Charles Taze Russell
Theology and teachings
“Beginning in 1879 he began publishing a monthly religious journal, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of
Christ's Presence. The journal is now published by Jehovah's Witnesses on a semi-monthly basis under the
name, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom.
He maintained that there was a heavenly resurrection of 144,000 righteous, as well as a "great multitude",
but believed that the remainder of mankind slept in death, awaiting an earthly resurrection, rather than
experiencing torment in a literal Hell.
The Trinity. Russell believed in the divinity of Christ
He also taught that the Holy Spirit is not a person, but the manifestation of God's power.
Christ's Second Coming. Russell believed that Christ had returned invisibly in 1874, and that he had been
ruling from the heavens since that date. He predicted that a period known as the "Gentile Times" would
end in 1914, and that Christ would take power of Earth's affairs at that time. He interpreted the outbreak of
World War I as the beginning of Armageddon, which he viewed to be both a gradual deterioration of civilized
society, and a climactic multi-national attack on a restored Israel accompanied by worldwide anarchy.”
“He believed the Great Pyramid of Giza was built by the Hebrews (associated to the Hyksos) under God’s
direction, but to be understood only in our day. He adopted and used Seiss's phrase referring to it as
"the Bible in stone". He believed that certain biblical texts, including Isaiah 19:19–20 and others, prophesied
a future understanding of the Great Pyramid and adopted the view that the various ascending and
descending passages represented the fall of man, the provision of the Mosaic Law, the death of Christ, the
exultation of the saints in heaven, etc. Calculations were made using the pattern of an inch per year.
Dates such as 1874, 1914, and 1948 were purported to have been found through the study of this
2,520 years and Israel’s regathering
“The 2,520 years began in October 607 B.C.E., when Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians and the Davidic king was taken off his throne.
The period ended in October 1914. At that time, “the appointed times of the nations” ended, and Jesus Christ was installed as God’s
Just as Jesus predicted, his “presence” as heavenly King has been marked by dramatic world developments—war, famine,
earthquakes, pestilences. Such developments bear powerful testimony to the fact that 1914 indeed marked the birth of God’s heavenly
Kingdom and the beginning of “the last days” of this present wicked system of things.”