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MDSO805 Understanding Petrochemical Business .pdf



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Title: MDSO805-Understanding Petrochemical Business
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CE

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PE

S

UNIT 20: Case Study

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Understanding Petrochemical Business

Course Design

Chairman
Dr Parag Diwan
Members
Dr Anirban Sengupta
Dean

Dr S R Das
VP – Academic Affairs

Dr Sanjay Mittal
Professor – IIT Kanpur

SLM Development Team
Wg Cdr P K Gupta
Dr Joji Rao
Dr Neeraj Anand

Mr Kapil Mehra
Manager – Material

Mr A N Sinha
Sr Manager – Printing

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Author

Prof V K Nangia
IIT Roorkee

CE

Dr K K Pandey

Print Production

Dr Ashish Bhardwaj
CIO

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Dr Kamal Bansal
Dean

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Advisory Council

V V Vara Prasad

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means,
without permission in writing from Hydrocarbon Education Research & Society.

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Course Code: MDSO-805D

Course Name: Understanding Petrochemical Business
Version: July 2013

© MPower Applied Learning Enterprise

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UNIT 20: Case Study

Unit 1

Petrochemicals: An Overview ........................................................................................ 3

Unit 2

Introduction to Petrochemical Industry ...................................................................... 13

Unit 3

Raw Materials for Petrochemical Processes................................................................ 25

Unit 4

Petrochemical Intermediates ....................................................................................... 35

Unit 5

Case Study .................................................................................................................... 47

Unit 6

Packaging Aspects ........................................................................................................ 51

Unit 7

Engineering Plastics..................................................................................................... 63

Unit 8

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Block-I

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Contents

Petroleum Refining....................................................................................................... 73

Unit 9

Hydrocracking............................................................................................................... 85

Unit 10

Case Study .................................................................................................................... 93

CE

Block-II

Block-III

Polymers........................................................................................................................ 97

Unit 12

Thermoplastics............................................................................................................ 107

Unit 13

Polyethylene................................................................................................................ 115

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Unit 11

Unit 14

Polypropylene.............................................................................................................. 123

Unit 15

Case Study .................................................................................................................. 133

Block-IV

Polyvinyl Chloride ...................................................................................................... 139

Unit 17

Polystyrene.................................................................................................................. 147

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Unit 16

Unit 18

Polycarbonates ............................................................................................................ 157

Unit 19

Synthetic Fibres.......................................................................................................... 167

Unit 20

Case Study .................................................................................................................. 177

Understanding Petrochemical Business

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Block-V

Process Technologies .................................................................................................. 181

Unit 22

Technologies for Petrochemical Plants...................................................................... 189

Unit 23

Indian Scenario........................................................................................................... 197

Unit 24

Various Petrochemical Industries in India ............................................................... 207

Unit 25

Case Study .................................................................................................................. 217

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Unit 21

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Glossary ............................................................................................................................................ 219

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UNIT 1: Petrochemicals: An Overview

Notes

___________________

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___________________

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BLOCK-I

___________________

Notes

UNIT 3: RAW MATERIALS FOR PETROCHEMICAL
PROCESSES

UNIT 2: INTRODUCTION TO PETROCHEMICAL
___________________
INDUSTRY



Introduction



Feedstocks



Petrochemical Feedstocks from Refineries



Initial Materials for Petrochemical

PE

UNIT
1: PETROCHEMICALS: AN OVERVIEW
___________________

Introduction
___________________

What is a “Petrochemical”?
___________________

Historical Background
___________________

Developments in Petrochemicals
___________________

Petrochemical Processing
___________________

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Understanding Petrochemical Business

Detailed Contents

UNIT 4: PETROCHEMICAL INTERMEDIATES


Introduction

___________________
Introduction



Production of Olefins



___________________
Overview



Linear Alkyl Benzene (Surfactant Alkylates)



Indian Petrochemical Industry
___________________



Petrochemical Products and its Usage



Petrochemical Plants

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Linear Alpha Olefins (LAO)

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UNIT 5: CASE STUDY

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UNIT 1: Petrochemicals: An Overview

Notes
Activity

Visit___________________
a petrochemical institute
and attend a lecture on
___________________
petrochemicals
and prepare a
presentation based on your
___________________
learning.

