend the metro
network services from an existing metro ring to the commercial buildings not touched by the ring.
Millimeter wave technology creates an opportunity to fill these gaps in a cost effective manner. A
single millimeter wave link can be used to connect a commercial building with a metro ring. With the
bandwidth of the millimeter wave link being comparable to that of the metro core itself; this single
wireless link would be sufficient to serve a large-occupancy building with high bandwidth demands.



In this paper we investigate the various features of millimeter waves. Advantages and applications of
millimeter wave communications are also discussed. One of the main limitations is propagation loss
of millimeter waves due to rain. Millimeter wave links can indeed perform flawlessly year after year
without disruption, even in the presence of occasional downpours in excess of 100 mm/hour. The
actual performance of a millimeter wave link depends on several factors, in particular the distance
between radio nodes and the link margin of the radios, and sometimes includes additional factors such
as diversity of redundant paths. 60GHz band communication which is WiGiG is dominant technology
in the next generation.

[1]Shurjeel Wyne,Katsuyuki Haneda,Sylvain Ranvier, “Beamforming Effects on Measured mm-Wave Channel
– 3559, NOVEMBER 2011.
[2] Steven Vaughan-Nichols, “Gigabit Wi-Fi Is on Its Way”, Technology news, IEEE NOVEMBER 2010.
[3] White Paper, “Millimeter Wave Wireless Communication”, 2008 Loea Corporation.
[4] “High Rate 60 GHz PHY, MAC and PALS”, Standard ECMA -387, ECMA international, 2nd Edition,
December 2010.
[5] WIGWAM - Wireless Gigabit with Advanced Multimedia Support.[Online]. Available:
[7] Guo, R. C. Qiu, S. S. Mo, and K. Takahashi, “60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and
New Results,” EURASIP J.Wirel. Commun. Netw., vol. 2007, no. 1, pp. 48–48, 2007.
[8] S. K. Yong and C.-C. Chong, “An overview of multigigabit wireless through millimeter wave technology:
potentials and technical challenges,” EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., vol. 2007, no. 1, pp. 1–10,2007.
[9] P. F. M. Smulders, “Exploiting the 60 GHz Band for Local Wireless Multimedia Access: Prospects and
Future Directions,” IEEE Commun.Mag., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 140–147, Jan. 2002.

Ravi Kumar C.V received M.Tech. Degree in Digital Electronics and Communication
Systems from JNTU Anantapur in 2009. He is currently pursuing PhD in Internetworking
Protocols. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in the School of Electronics


Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, May, 2014.
ISSN: 22311963
internetworking,Communication Networks.
Dhanamjayulu C received UG degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering
from JNTU University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh in 2008, M.Tech. Degree in Control
and Instrumentation Systems from IIT Madras Chennai in 2010. He is currently pursuing
PhD in Power Electronics. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in the School of
Electrical Engineering.VIT University, Tamilnadu. His research area includes Power
Electronics, Fuzzy Logic, Multilevel Inverters, DSP, and Control Systems


Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 464-469

Related documents

20i20 ijaet0520880 v7 iss2 464 469
16i15 ijaet0715596 v6 iss3 1169to1176
27i16 ijaet0916879 v6 iss4 1687to1692
45n13 ijaet0313550 revised

Related keywords