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THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAl UNMRSITY

THESES, SIS/LIBRARY
R.G. MENZIES BUILDING N02

Telephone: +61 2 6125 4631

Australian National University

Facsimile: +61 2 6125 4063

Canberra ACT 0200 Australia

Email: library.tlleses@anu.edu.au

USE OF THESES

This copy is supplied for purposes
of private study and research only.
Passages from the thesis may not be
copied or closely paraphrased without the
written consent of the author.

A Grammar of Chukchi
Michael John Dunn

A thesis submitted for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
of
Australian National University

May 1999

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Except where otherwise acknowledged In the text,
this thesis is entirely my wn work .

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Acknowledgments
1

B3JibiHKbiK'YH K b!T3B MHKbiH3

In this thesis I owe a great deal to many people for their kindness and generosity.

rarrotirb!T

I am grateful to the people of the village of Tawajwaam, who, amidst considerable
social and material difficulty, accepted me and managed to make me feel at home.
The two poles of Tawajwaam life-the Social and Sporting Committee, and the
Sixth Brigade-both helped me a great deal. Without Tawlwi (Valentina Rintuwji)
my fieldwork could not have been remotely as successful as it was. In Tawajwaam
I bene~ted from the generous efforts of my Chukchi language teachers and
storytellers, ?Atawqaj, ?EJ!Jewnew•t. Vasliij lukum, Valentina Kanle, Galina
Notanwat, !)awkake, Rarowtat, Viktor Timnev'e, Tawiwi, and Nina Smirnova.
The villages of Kanchalan and Alkatwaam also welcomed me. In Kanchalan
?AJ!Jantow!JaW, KantaJnan. Krome, ?Omrawakwa!JaW and Pa!Jarowt~:;aw talked
with me and told me stories. Petja Nawlykaj helped with translation and
explanation. In Alkatwaam my kind host Elena Nutekeu patiently answered my
questions about the Chukchi language, and introduced me to Pa!Janto, Penwel and
Tanecejwa!JeW, who alsu shared their knowledge of history and folklore with me.
In Anadyr' Irina Gyrgol'naut and Tamara Koraw'e kindly shared their knowledge,
as did the unfailingly helpful staff of the Chukchi language section of the radio
station: Margarita Bellchenko, Zlnadla Kevev and Lariss3 Vykvyraxtygirgina.
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Apart from the problems of tr.ring to come to grips with the Chukchi language, life
in Chukotka held many other challenges: food, clothing; housing, and
administrative issues ali pose great dlfficultles, pr.rticularly to the inexperienced.
These difficulties were smoothed by the kindness and generosity of many peop!e,
including Andrej Etuwji, Gallna Ivanovna and Jurij Jurlevlch, Aleksandr
Jatgyrgin, Aleksandr and Tarlana Omrypkir, Olga Rastorgueva, Ekaterina
Ragtytagyna, Tatiana and Valcr!J Sv~dcov.
I also benefited from discussions with Paleoslberian scholars Tamara Korav'e,
Vladimir Nedjalkov, Vladimir Raxtylln, Nikolaj Vaxtln, Vladimir Yetylln and
Alevtina Zukova. I received institutional support from Department of Linguistics
and the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology at the Australian National
University, the Anadyr'skoe Pedu~lll~~e. an<! the Science Centre "Chukotka".

vi.

t,CKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to my supervisor Alexandra Alkhenvald, who has been a paragon of
dlllgence and energy In her support of my work. I would also llke to thanl· my
advisers Bob Dixon and Avery Andrews for their valuable Insights. Ti~~thy
Curnow and Angel~, Terrlll have also made heroic t • Jrts In editing and
commenting. The fact that I know anything at all about llngulstics is thanks to m
many t~achers over the years at the ANU Department of Linguistics, In particula~
Cindy ,o~.llen, Avery Andrews, Bob Dixon, Harold Koch, Uirlke Mosel, Phll Rose,
Timothy Shopen and Anna Wlerzblcka.