PE

Petrochemicals: An Overview
Objectives

___________________

After completion of this unit, the students will be aware of the following
topics:


What is “Petrochemical”



Historical Background



Developments in Petrochemicals



Petrochemical Processing

___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________

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Introduction

CE

The petrochemical industry is interlinked and developments in
different parts of the petrochemical value chain can have an effect
on your business. Understanding the different petrochemical value
chains and their end uses, how these chains interconnect, the
processes and the raw materials for making petrochemicals, and
what kind of changes are expected in the petrochemical business,
will help you to make better informed business decisions.

What is “Petrochemical”?

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“Petrochemical” is any chemical derived, directly or indirectly from
petroleum or natural gas or obtained from hydrocarbons and
utilised in industrial and household markets. The starting
material, also called raw material, undergoes chemical
transformation, using heat or a catalyst wherein desired product
as well as by-products are obtained in special equipment called
reactor. The finished product is separated from the rest employing
unit operations, like distillation, crystallization, centrifuging,
drying, etc. The product is then stored, its quality checked, and if
found suitable, packed for sale. The by-products are also useful
materials, which find applications.

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Two petrochemical classes are olefins including ethylene and
propylene, and aromatics including benzene, toluene, and xylene
isomers. Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid
catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce
olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and

___________________

Understanding Petrochemical Business

___________________
___________________

propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of
naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide
range of materials such as solvents, detergents and adhesives.
Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics,
resins, fibres, elastomers, lubricants and gels.

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Notes

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Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending
on their chemical structure:


Olefins include ethylene, propylene and butadiene. Ethylene
and propylene are important source of industrial chemicals
and plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic
rubber.



Aromatics include benzene, toluene and xylenes. Benzene is a
raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene
and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making
polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics
and synthetic fibres.



Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen
used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to
make fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and
chemical intermediate.

___________________
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___________________
___________________

CE

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PE

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The prefix "petro" is an arbitrary abbreviation of the word
"petroleum"; since "petro" is Ancient Greek for "rock" and "oleum"
means "oil". Therefore, the etymologically correct term would be
"oleochemicals". However, the term oleochemical is used to
describe chemicals derived from plant and animal fats.

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Usage of Petrochemicals

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A huge variety of products are made with petrochemicals,
including plastics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, pesticides,
detergents, flooring, solvents and epoxies. Synthetic fibres, rubber,
and other materials are also manufactured from petrochemicals.
Most people interact with numerous such products every day, from
the synthetic fibres used in a fleece jacket on a cool day to the
plastics used in the construction of a steering wheel.
Refineries can adjust their production of a primary petrochemical
to meet demand in a variety of ways. As crude oil is refined, it can
be treated with fractional distillation, in which it is heated to
separate out the various components for use, or it can be “cracked”
with a catalyst which breaks up hydrocarbon chains to create

desired products. Because petrochemicals are commonly in high
demand, refineries must be able to act quickly to take advantage of
favourable pricing and demand.

Notes
Activity

Surf___________________
over internet and study
the history of petrochemicals
and ___________________
prepare a report.

PE

Refining and production of end-stage petrochemical products has
been criticized on the basis of environmental concerns. Extraction
and transport of crude oil can have a very negative environmental
impact, and the refining process can be highly polluting and
sometimes dangerous for neighbouring communities.

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UNIT 1: Petrochemicals: An Overview

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Petrochemicals are also very slow to break down in the natural
environment, raising issues about the proper use and disposal of
consumer products. These products are also not renewable,
because they come from resources built up over the course of
millions of years, which means that once the world's deposits of
crude oil and natural gas are exhausted, a serious problem could
emerge for the petrochemical industry.

Check Your Progress
Fill in the blanks:

Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid
catalytic ……………….. of petroleum fractions.

2.

…………………. include benzene, toluene and xylenes.

CE

1.

Historical Background

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Organic chemistry is the starting point for the development and
production of chemicals when the industrial revolution tookplace in
Europe. The basic raw material then was coal, which initially found
wide use as a source of heat energy. Experiments in laboratory
backed by theoretical knowledge gave a big thrust for synthesizing
materials starting from coal and its components. When coke was
produced from coal a complex organic chemical mixture was also
found. This gave a boost to production of associated organic
chemicals, which in turn gave rise to several uses.

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Organic synthesis thus became the foremost means of generating
valuable useful materials, which found novel applications. Using
coal chemistry coke oven gas, tar and the residue were further
processed to make chemicals, intermediates, etc., for dyes, paints
and pharmaceuticals. All these found wide spread applications in
associated industries as well as household uses that brought more
colour and comfort to population in the 19th century.

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