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c`v_©weÁv‡bi cÖ_g cvV
gyn¤§` Rvdi BKevj

Zvgªwjwc
38/2 ka, Banglabazar, Dhaka -1100

DrmM©
hviv wVK K‡i‡Q eo n‡q weÁvbx n‡e

f~wgKv
Avwg eûKvj †_‡K c`v_©weÁv‡bi GKUv cvV¨eB wjL‡Z †P‡qwQjvg, AvR Avgvi †mB ¯^cœ c~iY
n‡q‡Q| eBwU †jLv †kl n‡q‡QÑ Z‡e G ai‡bi eB KL‡bv †kl nq bv| cÖwZ eQi eB‡qi cwieZ©b
nq, b~Zb welq ms‡hvRb nq, Kv‡RB GB eBwUi †ejv‡ZI ZvB n‡e| cÖwZeQiB Gi GKUz
cwieZ©b n‡e, GKUz b~Zb wKQz †hvM n‡e|
GwU beg-`kg †kÖYxi †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Rb¨ †jLv| GB eqmx †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i c`v_©weÁvb
†kLvi Rb¨ Kx Kx cov DwPZ †m wel‡q Avgvi wbR¯^ wPšÍvfvebv Av‡Q; wKš‘ eBwU †jLvi mgq
Avwg Avgvi wPšÍvfvebv‡K ev·ew›` K‡i Zv‡`i †h cvV¨ eBwU Av‡Q †mB eBwUi welq¸‡jvi gv‡S
mxgve× †i‡LwQ| †mB eB‡q hv wQj Zvi cÖvq me †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e GB eB‡q Av‡Q, wKQz wKQz
RvqMvq GKUz †ewk Av‡Q| c`v_©weÁv‡bi A‡bK mnR welq beg-`kg †kÖYxi †Q‡j‡g‡qiv eyS‡Z
cv‡i bv ARynv‡Z Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡K Avovj K‡i ivLv nq| Avwg Avovj K‡i ivwLwbÑ D`vifv‡e
wKQz wKQz D`vniY wn‡m‡e XzwK‡q w`‡qwQ|
Z‡e †Kv‡bv †Q‡j‡g‡q †hb fz‡jI g‡b bv K‡i †h GwU c‡o Zviv cixÿvq fv‡jv b¤^i
cv‡e! GwU †gv‡UI cixÿvq fv‡jv b¤^‡ii Rb¨ †jLv nqwbÑ GUv †jLv n‡q‡Q c`v_©weÁvb †kLvi
Rb¨| Avwg Avgvi g‡Zv K‡i welq¸‡jv †evSv‡bvi †Póv K‡iwQ, wbR nv‡Z cÖwZwU Qwe Gu‡K A‡bK
D`vniY w`‡q welq¸‡jv mnR Kivi †Póv K‡iwQ|
Z‡e Avmj cvV¨ eB‡qi mv‡_ GLv‡b GKUv eo cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| wVK Kx KviY Rvbv †bB
Avgv‡`i cvV¨ eB‡q c`v_©weÁv‡bi ivwk¸‡jv‡K evsjvq Abyev` K‡i †djv nq| B‡jKUªb‡K Avwg
B‡jKUªb ewj wKš‘ PvR©‡K †Kb Avavb ewj †mwU Avgvi Kv‡Q GKUv inm¨| me‡P‡q eo K_v
GLv‡b †h †Q‡j‡g‡qwU PvR©‡K Avavb ej‡Z wkL‡QÑ `yB eQi c‡iB †m hLb †Kv‡bv wek¦we`¨vj‡q
c`v_©weÁvb wkL‡e ZLb wKš‘ Zv‡K †mUv‡K PvR©B ej‡Z n‡eÑ Zvn‡j †Kb gvÎ K‡qK eQ‡ii
Rb¨ ïay ïay GKUv wewPÎ kã wkL‡Z n‡e?
Kv‡RB GB eB‡q Avwg c`v_©weÁv‡bi ivwk¸‡jvi †h bv‡g Zv‡`i cwiwPZ nIqv DwPZ †mB
bvg¸‡jv e¨envi K‡iwQ| eªv‡K‡U gv‡S gv‡S wewPÎ bvg¸‡jv w`‡q †i‡LwQ †hb †Q‡j‡g‡qiv Rv‡b
†KvbUv Kx! Bs‡iwR PvR©‡K evsjv Avavb †jLvq Zey †Rvi K‡i nq‡Zv GKUv hyw³ `uvo Kiv‡bv hvq
wKš‘ Avqbvi g‡Zv PgrKvi GKUv evsjv kã‡K †Kb `c©Y ej‡Z n‡e, †mwU Avgvi gv_vq wKQz‡ZB
Xz‡KwbÑ †Kv‡bvw`b XyK‡e bv|
GLv‡b mevB‡K Av‡iv GKUv wRwbm g‡b Kwi‡q w`B| c`v_©weÁvb †kLv gv‡b bq wKQz
msÁv gyL¯Í Kiv| c`v_©weÁvb †kLv gv‡b mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cviv| GB eB‡q A‡bK¸‡jv
mgm¨v D`vniY wn‡m‡e †`qv Av‡Q ZvB Kv‡iv hw` c`v_©weÁvb †kLvi B‡”Q nq Zv‡`i‡K GB
D`vniY¸‡jv cÖ_‡g wb‡R wb‡R Kivi †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e| eB‡qi †k‡l †h Abykxjbx Av‡Q †m¸‡jv
mevB‡K Ki‡Z n‡e| ïay Zvn‡jB g‡b Ki‡e cy‡iv eBUv cov n‡q‡Q|

