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English Nomenclature .pdf


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ENGLISH NOMENCLATURE
of Simple Inorganic Molecules
Formula

Ionic

Covalent

Bonding of
molecule

Organic
Nomenclature
Inorganic

Is it an acid?

State amount of
each element and
add -ide to anion

Yes

CO2
No, it is a salt

Does it include
oxygen?

No

P2O5

CO2

carbon
dioxide

diphosphorus
pentoxide

is it in solution?
Yes

add hydro& -ic to name
of anion

What is the nature of
the oxidation number
on the element that
forms the anion with
oxygen?

There are two
possible
oxidation
numbers

There are more
than two possible
oxidation
numbers

Yes No

follow covalent
nomenclature

HCl(aq)

HBr

hydrochloric
acid

hydrogenbromide

Only one is
possible

State name of
other element
and add -ic
H2CO3

If the ox. number is
the lower of the
two, add -ous, if
the higher, add -ic

Exception:
Manganese (G7)
has two ox. no.s but
follows rules for more
than two ox. no.s

HMnO4

carbonic acid

HNO2

HNO3

nitrous acid
nitric acid

HMnO3

manganic acid
permanganic acid

Order the oxidation
numbers from high to low

Special cases

ClO (+I)
ClO2 (+III)
ClO3 (+V)
ClO4 (+VII)

Common
specialities in
acids:

hypo- -ous
-ous
-ic
per- -ic

less than lower -> hypolower of the middle two -> -ous
higher of the middle two -> -ic
more than higher -> per- -ic
HClO4
perchloric acid

HIO
hypoiodic acid
O was
swapped
for S
Care!First check if
the acid isn't a dimer

add
[number of S]thiodimer (anion
twice)

Add di- to name

H2S2O3
thiosulfuric acid

H2S2O7
disulfuric acid

Split cation
and anion
of salt and deal
with them
separately

Important: Write
cation first, anion
second

Cation

Is the cation
simple/complex?

Polyatomic

Complex
Complex ion
Nomenclature
Simple

What is the nature of the
oxidation number of the cation?

Memorise these
particular cations'
names :(

Only one is
possible

+

(NH4) = ammonium
+
(H3O) = hydronium

Anion

There are more
possible
oxidation
numbers
State the name of
the atom and its
oxidation number
in brackets

State the
name of the
atom

Zn2+
zinc
Ni2+

Exception (no longer in use)
add -ic for higher ox. no. and
-ous for lower ox. no.
2+

Cupric = Cu
+
Cuprous = Cu
3+
Ferric = Fe
2+
Ferrous = Fe

Ni4+

Al3+
aluminium

nickel(II)
nickel(IV)

Yes

Is the anion
monoatomic?

add -ide

Fe2O3

iron(III) oxide
ZnCl2
zinc chloride

CaH2
calcium hydride

No, complex

Complex ion
Nomenclature

No, polyatomic

Does the
anion come
from an
oxoacid?

Does
it come from
an organic
acid?

No

Yes

-

CN = cyanide
2(O2) = peroxide
(O2) = superoxide/hyperoxide
OH = hydroxide
2(C2) = carbide

Yes
Organic
Nomenclature
Get the name of
the acid and
transform the suffix:

-ic -> -ate
-ous -> -ite

Common organic
anions we'll be
dealing with:

Does the acid
anion have any
extra hydrogen which
could have been
dissociated?

(CH3COO)

add
hydrogenprefix

Yes

No longer used:
add bi- prefix

CuSO4

KNO2
Potassium
Nitrite

-

or (C2H3O2)
= acetate
2(OOCCOO) or (C2O4)
= oxalate

-

2-

Sodium
hydrogencarbonate
NaHCO3

No
Write the name!

Memorise the
particular anions'
names :(

No

Copper(II)
Sulphate

Sodium
bicarbonate


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