-------------------------------·-----

My friends and fellow students have been very :..;pportive also: Alec, Eva, Helen,
Kazuko, Luisa, Pam, Patti, Peita, Stuart, Tony, Verna, and many others. My
parents Robin and John Dunn also provided help ~nd encouragement.

Abstract

And finally I thank Angela, who llved through the whole process and managed to
make It fun. Ile !JaWacqatajryml

The aim of this work is to produce the first fieldwork-based, typologically Informed
referenc~ grammar of Chukchi, an Indigenous language of the north-eastern corner
of· the Russian Federation. The theoretical approach Is low-key and eclectic;
llngulstic phenomena are described In a manner which Is, in so far as it Is possible,
theory-neutral, although where a branch of llngulstic the-;:-y provides tools which
allow clear and simple descclption It Is used without hesitation. Linguistic
description Is, however, primary throughout.
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The first five chapters of the thesis provide background Information. Chapter I
sketches the soclollngulstic situatim• u: f';J->ukchl, discusses the sources of data used
for analysis, and surveys relevant llnguistic publlcations. Chapter 2 discusses
llnguistic variation within Chukchi. The Chukchi men's and women's dialects are
discussed within a framework of a comparison of Chukchi and the neighbouring
dialects and languages .of the Koryako-Chukotian group. The phonological system
of Chukchi Is described in chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 survey word classes and
sentence types respectively.
The following four chapters are concerned with nominals. Nominal inflection Is
described In chapter 6. und the different types of free pronouns are discussed in
chapter 7. In chapter 8 there Is a description of nominal morphology, which pays
particular attention t~ deverbal noun subtypes, such as participles and action
nouns. Chapter 9 Is concerned with complex nouns, Including complex noun
phrases (which can only occur In the absolutive case) and nouns with Incorporation.
A discussion of verbs takes up the next five chapters. Chapter 10 contains a
description of verbal Inflection, a complex and theoretically Interesting area of
Chukchi. An account of Inflectional morp;1G'r:gy is proposed based on the notion uf
'Inverse allgnment' and grammaticall;; twn of pictotypical agency relationships.
Chapter II describes valency, surveying transitivity types and describing the
valency changing and rearranging derivations avallable in the language, including
antipasslve, causative and appllcative. Incorporation and compounding by verbs is
discussed in chapter 12. Chapter 13 contains a discussion of non-finite deverbal
forms, Including converbs (a deverbal adverb which fom1S the head of an adverbial
subordinate clause), verb bases (the lexical heads of auxiliary verbs, and the

viii.

ABSTRACT

infinitive. Chapter 14 surveys non-valency-changing verbal derivations, which
have aspectuai, quantifier and modal me:::nings, among others.
The remaining chapters address a range of topics. Chapter I 5 has a discussion of
the various way3 of expressing spatial relationships. In chapter I 6 there is a
description of the adjective and the numeral word classes. Non-verbal predication
and a description of the beb. viour or· copulas and auxiliaries is found in Chapter
I7. Chapter IS addresses the complex area of negation, including a description of
the various types of negative clauses and the ways of negating various constituenl
types. Finally, in chapter I9 there is an account of the pragmatic principles
determining constituent order based on a discussion of topic and focus.

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Contents
List of maps and figures

xix

List of abbreviations

xxi

1. INTRODUCTION

1

I.I Chukchi culture ................................................................................................... 2
1.1.1 Gender roles.................................................................................................... 5
1.1.2 Language and magic..................................................................................... 6
1.1.3 Chukchi oral literature and histoty ............................................................... 6
1.1.4 Naming........................................................................................................... 7
1.1.5 Recent history ................................................................................................. 8
1.1.6 Literacy................................................................................. ....................... 9
1.2 Linguistic situation ............................................................................................. 10
1.2.1 Language contact ......................................................................................... 11
1.2.2 Language retention and tode.switchlng ....................................................... /4
I .3 Research conditions .............................................................................................. I 5
I.4 Data ..................................................................................................................... i6
I .5 Survey of published sources ................................................................................ I 7
2. DIALECTAL VARIATION