GB eBUv †jLvi mgq Avwg Avgvi wb‡Ri †jLv w_Iix Ae wi‡jwUwfwU, †Kvqv›Uvg
†gKvwb·, GKUzLvwb weÁvb Ges Av‡iv GKUzLvwb weÁvb eB¸‡jv †_‡K wKQz Ask e¨envi K‡iwQ|
eB‡qi wKQz Abykxjbx ˆZix Kivi R‡b¨  David  Halliday  Ges Robert  Resnick  Gi †jLv
Avgvi wcÖq c`v_©weÁv‡bi eB Physics †_‡K mvnvh¨ wb‡qwQ|
GB eBwU GKUv G·‡cwi‡g›U! hw` †`Lv hvq GB G·‡cwi‡g›U wVK wVK KvR K‡i‡Q
Zvn‡j c‡ii G·‡cwi‡g›U¸‡jv ïiæ K‡i †`qv n‡e!

gyn¤§` Rvdi BKevj
kvnRvjvj weÁvb I cÖhyw³ wek¦ew`¨vjq, wm‡jU

m~wP
1. cÖ_g Aa¨vq: †fŠZ ivwk Avi Zvi cwigvc

2. wØZxq Aa¨vq: MwZ
...
3. Z…Z¡xq Aa¨vq: ej
...
4. PZz_© Aa¨vq: KvR, ÿgZv I kw³ ...
5. cÂg Aa¨vq: c`v‡_©i Ae¯’v I Pvc ...
6. ló Aa¨vq: e¯‘i Dci Zv‡ci cÖfve ...
7. mßg Aa¨vq: Zi½ I kã
...
8. Aóg Aa¨vq: Av‡jvi cÖwZdjb
...
9. beg Aa¨vq: Av‡jvi cÖwZmiY
...
10. `kg Aa¨vq: w¯’i we`y¨r
...
11. GKv`k Aa¨vq: Pjwe`y¨r
...
12. Øv`k Aa¨vq: we`y¨‡Zi †PŠ¤^K wμqv ...
13. ·qv`k Aa¨vq: AvaywbK c`v_©weÁvb I B‡j±ªwb·
14. PZz`©k Aa¨vq: gvby‡li R‡b¨ c`v_©weÁvb
15. cwiwkó-1 
 
...
16. cwiwkó-2 
 
...
17. cwiwkó-3 
 
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
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... 

