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Reducing Emissions and Improving Energy Efficiency .pdf

Original filename: Reducing Emissions and Improving Energy Efficiency.pdf
Author: Shawn Lemon

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Reducing Emissions and Improving Energy Efficiency for Older Plants
Companies considering plant expansions or reopening older simple cycle power plants and combined
cycle power plants should consider that retrofitting older furnaces with the latest burner technology is
sometimes necessary for many plants to meet emissions standards and improve energy efficiency. This
article outlines some of the difficulties and benefits of retrofitting an older plant for reuse.

Challenges of Retrofitting an Older System
Adding more floor burners to the existing furnaces can alloy the system to reach much higher capacities.
However, sometimes complications can arise when retrofitting older systems with the latest burner
technology. These complications include flame interaction, which can lead to flame impingement, and
flame rollover. Each of these complications can lead to a handful of serious issues which in turn may
lead to higher emissions levels, damaged equipment, and unsafe conditions. The smaller distances
between burners may increase the risk of flame interaction and flame rollover. Flame interaction can
cause damage to the process tubes which will lead to increased emissions and lower outputs.For some
situations compact burners are preferred to reduce these risks.
In a combinedcycle system, duct burnerscan be installed to improve the output of a heatrecovery steam
generator by providing supplementary firing to increase the thermal energy of the gas turbine’s exhaust.
When the exhaust from the gas turbine does not have enough thermal energy to superheat the steam
for the heatrecovery steam generator, duct burners may be installed to increase the quality or quantity
of the steam and increase the amount of electricity being generated by the secondary system. However,
burning additional fuel is more expensive and is only cost efficient if electric companies are purchasing
the electricity being produced at a higher cost.

Combined Cycle Efficiency and Emissions
Combinedcycle power plants produce as much as 50% more electricity with the same amount of fuel as
a simplecycle plant by using both gas and steam turbines. Wasted heat from the gas turbine is used to
convert water to steam which is rerouted to a steam turbine to generate extra power. A standard single
cycle plant is limited to around 40% efficiency, while a combined cycle gas turbine plant can achieve
thermal efficiencies of up to 60%, reducing the amount of fuel needed to generate the same amount of
electricity and thereby reducing emissions.
By using waste heat to produce more electricity the amount of fuel necessary to produce the same
amount of energy as before is reduced. Burning less fuel inherently generates lower emissions levels.
This reduces pollution caused by carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides, while nitrous oxides emissions are
reduced further by selective catalytic reductions systems which inject ammonia into the flue gas to
combine with the nitrous oxides producing harmless nitrogen and water.
In closing, there are many things to consider for companies that are building, reopening, or expanding
simple cycle and combined cycle gas power facilities. This article has outlined some of the thing to keep
in mind in order to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions in order to meet emissions standards.

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