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to GDP in 2011.15 Wild honeybees pollinate crops all over the country for
free and make it possible for flowering crops to reproduce. The economic
impact on farmers from losing honey bees' free pollination would be
The consequences of a potential bee extinction are chilling. For
starters, honey would become unobtainable. Insect-pollinated crops would
become impossible to grow. Other industries that depend on plant products
would be seriously affected. Insect-pollinated crops constitute
approximately one-third of the human diet worldwide.16 Without bees,
farmers would need to switch crops or manually pollinate the entire crop
area, which is almost certainly impossible, or at least economically
infeasible. Additionally, many other industries and products depend on
pollinators indirectly. For example, beef cattle depend on alfalfa, which is
an insect-pollinated crop.17 Most clothing in the US contains cotton, which
also depends on insects for pollination.18 Without, or even with
significantly fewer pollinators, food in general and many other agriculturedependent products would become very scarce and consequently much
Without bees, it would be virtually impossible to grow over 90
different major commercial crops, and insect pollinators are important to
over 150 crops.19 Pollinator-dependent crops are also arguably the besttasting crops, which are in the highest demand. These include most kinds
of nuts, vegetables, and fruits.20 Many of the world's most popular crops
depend on pollinators, including apples, asparagus, blueberries, celery,
cherries, cocoa, coffee, peaches, strawberries, soybeans, and all kinds of
citrus fruits and melons, to only name a few.21 Without bees, farmers
would be forced to grow almost entirely wind-pollinated crops, leaving the
dinner table without fruits and vegetables. Staple crops such as wheat, rice,
and corn are wind-pollinated, and could be grown without pollinators.
Without bees, the human diet would essentially be reduced to bread and
15. Ag and Food Sectors and the Economy, U.S. DEP’T. OF AGRIC. ECON. RESEARCH SERVICE,
http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/ag-and-food-statistics-charting-the-essentials/ag-and-foodsectors-and-the-economy.aspx#.UyZs4fldWBo (last updated Apr. 8, 2014).
16. Borenstein, supra note 12.
18. Facts and Figures: The Cotton Trade, PBS.ORG, http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/310/cottontrade.html (last visited October 28, 2010).
http://www.esa.org/ecoservices/poll/body.poll.scie.ispo.html (last visited Mar. 15, 2014); Borenstein,
supra note 12.
20. Borenstein, supra note 12.