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nps71 070714 03.pdf


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Physical Security of the U.S. Power Grid: High-Voltage Transformer Substations

Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1
Congressional Interest ............................................................................................................... 2
HV Transformer Risks and Vulnerability ........................................................................................ 2
High Voltage Power Transformers............................................................................................. 2
Manufacture and Cost ......................................................................................................... 4
U.S. Manufacturing Capability ........................................................................................... 5
HV Transformer Sites in the United States ......................................................................... 5
Criticality of HV Transformers.................................................................................................. 6
Physical Vulnerability of HV Transformers .............................................................................. 6
Targeting of HV Transformers................................................................................................... 8
Physical Security Measures for HV Transformers .................................................................... 9
Sector Initiatives for HV Transformer Security ............................................................................. 10
Coordination and Information Sharing .................................................................................... 10
DOE’s Energy Sector-Specific Plan .................................................................................. 11
ESCC’s Critical Infrastructure Strategic Roadmap ........................................................... 12
Transformer Equipment Programs .......................................................................................... 12
DHS Recovery Transformer Program ............................................................................... 12
EEI Spare Transformer Equipment Program..................................................................... 13
NERC Spare Equipment Database .................................................................................... 13
Grid Security Exercises and Simulations ................................................................................ 14
GridEx and GridEx II ........................................................................................................ 14
FERC “Electrically Significant Locations” Study ............................................................ 15
HV Transformer Security Standards........................................................................................ 16
IEEE Substation Security Standard ................................................................................... 16
NERC Physical Security Guidance ................................................................................... 16
FERC Physical Security Best Practices............................................................................. 17
NERC Physical Security Regulations ............................................................................... 18
Company-Specific Initiatives .................................................................................................. 19
The Tennessee Valley Authority ........................................................................................ 19
Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) ...................................................................................... 20
Dominion........................................................................................................................... 20
Bonneville Power Administration ..................................................................................... 21
Issues for Congress ........................................................................................................................ 21
Identifying Critical Transformers ............................................................................................ 21
Confidentiality of Critical Transformer Information ............................................................... 22
Adequacy of HV Transformer Protection ................................................................................ 24
Quality of Federal Threat Information .................................................................................... 25
Recovery from HV Transformer Attacks ................................................................................. 26

Figures
Figure 1. Electric Transmission Network ........................................................................................ 1
Figure 2. Step-Up and Step-Down HV Transformers in the Grid.................................................... 3
Figure 3. 345 kV Transformer Installation ...................................................................................... 4

Congressional Research Service