 
 

11
23
51
79
109
131
151
167
189
217
239
263
277
301
309
311
313

cÖ_g Aa¨vq

†fŠZ ivwk Avi Zvi cwigvc
(Physical Quantities and Measurement)
AvwK©wgwWm

 

AvwK©wgwWm wQ‡jb GKRb wMÖK MwYZwe`, c`v_©weÁvbx, BwÄwbqvi,
Avwe®‹viK Ges †R¨vwZwe©`| wZwb GKw`‡K †hgb †Mvj‡Ki
AvqZb, cvB‡qi gvb, Amxg wmwi‡Ri †hvMdj G ai‡bi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb K‡i‡Qb, wVK †m iKg Ab¨w`‡K cvwb Dc‡i
†Zvjvi Rb¨ ¯Œz cv¤ú, kÎæi hy× RvnvR aŸsm Kivi Rb¨ wewPÎ hš¿
wKsev `~i †_‡K Av¸b awi‡q †`qvi Rb¨ we‡kl Avqbv ˆZwi K‡i
w`‡qwQ‡jb| Zuv‡K me©Kv‡ji me©‡kÖô GKRb MwYZwe` wn‡m‡e
we‡ePbv Kiv n‡jI Zuvi e¨w³MZ Rxeb m¤ú‡K© Lye †ewk Rvbv hvq
bv| Zuvi kni †ivgvb ˆmb¨iv hLb `Lj K‡i †bq ZLb wZwb GKUv
MvwYwZK mgm¨v wb‡q e¨¯Í wQ‡jb| Zuvi †Kv‡bv ÿwZ bv Kivi
wb‡`©k _vKvi ciI GKRb †ivgvb ˆmb¨ Zuv‡K nZ¨v K‡i
†d‡jwQj|

Archimedes (287 BC‐212 BC) 
 

1.1 weÁvb I c`v_©weÁvb (Science and Physics) 
weÁvb ej‡ZB nq‡Zv †Zvgv‡`i †Pv‡L weÁv‡bi bvbv hš¿cvwZ, Avwe®‹vi, M‡elYv, j¨ve‡iUwi
Gm‡ei `„k¨ dz‡U D‡V wKš‘ weÁv‡bi Avmj welq wKš‘ hš¿cvwZ, M‡elYv ev j¨ve‡iUwi bq,
weÁv‡bi Avmj welq n‡”Q Zvi `„wóf½x| GB mf¨Zvi me‡P‡q eo Ae`vb †i‡L‡Q weÁvb Avi
†mwU G‡m‡Q c„w_exi gvby‡li ˆeÁvwbK `„wóf½x †_‡K|
Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡k cÖK…wZi †h inm¨ i‡q‡Q weÁvb Zvi DËi Lyu‡R †eov‡”QÑ Kv‡iv Kv‡iv
g‡b nq‡Zv cÖkœ RvM‡Z cv‡i †Kb GB AKviY †KŠZ~nj? bv Rvb‡j Kx nq? gvbyl †hw`b Zvi
gw¯Í‡®‹ eyw×gËv wb‡q Zvi `yB cv‡q †mvRv n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q †mB w`b †_‡K Zvi wKš‘ Avi wcQ‡b wd‡i
hvevi Dcvq †bB, †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ Zv‡K Rvb‡ZB n‡e| Rvbvi GB AvMÖn, GB Zvobv gvbyl‡K m„wó
RM‡Zi Ab¨ me wKQz †_‡K Avjv`v K‡i †i‡L‡Q|

12                                                                                                                                           †fŠZ ivwk Avi Zvi cwigvc 