23

2. I Intrcduction ......................................................................................................... 23
2.2 Linguistic comparison .......................................................................................... 24
2.3 Gender dialects .................................................................................................... 25
2.3.1 Sociolinguistic status ................................................................................... 26
2.3.2 The r-c alternation ...................................................................................... 27
2.3.3 Intervocalic consonant elision ...................................................................... 31
2.3.4 Lexical variation .......................................................................................... 3/
2.4 Geographical variation within Chukchi.. ............................................................ 32
2.5 Standard Chukchi. ............................................................................................... 34
3. PHONOLOGY & MORPHOPHONOLOGY

37

3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 37

x.

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

[

xi.

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3.2 Word formation .................................................................................................... 38
3.2.1 CVskeleton ................................................................................................... 38
3.2.2 Syllabification and epenthesis...................................................................... 3.9
3.2.3 Underlying seqv~ ·:es ofvowels.............................................. :..................... 41
3.2.4 Vowel-approximant assimilation {long vowels) ........................................... 42
3.3 Consonant Phonemes .......................................................................................... .43
3.3.1 Stop phonemes.............................................................................................. 44
3.3.2 Fricative and affricate phonemes ................................................................. 45
3.3.3 Nasal phonemes............................................................................................ 46
3.3.4 Approxlmants ............................................................................................... 46
3.3.5 Men's and women's It! andld-/sl ................................................................. 47
3.4 Prosodic Phonemes ............................................................................................. .4 7
3.4. 1 Vowels and vowel harmony.......................................................................... 48
3.4.2 Glottallsation ................................................................................................ 48
3.5 Phoncloglcal and morphophonological alternations .......................................... .49
3.5.1 /r-/- /-n-/ alternaticn ............................................................................... 51
3.5.2 Internal consonant- zero alternation .......................................................... 51
3.5.3 External consonant- zero alternation ......................................................... 52
3.5.4 Vowel reduction ............................................................................................ 53
3.6 Intonation ............................................................................................................. 53
3.6.1 Vocative prosody ........................................................................................... 54
3.1 Orthographies ................... ,.................................................................................. 55
3.7.! Offlcial Cyrillic orthography ........................................................................ 56
3. 7.2 Early latinate orthography.......................................................................... 58
3. 7.3 Modified IPA orthography ........................................................................... 59
4. WORD CLASSES

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5. SENTENCE TYPES

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4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 61
4.2 Nomina Is ..............................................................................................................63
4.2.1 Nouns............................................................................................................ 64
4.2.2 Pronouns....................................................................................................... 65
4.2.3 Participles ..................................................................................................... 66
4.3 Adjectives ............................................................................................................ 66
4.4 Numerals .............................................................................................................. 67
4.5 Inflecting verbs .................................................................................................... 68
4. 5. 1 Analytic verbs ............................................................................................... 69
4.5.2 AuxJ/Jary verbs and copulas ......................................................................... 69
4.6 Verb bases ............................................................................................................ 70
4.7 Converbs ............................................................................................................... 70
4.8 Adverbs and particles ......................................................."' ................................11
4.8.1 Deadjectlve/ adverbs ................................................................................... 71
4.8.2 Deictic adverbs ............................................................................................. 72
4.8.3 Underlved time and manner adverbs........................................................... 72

4.8.4 NP modifier adverbs .................................................................................... 7''
4.8.5 Negative particles ......................................................................................... i'4
4.8.6 Proclausal particles ...................................................................................... 74
4.8.7 Conjunctive particles .................................................................................... 75
4.8.8 Modal particles ............................................................................................. 75
4.8.9 Discourse particles........................................................................................ 76
4.8./0 Evaluative particles..................................................................................... 76
4.9 Postpositions ........................................................................................................ 77
4.9. I Associative postposition reen ....................................................................... 77
4.9.2 Locative postpostion qaca ............................................................................. 78
4.10 lnterjectlons ....................................................................................................... 7P.
79

