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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Relation of God to the Universe .pdf

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Relation of God to the Universe

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Relation of God to the Universe
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In developing the argument of the First Cause we have seen that the world is essentially
dependent on God, and this dependence implies in the first place that God is the Creator
of the world — the producer of its whole being or substance — and in the next place,
supposing its production, that its continuance in being at every moment is due to His
sustaining power. Creation means the total production of a being out of nothing, i.e. the
bringing of a being into existence to replace absolute nonexistence, and the relation of
Creator is the only conceivable relation in which the Infinite can stand to the finite.
Pantheistic theories, which would represent the varieties of being in the universe as so
many determinations or emanations or phases of one and the selfsame eternal reality —
Substance according to Spinoza, Pure Ego according to Fichte, the Absolute according to
Schelling, the Pure Idea or Logical Concept according to Hegel — simply bristle with
contradictions, and involve, as has been stated already, a denial of the distinction
between the finite and the infinite. And the relation of Creator to created remains the
same even though the possibility of eternal creation be admitted; the Infinite must be the
producer of the finite even though it be impossible to fix a time at which production may
not already have taken place. For certain knowledge of the fact that created being, and
time itself, had a definite beginning in the past we can afford to rely on revelation,
although, as already stated, science suggests the same fact.
It is also clear that if the universe depends on God for its production, it must also depend
on Him for its conservation or continuance in being; and this truth will perhaps be best
presented by explaining the much talked-of principle of Divine immanence as corrected
and counterbalanced by the equally important principle of Divine transcendence.

Divine immanence and transcendence
To Deists is attributed the view — or at least a tendency towards the view — that God,
having created the universe, leaves it to pursue its own course according to fixed laws
and ceases, so to speak, to take any further interest in, or responsibility for what may
happen; and Divine immanence is urged, sometimes too strongly, in opposition to this
view. God is immanent, or intimately present, in the universe because His power is
required at every moment to sustain creatures in being and to concur with them in their
activities. Conservation and concursus are so to speak, continuations of creative activity,
and imply an equally intimate relation of God towards creatures, or rather an equally
intimate and unceasing dependence of creatures on God. Whatever creatures are, they
are by virtue of God's conserving power; whatever they do, they do by virtue of God's
concursus. It is not, of course, denied that creatures are true causes and produce real
effects; but they are only secondary causes, their efficiency is always dependent and
derived; God as the First Cause is an ever active cooperator in their actions. This is true
even of the free acts of an intelligent creature like man; only it should be added in this
case that Divine responsibility ceases at the point where sin or moral evil enters in. Since
sin as such, however, is an imperfection, no limitation is thus imposed on God's

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Relation of God to the Universe

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But lest insistence on Divine immanence should degenerate into Pantheism — and there
is a tendency in this direction on the part of many modern writers — it is important at the
same time to emphasize the truth of God's transcendence, to recall, in other words, what
has been stated several times already, that God is one simple and infinitely perfect
personal Being whose nature and action in their proper character as Divine infinitely
transcend all possible modes of the finite, and cannot, without contradiction, be formally
identified with these.

Possibility of the supernatural
From a study of nature we have inferred the existence of God and deduced certain
fundamental truths regarding His nature and attributes, and His relation to the created
universe. And from these it is easy to deduce a further important truth, with a brief
mention of which we may fittingly conclude this section. However wonderful we may
consider the universe to be, we recognize that neither in its substance nor in the laws by
which its order is maintained, in so far as unaided reason can come to know them, does it
exhaust God's infinite power or perfectly reveal His nature. If then it be suggested that,
to supplement what philosophy teaches of Himself and His purposes, God may be willing
to favour rational creatures with an immediate personal revelation, in which He aids the
natural powers of reason by confirming what they already know, and by imparting to
them much that they could not otherwise know, it will be seen at once that this
suggestion contains no impossibility. All that is required to realize it is that God should
be able to communicate directly with the created mind, and that men should be able to
recognize with sufficient certainty that the communication is really Divine — and that
both of these conditions are capable of being fulfilled no Theist can logically deny (see
REVELATION; MIRACLES). This being so it will follow further that knowledge so
obtained, being guaranteed by the authority of Him who is infinite Truth, is the most
certain and reliable knowledge we can possess.

About this page
APA citation. Toner, P. (1909). Relation of God to the Universe. In The Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved February 19, 2015 from
New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06614a.htm
MLA citation. Toner, Patrick. "Relation of God to the Universe." The Catholic
Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 19 Feb. 2015
Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Tomas Hancil.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. September 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor.
Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.
Contact information. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. My email address is
webmaster at newadvent.org. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly
appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and
inappropriate ads.

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