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Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65
SYLLABUS

COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND VISUALIZATION
Subject Code: 10CS65
Hours/Week : 04
Total Hours : 52

I.A. Marks : 25
Exam Hours: 03
Exam Marks: 100

PART - A
UNIT - 1
INTRODUCTION: Applications of computer graphics; A graphics system; Images:
Physical and synthetic; Imaging systems; The synthetic camera model; The programmer’s
interface; Graphics architectures; Programmable pipelines; Performance characteristics.
Graphics Programming: The Sierpinski gasket; Programming two-dimensional applications.
7 Hours
UNIT - 2
THE OPENGL: The OpenGL API; Primitives and a6ributes; Color; Viewing; Control
functions; The Gasket program; Polygons and recursion; The three-dimensional gasket;
Plo8ng implicit functions.
6 Hours
UNIT - 3
INPUT AND INTERACTION: Interaction; Input devices; Clients and servers; Display lists;
Display lists and modeling; Programming event-driven input; Menus; Picking; A simple
CAD program; Building interactive models; Animating interactive programs; Design of
interactive programs; Logic operations.
7 Hours
UNIT - 4
GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS – 1: Scalars, points, and vectors;
Three-dimensional primitives; Coordinate systems and frames; Modeling a colored cube;
Affine transformations; Rotation, translation and scaling.
6 Hours
PART - B
UNIT - 5
GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS – 2: Transformations in
homogeneous coordinates; Concatenation of transformations; OpenGL transformation
matrices; Interfaces to three-dimensional applications; Quaternions.
5 Hours
UNIT - 6
VIEWING: Classical and computer viewing; Viewing with a computer; Positioning of the
camera; Simple projections; Projections in OpenGL; Hidden-surface removal; Interactive
mesh displays; Parallel-projection matrices; Perspective-projection matrices; Projections and
shadows.
7 Hours
UNIT - 7
LIGHTING AND SHADING: Light and ma6er; Light sources; The Phong lighting model;
Computation of vectors; Polygonal shading; Approximation of a sphere by recursive

Page 1

Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65

subdivisions; Light sources in OpenGL; Specification of materials in OpenGL; Shading of
the sphere model; Global illumination.
6 Hours
UNIT - 8
IMPLEMENTATION: Basic implementation strategies; The major tasks; Clipping; Linesegment clipping; Polygon clipping; Clipping of other primitives; Clipping in three
dimensions; Rasterization; Bresenham’s algorithm; Polygon rasterization; Hidden-surface
removal; Antialiasing; Display considerations.
8 Hours
TEXT BOOK:
1. Interactive Computer Graphics A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL -Edward Angel,
5th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2008.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Computer Graphics Using OpenGL – F.S. Hill,Jr. 2nd Edition, Pearson 1.
Education, 2001.
2. Computer Graphics – James D Foley, Andries Van Dam, Steven K Feiner, John F
Hughes, Addison-wesley 1997.
3. Computer Graphics - OpenGL Version – Donald Hearn and Pauline Baker, 2nd
Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.

Page 2

Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65

TABLE OF CONTENTS

UNIT - 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Applications of computer graphics

1.2

A graphics system

1.3

Images: Physical and synthetic

1.4

Imaging systems

1.5

The synthetic camera model

1.6

The programmer’s interface

1.7

Graphics architectures

1.8

Programmable pipelines; Performance characteristics

1.9

Graphics Programming:

Page No.
8-19

The Sierpinski gasket
Programming two-dimensional applications

UNIT - 2

THE OPENGL

2.1

The OpenGL API

2.2

Primitives and attributes

2.3

Color; Viewing

2.4

Control functions

2.5

The Gasket program

2.6

Polygons and recursion

2.7

The three-dimensional gasket

2.8

Plotting implicit functions.

20-30

Page 3

Computer Graphics and Visualization

UNIT-3

10CS65

INPUT AND INTERACTION

3.1

Interaction

3.2

Input devices

3.3

Clients and servers

3.4

Display lists

3.5

Display lists and modelling

3.6

Programming event-driven input

3.7

Menus; Picking

3.8

A simple CAD program

3.9

Building interactive models

3.10

Animating interactive programs

3.11

Design of interactive programs

3.12

Logic operations

UNIT-4
GEOMETRIC
TRANSFORMATIONS – I
4.1
Scalars

31-47

OBJECTS

4.2

points, and vectors

4.3

Three-dimensional primitives

4.4

Coordinate systems and frames

4.5

Modeling a colored cube

4.6

Affine transformations

4.7

Rotation, translation and scaling.

AND
48-59

UNIT – 5
GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND
TRANSFORMATIONS – II
Page 4

Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65

5.1

Transformations in homogeneous coordinates

5.2

Concatenation of transformations

5.3

OpenGL transformation matrices

5.4

Interfaces to three-dimensional applications

5.5

Quaternions.

UNIT - 6

VIEWING

6.1

Classical and computer viewing

6.2

Viewing with a computer

6.3

Positioning of the camera

6.4

Simple projections

6.5

Projections in OpenGL

6.6

Hidden-surface removal

6.7

Interactive mesh displays

6.8

Parallel-projection matrices

6.9

Perspective-projection matrices

6.10

Projections and shadows.

UNIT - 7

61-67

68-78

LIGHTING AND SHADING

7.1

Light and matter

7.2

The Phong lighting model

7.3

Computation of vectors

7.4

Polygonal shading

79-87

Page 5

Computer Graphics and Visualization
7.5

Approximation of a sphere by recursive subdivisions

7.6

Light sources in OpenGL

7.7

Specification of materials in OpenGL

7.8

Shading of the sphere model

7.9

Global illumination.

UNIT - 8 IMPLEMENTATION
8.1
Basic implementation strategies
8.2

The major tasks

8.3

Clipping

10CS65

88-97

Line-segment clipping
Polygon clipping
Clipping of other primitives
Clipping in three dimensions
8.4

Rasterization

8.5

Bresenham’s algorithm

8.6

Polygon rasterization

8.7

Hidden-surface removal

8.8

Antialiasing

8.9

Display considerations.

Page 6

Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65

PART - A

Page 7

Computer Graphics and Visualization

UNIT - 1

10CS65
7 Hours

INTRODUCTION
Applications of computer graphics
A graphics system
Images:
Physical and synthetic
Imaging systems
The synthetic camera model
The programmer’s interface
Graphics architectures
Programmable pipelines
Performance characteristics
Graphics Programming:
The Sierpinski gasket
Programming two-dimensional applications

Page 8

Computer Graphics and Visualization

10CS65

UNIT -1
Graphics Systems and Models
1.1

Applications of computer graphics:
 Display Of Information
 Design
 Simulation & Animation
 User Interfaces

1.2

Graphics systems
A Graphics system has 5 main elements:
 Input Devices
 Processor
 Memory
 Frame Buffer
 Output Devices

Pixels and the Frame Buffer
 A picture is produced as an array (raster) of picture elements (pixels).
 These pixels are collectively stored in the Frame Buffer.
Properties of frame buffer:
Resolution – number of pixels in the frame buffer
Depth or Precision – number of bits used for each pixel
E.g.: 1 bit deep frame buffer allows 2 colors
8 bit deep frame buffer allows 256 colors.

Page 9


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