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Contents
CHAPTER 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT ................................................. 1

BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................... 1
OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................. 2
KEY ELEMENTS ........................................................................................................ 4
PARAMETERS........................................................................................................... 5
MAJOR REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS FOR SCHOOL OPERATION ............. 6

CHAPTER 2

LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATTERS ......................... 15

2.1 SCHOOL-BASED CURRICULUM PLANNING ............................................................ 15
2.1.1
2.1.2

Introduction ...................................................................................................... 15
Goals .................................................................................................................. 16

2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5

Guiding principles .......................................................................................... 16
Learning experiences .................................................................................... 17
Life-wide learning ........................................................................................... 17

2.2 WHAT IS TO BE LEARNT IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM ....................................... 19
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

Components of the school curriculum ..................................................... 19
Key learning areas ......................................................................................... 19
Generic skills ................................................................................................... 19
Values and attitudes ...................................................................................... 20

2.3 ENHANCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING ...................................................................... 22
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3

Principles of facilitating learning and teaching ..................................... 22
Meaningful homework ................................................................................. 26
Flexible use of learning time ....................................................................... 27

2.3.4
2.3.5

Selection of textbooks and learning/teaching materials ................... 28
Weight of school bags .................................................................................. 31

2.4 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS ............... 32
2.4.1
2.4.2

Curriculum support materials ..................................................................... 32
Teacher development programmes........................................................... 32

2.5 THE ROLES OF CHANGE AGENTS IN SCHOOLS ..................................................... 34
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3

School heads ................................................................................................... 34
Primary school curriculum leaders ........................................................... 34
Senior teachers and panel heads............................................................... 35

2.5.4 Teachers ........................................................................................................... 35
2.5.5 Teacher-librarians .......................................................................................... 35
Appendix School days and suggested lesson time allocation for primary, junior
secondary and senior secondary levels ....................................................... 36
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