weÁvb‡K Rvbvi wZbwU mywbw`©ó c_ i‡q‡Q, cÖ_gwU n‡”Q hyw³ ZK©| GKUv D`vniY †`qv
hvK: GKUv fvix wRwbm Av‡iKUv nvjKv wRwbm Dci †_‡K †Q‡o w`‡j `y‡Uv wK GKmv‡_ co‡e
bvwK fvixUv Av‡M co‡e? GB cÖ‡kœi DËi Lyu‡R †ei Kivi Rb¨ wKš‘ †Kv‡bv ˆeÁvwbK m~‡ÎiI
cÖ‡qvRb †bB †Kv‡bv RwUj cixÿv-wbixÿviI `iKvi †bB, Avgiv ïaygvÎ hyw³ w`‡q Gi DËiUv
Lyu‡R †ei K‡i †dj‡Z cvie| aiv hvK Avgvi Kv‡Q GKUv fvix Avi GKUv nvjKv wRwbm i‡q‡Q|
Gev‡i cÖ_‡g a‡i wbB Dci †_‡K †Q‡o w`‡j fvix wRwbmUv nvjKv wRwbm †_‡K Av‡M wb‡P G‡m
c‡o| GLb fvix wRwbmUvi mv‡_ nvjKv wRwbmUv †eu‡a `y‡Uv GKmv‡_ †Q‡o †`qv n‡j, nvjKv
wRwbmUv †h‡nZy ax‡i ax‡i co‡e ZvB fvix wRwbmUv‡K †mUv GZ ZvovZvwo co‡Z †`‡e bvÑ
Kv‡RB †eu‡a ivLv `y‡Uv wRwbm GKUz †`wi K‡i co‡e| welqUv Avevi Ab¨fv‡e †`L‡Z cvwi, fvix
wRwbmUvi mv‡_ Av‡iv GKUv wRwbm †eu‡a †`qv n‡q‡Q ZvB †mUv wbðqB Av‡iv fvix n‡q‡QÑ
Kv‡RB Av‡iv fvix wn‡m‡e Av‡iv
ZvovZvwo co‡e| Kv‡RB †`Lv hv‡”Q
Avgiv GKB mv‡_ Av‡iv ax‡i wKsev
Av‡iv ZvovZvwo `y‡Uv DËiB †c‡Z
cvwiÑ wKš‘ GK cÖ‡kœi †Zv `yB DËi
nIqv m¤¢e bv! GB RwUjZvi mgvavb
Kiv m¤¢e ïay GKwU Dcv‡qÑ Avgiv
hw` a‡i wbB, fvix †nvK nvjKv †nvK
mewKQz GKmv‡_ wb‡P c‡o| Zvi
gv‡b ïay gvÎ hyw³ ZK© w`‡q Avgiv
weÁv‡bi GKUv mgm¨vi mgvavbUv
Lyu‡R †c‡q †Mjvg!
weÁvb‡K Rvbvi wØZxq
Qwe 1.1: aªæeZviv‡K wN‡i me bÿθ‡jv Nyi‡Z _v‡K  
DcvqwU n‡”Q ch©‡eÿY| Avgiv hw`
 
AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvKvB Avi AvKv‡ki
bÿθjv‡K g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q ch©‡eÿY Kwi Zvn‡j †`Le me bÿÎ cye AvKv‡k D‡V cwðg AvKv‡k
A¯Í hv‡”Q| Avgv‡`i aviYv n‡Z cv‡i Avm‡jB eywS ZvB NU‡Q, A_©vr w¯’i GKUv c„w_exi Pvicv‡k
bÿθ‡jv Nyi‡Q| wKš‘ hw` Av‡iv fv‡jv K‡i bÿθ‡jv‡K ch©‡eÿY Kwi Zvn‡j AevK n‡q †`Le
DËi w`‡K w`MšÍ †_‡K Dc‡i GKUv bÿÎ (aªæeZviv) KL‡bv Ny‡i bv, †mUv GK RvqMvq w¯’i n‡q
_v‡K, Avi Ab¨ me bÿÎ Avm‡j GUv‡K †K›`ª K‡i Ny‡i (Qwe 1.1)! Avgiv ZLb nVvr K‡i eyS‡Z
cvwi †h Avm‡j c„w_exi AÿUv wVK GB aªæeZviv eivei Ges c„w_exUvB wbðqB GB A‡ÿ Nyi‡Q
ZvB g‡b n‡PQ me wKQz eywS aªæeZviv‡K †K›`ª K‡i Nyi‡Q! ïaygvÎ ch©‡eÿY K‡i Avgiv weÁv‡bi
GKUv Z_¨ †ei K‡i †dj‡Z cvwi|
weÁvb‡K Rvbvi Z…Zxq c×wZwU n‡”Q cixÿv-wbixÿv Kiv| wbDUb me‡P‡q my›`i K‡i GUv
K‡i †`wL‡q weÁvb M‡elYvi b~Zb GKUv aviv ˆZwi K‡iwQ‡jb| m~‡h©i eY©nxb Av‡jv wcÖR‡gi
†fZi w`‡q cvwV‡q †mUv‡K A‡bK¸‡jv is‡q fvM K‡i †`wL‡qwQ‡jb †h eY©nxb is Avm‡j bvbv is