5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 19
5.2 Basic verbal clause .............................................................................................. 80
5.3 Other Independent verbal clauses ....................................................................... 82
5.3. I Zero-copula ................................................................................................... 82
5.3.2 Predicatlve adjectives and p~ssessed predicates .......................................... 83
5.4 Dependent clauses ............................................................................................... 83
5.5 Multlclausal sentettces ........................................................................................ 84
5.5./ Sequence of tenses ........................................................................................ 85
5.5.2 Jntersentential and Jntrasententia/ conj,rnction .......................................... 86
5.6 Modality types ..................................................................................................... 87
5.6.1 Polarity......................................................................................................... 87
5.6.2 Interrogative ................................................................................................. 88
5.6.3 Imperative .................................................................................................... 90
5.6.4 Direct and quoted speech.............................................................................. 90
6. NOMINAL INFLECTION

95

6.1 Subclassification of nomina Is .............................................................................. 95
6.2 Inflectional categories: case, number and person ............................................... 97
6.3 Core grammatlral cases ..................................................................................... 104
6.3./ Absc.':uiveslngular .................................................................................... /05
6.3.2 Absolut/ve forms ofnominal derivational suffiXes..................................... I /0
6.3.3 Singu/atlve ................................................................................................. I I I
6.3.4 Absolutlve plural.. ...................................................................................... I I I
6.3.5 Ergative/instrumental ............................................................................... I It:
6.3.6 Equatlve ..................................................................................................... 4
6.4 Locatlona1 cases .......·.......................................................................................... 115
6.5 Accompar.lment cases ........................................................................................ 116
6.5./ Comitatlve .................................................................................................. I /6
6.5.2 Associative .................................................................................................. I /6
6.5.3 Privative ..................................................................................................... 117

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XII.
7.Pfl0NOUNS

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
119

7.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 119
7.2 Personal pronouns ............................................................................................. 120
7.3 Indefinite/interrogative pronouns ..................................................................... 124
7.4 Demonstrative pronouns ........................................................... :....................... 128
7.5 Quantifier pronouns ........................................................................................... l30
7.6 Argument-like adverbs ...................................................................................... 133
7.6.1 Quantlfieradverbcamqak .......................................................................... 133
7.6.2 Reflexive adverb and reflexive relational pronoun ..................................... 134
7.6.3 Restrictive pronominal adverbs.................................................................. 135
8. NOMINAL DERIVATION

137

8.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 137
8.2 Participles .......................................................................................................... 138
8.3 Non-participle derivations with -1?- ................................................................... 143
8.4 Action noun derivation (·yary-•VH) ..................................................................... l44
8.5 Nominalising derivations ................................................................................... 146
8.6 Personal names .................................................................................................. l47
8.7 Possession and relation ...................................................................................... l48
B. 7.1 Possessive suffix -in(e)- ............................................................................... 149
B. 7.2 Relational suffix -kin(e)· ............................................................................. 151
8.8 Spatial dedvation .............................................................................................. 153
8.9 Speaker evaluation ............................................................................................ I 54
B.9. 1 Diminutive .................................................................................................. 154
B.9.2 Augmentatives ............................................................................................ 154
8.10 Quantitative derivations ................................................................................. 155
B.IO.J Collective suffixes...................................................................................... 155
B.J0.2 Intenslfier prefixes .................................................................................... 156
B. 10.3 Approximative and restrictive prefixes ..................................................... 157
8.11 Miscellaneous lexical affixes ............................................................................ I 57
9. COMPLE.X NOMiNAi.S

159

9.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 159
9.2 Noun phrases ..................................................................................................... 160
9.2. 1 Free pronoun modlfiers .............................................................................. 163
9.2.2 Participle and possessive/relational modifiers .......................................... I 63
9.2.3 Oblique noun modifiers .............................................................................. 164
9.2.4 Modlfieradjectives...................................................................................... 165
9.2.5 Modifier numerals ...................................................................................... 165
9.3 Ergative nominal phrases .................................................................................. I 56
9.4 Nominal incorporation ....................................................................................... 167
9.4. 1 Adjective, pronoun and numeral modifiers ................................................ 16B
9.4.2 Noun modifiers ........................................................................................... 170

XIII.

