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Metallography Analysis .pdf



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Massachusetts Materials Research, Inc.
MMR specializes in the practical application of
Materials Testing, Materials Engineering, Failure
Analysis and Forensic Engineering.

Massachusetts Materials
Research,Inc.
1500 Century Drive, West
Boylston, MA 01583
Phone: 508-835-6262
Fax: 508-835-9025
http://massmaterials.com

Massachusetts Materials Research, Inc. is an employee owned (ESOP) Materials Testing,
Engineering and Consulting firm. We have been providing Professional Services since
1961, and are part of the MMR Group, Inc.
The Group includes three divisions, each with its own staff and laboratory to collectively
serve diverse markets and locations. We have extensive experience with metals and nonmetals, such as plastics, ceramics, and composites.
We provide services to the Medical Device Industry, Aerospace Industry, Commercial
Manufacturing Industries, the Defense Department, Transportation and Automotive
Industries, Municipalities, Nuclear Industry, and Power Generation Industry.
We also provide Forensic Engineering, Materials Engineering, Consulting, and Expert
Witness Services to the Legal and Insurance professions as well.
Not only are our Experts versed in many aspects of Material Science and commercial
manufacturing processes, they are equally versed in the processes and procedures of
providing Legal Depositions and Professional Courtroom Testimony.
We have multiple accreditations and numerous independent vendor approvals.

Types of Materials Analyzed
Metals & Alloys, RoHS Materials,
Industrial Minerals, Ceramics, Slag’s &
Deposits, Residues (Organic &
Inorganic), Plastics, Polymers (Nondestructive & Destructive), Rubbers,
Elastomers (Non-destructive &
Destructive)

Analysis Techniques
ICP- Inductively Coupled Plasma/Atomic Emission
Spectrometer. (ASTM E1479)
Combustion Analysis (Carbon and Sulfur, ASTM
E1019)
Gas Analysis (Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, ASTM
E1019)
Ion Chromatography (Anions, ASTM D4327, D5085,
E165)
FTIR- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (ASTM
E573, E3677, E1252)
Microscopic FTIR
DSC- Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Measures
melting point & glass transition temperature. (ASTM
D1519, D3418, D4591, E794, E1356)
TGA- Thermogravimetric Analysis - Measures filler
content.(ASTM E1131)
Wet Chemistry (Special Methods, Deposit Loading)
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis
X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) & X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
available upon request.

• Tensile Testing from -450°F to 1800°F
(ASTM E8)
• Charpy Impact (ASTM E23)
• 3 pt and 4 pt Bend (ASTM E290, ASME
Section IX)
• Single, Double, and Lap Shear (AWS D17.2)
• Weld Procedure Qualification (ASME Section
IX; AWS D1.1, D1.5, D1.2, D17.1, D17.2)
• Flexural Strength
• Compression Strength (ASTM E9)
• Tube Flare and Flattening Tests
• Fasteners- Bolts & Nuts
• In-house Machine Shop
• Specimen & Fixture Machining

Bearing Failure
The failed components from a Hydropower Unit Bearing were submitted to MMR in order to perform a
root cause failure analysis. The bearing performed satisfactorily for an initial period of 6 days, then, after a
brief floating period it encountered a catastrophic failure within 6 hours of being placed back into service.
Chemical and metallurgical analyses of the materials and conditions of the different components showed
that they met the required specifications and any material related anomalies were ruled out to be
contributory to the bearing failure.
The damage pattern noted on the bearing components indicated that an external source led to the failure.
The rollers were welded to the inner race/cone; minimum damage was noted on the outer race/cup; most
of the cage was intact. After in-detail investigation, it was surmised that the cage and rollers were stationary
due to the external obstruction. The rotating cone was spinning inside the stationary rollers generating
significant friction and heat between the two components which tempered the components causing plastic
deformation and eventually welding. The core experienced thermal expansion causing it to destroy the
interference fit thus allowing the cone to creep up and freeze on the shaft.

Dental Needle
In the case of a dental anesthesia needle breaking off in a patients jaw, MMR was retained by a Law
Firm to provide technical support in the case.
Fractographic examination of the broken needle and metallurgical analysis of the of the needle
microstructure concluded that the failure was the result of bending fatigue which occurred over a
period of time.
Upon revealing this information to the parties involved, it was disclosed that the single use needle
had in fact been used for multiple anesthesia applications and the case was promptly settled.


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