†fŠZ ivwk Avi Zvi cwigvc

13 

w`‡q ˆZwi| ZviciI hw` †mUv wb‡q Kv‡iv g‡b m‡›`n _v‡K †mUv `~i Kivi Rb¨ wZwb †mB bvbv
is‡qi Av‡jv‡K wØZxq GKUv wcÖR‡gi †fZi w`‡q cvwV‡q Avevi eY©nxb Av‡jv ˆZwi K‡i
†d‡jwQ‡jb! (Qwe 1.2)
GB wZbwU c×wZi Ici wfwË K‡i weÁvbUv Lye ax‡i ax‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q| AmsL¨ M‡elK
weÁvbx wg‡j Lye ax‡i ax‡i weÁv‡bi wekvj GKUv myig¨ AÆvwjKv M‡o Zy‡j‡Qb| weÁv‡bi GB
Avwe®‹v‡ii djvdj bvbv cÖhyw³‡Z e¨envi K‡i Avgiv Avgv‡`i Rxeb‡K mnR K‡i ZzjwQ, A_©c~Y©
K‡i ZzjwQ| Avevi KL‡bv KL‡bv fqsKi wKQy cÖhyw³ †ei K‡i ïaygvÎ wb‡R‡`i Rxeb bq c„w_exi
Aw¯ÍZ¡‡KI wecbœ K‡i ZzjwQ! g‡b
†i‡Lv cÖhyw³i gv‡S fv‡jv cÖhyw³
†hgb Av‡Q, wVK †m iKg Lvivc
cÖhyw³I Av‡Q, weÁv‡bi †ejvq
wKš‘ †KD †mB K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e
bvÑ weÁvb n‡”Q Ávb, Gi gv‡S
†Kv‡bv Lvivc †bB Gi gv‡S
†Kv‡bv Aïf †bB!
 
1.1.1 c`v_©weÁvb (Physics)
Avgiv GZÿb weÁvb wb‡q K_v
 
e‡jwQ Ges †Zvgiv mevB Rvb
Qwe 1.2: wcÖR‡gi †fZi w`‡q hvevi mgq Av‡jvi bvbv is‡q fvM n‡q
weÁv‡bi A‡bK kvLv i‡q‡Q|
hvIqvi wbDU‡bi wb‡Ri nv‡Z AvuKv Qwe 
mwZ¨ K_v ej‡Z Kx A‡bK welqÑ
†h¸‡jv‡K GZw`b weÁv‡bi evB‡i †i‡L G‡mwQ †m¸‡jv‡KI AvRKvj ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ‡Z PP©v Kiv
nq e‡j Avgiv Zv‡`i weÁvb e‡j fve‡Z ïiæ K‡iwQ| g‡bvweÁvb ev mgvRweÁvb Zvi D`vniY|
c`v_©weÁvb weÁv‡bi GKUv kvLv Ges ejv †h‡Z cv‡i GUv n‡”Q cÖvPxbZg kvLv, Zvi
KviY Ab¨ weÁvb¸‡jv `vbv evavi A‡bK Av‡MB weÁvbxiv c`v_©weÁv‡bi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© GKUv kvLv,
†R¨vwZwe©`¨v PP©v Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb| c`v_©weÁvb GwU GKw`‡K †hgb cÖvPxbZg kvLv wVK
†mfv‡e ejv †h‡Z cv‡i GUv me‡P‡q †gŠwjK (fundamental) kvLv| Gi Ici wfwË K‡i imvqb
`uvwo‡q‡Q, Avevi imvq‡bi Ici wfwË K‡i RxeweÁvb `uvwo‡q‡QÑ Avevi RxeweÁv‡bi Ici wfwË
K‡i Ab¨ A‡bK welq `uvwo‡q‡Q|
mvaviYfv‡e Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi weÁv‡bi †h kvLv c`v_© Avi kw³ Ges G `yB‡qi gv‡S †h
m¤úK© (interation) Zv‡K †evSvi †Póv K‡i †mUv n‡”Q c`v_©weÁvb| †Zvgiv wbðqB Abygvb
Ki‡Z †c‡iQ GLv‡b c`v_© ej‡Z ïay Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡ki `„k¨gvb c`v_© bq, c`v‡_©i MVbÑ AYy
cigvYy †_‡K ïiæ K‡i B‡jKUªb, †cÖvUb, wbDUªb ev †KvqvK© w÷ªs ch©šÍ †h‡Z cv‡i| Avevi kw³
ej‡Z Avgv‡`i cwiwPZ gva¨vKl©Y ev we`y¨r †PŠ¤^Kxq kw³ QvovI mej wKsev `ye©j wbDwK¬qvi
kw³I n‡Z cv‡i!


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