9.4.3 Verb and adverb modJflers......................................................................... 171
9.5 Conjunction ........................................................................................................ l'/1
9.5. 1 Associative conjunction .............................................................................. I 72
9.5.2 Coqjunctive particles .................................................. :............................... I 73
10. INFLECTING VERBS

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10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 175
I 0.2 Active inflections .............................................................................................. l77
10.2.1 Pronominal cross-reference ...................................................................... lBO
10.2.2 Inverse alignment..................................................................................... lBl
10.2.3 Aspect: progressive and neutral ............................................................... 1B5
10.2. 4 Tense: future and non-future ................................................................... 1B6
10.2.5 Mood: intentional ..................................................................................... lBB
10.2.6 Mood: condltlonal. .................................................................................... 1B9
10.2. 7 Thematic elements .................................................................................... 190
10.3 Stative inflections ............................................................................................ l91
10.3.1 Perfect....................................................................................................... 193
10.3.2 Habitual ................................................................................................... 194
11. VALENCY

197

11.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... I 97
11.2 Intransitive ...................................................................................................... 202
11 .2. 1 Zero place intransitive.............................................................................. 203
11.2.2 Extended intransitive ............................................................................... 204
11.3 Transitive ......................................................................................................... 205
1 1.3. 1 Extended transitive .................................................................................. 206
11.4 Labile ............................................................................................................... 208
11.4.1 S=A type ................................................................................................... 20B
11.4.2 S=O type ................................................................................................... 209
1 1.4.3 Extended labile......................................................................................... 209
11.5 Transitivity-increasing derivations ................................................................. 210
11.5.1 Causativer-l·n- ......................................................................................... 211
11 .5.2 Appllcatlve (transitivlty-increa3ing type) ................................................. 213
11.6 Transitivity-reducing derivations ................................................................... 213
1 1.6.1 Applicative (transitivity-rearranging type) .............................................. 214
11.6.2 Ant/passives lne- and-tku ....................................................................... 216
II. 7 Low productivity valency changing devices .................................................... 217
11. 7. 1 Reciprocals ............................................................................................... 21 B
1 1.7.2 Antlcausative............................................................................................ 219
11. 7.3 Reflexive ................................................................................................... 219
12. VERBAL INCORPORATION

221

12.llntroduction ..................................................................................................... 221
12.1. 1 Discourse function of incorporation ....................................... ................. 222

xlv.

CoN rENTs

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12.2 Incorporation by transltives ............................................................................ 223
I 2.2.1 Antipass/1'ising verbs................................................................................ 224
12.2.2 ApplicatJ,·:sing verbs ............................................................................... 226
12.2.3 Possessor raising ..................................................................................... 227
12.3 Incorporation by intransitives ......................................................................... 229
12.4 Verbal compounds .................................. :......................................................... 231
12.5 Incorporation/compounding and the lexicon ................................................... 233
I 2.5. I Meta linguistic attitudes............................................................................ 233
12.5.2 Lexicalisation ........................................................................................... 234
12.5.3 Productivity .............................................................................................. 236
12.6 Grammaticallsation: stems --+ affixes ............................................................. 237
13. NON·FINITE DEVEREAL FORMS

15. SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS

XV.

273

15.1 Introduction ................ :.................................................................................... 273
15.2 Locational cases ............................................................................................... 274
15.2.1 Locative-k-VH ........................................................................................... 274
15.2.2 AIIative -yta•VH ......................................................................................... 274
15.2.3 Ablative -jpa"'" ......................................................................................... 277
15.2.4 Perlative-jekwe•VH ................................................................................... 278
I 5.2.5 Orientative -yjlt ........................................................................................ 278
15.2.6 Inessive-t<>ku ........................................................................................... 279
15.2.7 Sublative -Jinka ....................................................................................... 279
15.3 Spatlr• \ derivations ........................................................................................... 280
15.3.1 Top' -tkan-•VH ........................................................................................... 280
15.3.2 'Side' -nqac(a-) .......................................................................................... 280
15.3.3 'Edge' -lanf-ly and 'edge' -curm-................................................................ 281
15.3.4 Perlative -jtkwi- ........................................................................................ 282
15.3.5 Inessive -caku- .................................................... :................... :................. 282
15.4 Spatial relationship adverbs ........................................................................... 283
15.5 Postposition qaca 'near' ................................................................................... 285
15.6 Detctic adverbs ................................................................................................. 286

239

13.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 239
;3.2 Definltions ........................................................................................................ 239
13.3 Infinltive ........................................................................................................... 241
13.4 Converbs ........................................................................................................... 2•14
13.5 Verb bases derived from verb stems ................................................................ 246
13.6 Negative verb bases ......................................................................................... 251
14. VERBAL DERIVATION

CONTENTS

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253
16. ADJECTIVES & NUMERALS

14.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 253
14.2 Morphological behaviour ................................................................................. 254
14.3 Verb deriver ·etand -ew................................................................................... 255
14.4 Aspectual derivations ...................................................................................... 257
I 4.4. I Inchoative -nno/-myo and completive -platku ........................................... 257
I 4.4.2 Lexically specir1c lnchoatives -r?u and -twl.. ............................................ 259
14.4.3 Durative -i?et ............................................................................................ 260
14.4.4 Punctual -cqacet ....................................................................................... 260
14.4.5 Iterative -tku ............................................................................................. 261
14.4.6 Resu/tative -twa ........................................................................................ 262
14.5 Verbal quantifiers ............................................................................................ 264
14.5. I Collective suffixes -jw and -r?u ................................................................. 264
I 4.5.2 Intensifier prefixes .................................................................................... 265
14.5.3 Approximative mec- .................................................................................. 266
14.6 Modal derivation .............................................................................................. 266
14.6.1 Desideratlve re---n- ............................................................................... 267
14.6.2 Purposive -cqtw ......................................................................................... 267
I 4.6.3 Diminutive and augmentative ................................................................. 268
14.7 Mtscettaneous lexical derivations .................................................................... 269
14.7.1 Consume-u ............................................................................................... 269
14. 7.2 Util/tive -tku and constructive te-_-n .................................................. 269
I 4. 7..1 Reversatlve -tw ......................................................................................... 270

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16.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 291
16.2 Adjectives ....................................................................................................... ~91
16.3 Free adjectives ................................................................................................. 292
16.3. 1 Derivation................................................................................................. 293
16.3.2 Diminutives and augmentatives .................................................. ........... 294
16.3.3 IntenslfJer prefixes .................................................................................... 295
16.4 Free adjective predication ............................................................................... 296
16.5 Deadjectivat verb bases ................................................................................... 297
16.5.1 Deiicljectiva/ verbs .................................................................................... 297
16.6 Comparative construction ............................................................................... 298
16.7 Numerals ......................................................................................................... 298
16.8 Simple numerals .............................................................................................. 299
16.8.1 Loan numerals ......................................................................................... 300
16.8.2 Pronumeral t?er ....................................................................................... 301
16.9 Compound numerats ........................................................................................ 301
16.10 Analytic numerals ......................................................................................... 302
16.11 Numeral-specific derivation ......................................................................... 303
1C.l I. 1 Collectives: inanimate -jono and ani•ll, zte -ryeri/-ryect ........................ 303
16.11.2 Ordinal -qew .......................................................................................... 303
16.11.3 Multiplicative -ce .................................................................................... 304
16.11.4 Distributive -jut ...................................................................................... 305
16.12 General derivation of numerals .................................................................... 306


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