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Database Management System


Subject Code: 10CS54
Exam Hours: 03
UNIT – 1

I.A. Marks: 25
Total Hours: 52

Hours/Week: 04
Exam Marks: 100
6 Hours

Introduction: Introduction; An example; Characteristics of Database approach; Actors on the
screen; Workers behind the scene; Advantages of using DBMS approach; A brief history of
database applications; when not to use a DBMS. Data models, schemas and instances; Threeschema architecture and data independence; Database languages and interfaces; the database
system environment; Centralized and client-server architectures; Classification of Database
Management systems.
UNIT – 2

6 Hours

Entity-Relationship Model: Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design;
An Example Database Application; Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes and Keys; Relationship
types, Relationship Sets, Roles and Structural Constraints; Weak Entity Types; Refining the ER
Design; ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions and Design Issues; Relationship types of degree
higher than two.
UNIT – 3

8 Hours

Relational Model and Relational Algebra: Relational Model Concepts; Relational Model
Constraints and Relational Database Schemas; Update Operations, Transactions and dealing with
constraint violations; Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT; Relational Algebra
Operations from Set Theory; Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION; Additional
Relational Operations; Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra; Relational Database Design
Using ER- to-Relational Mapping.
UNIT – 4
6 Hours
SQL – 1: SQL Data Definition and Data Types; Specifying basic constraints in SQL; Schema
change statements in SQL; Basic queries in SQL; More complex SQL Queries.

UNIT – 5
6 Hours
SQL – 2 : Insert, Delete and Update statements in SQL; Specifying constraints as Assertion and
Trigger; Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL; Additional features of SQL; Database programming
issues and techniques; Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL; Database stored procedures and SQL /
P S M.

UNIT – 6

6 Hours
Page 1

Database Management System


Database Design – 1: Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas; Functional
ependencies; Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys; General Definitions of Second and Third
Normal Forms; Boyce-Codd Normal Form
UNIT – 7
6 Hours
Database Design -2: Properties of Relational Decompositions; Algorithms for Relational
Database Schema Design; Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form; Join
Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form; Inclusion Dependencies; Other Dependencies and Normal
UNIT – 8
8 Hours
Transaction Management: The ACID Properties; Transactions and Schedules; Concurrent
Execution of Transactions; Lock- Based Concurrency Control; Performance of locking;
Transaction support in SQL; Introduction to crash recovery; 2PL, Serializability and
Recoverability; Lock Management; Introduction to ARIES; The log; Other recovery-related
structures; The write-ahead log protocol; Check pointing; Recovering from a System Crash;
Media Recovery; Other approaches and interaction with concurrency control.
Text Books:
1. Elmasri and Navathe: Fundamentals of Database Systems,5th Edition, Pearson Education,
2007.(Chapters 1, 2, 3 except 3.8, 5, 6.1 to 6.5, 7.1, 8, 9.1, 9.2 except SQLJ, 9.4, 10)
2. Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke: Database Management Systems, 3rd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 2003. (Chapters 16, 17.1, 17.2, 18)
Reference Books:
1. Silberschatz, Korth and Sudharshan: Data base System Concepts, 6th Edition, Mc-GrawHill,
2. C.J. Date, A. Kannan, S. Swamynatham: An Introduction to Database Systems, 8th Edition,
Pearson Education, 2006

Page 2

Database Management System




Page No

Unit 1 Databases and Database Users


1.1 Introduction
1.2: An Example:
1.3: Characteristics of the Database Approach:
1.4: Actors on the Scene
1.5: Workers behind the Scene
1.6: Capabilities/Advantages of DBMS's
1.7: A Brief History of Database Applications
1.8: When Not to Use a DBMS
Unit 2 ENTITY.1 Data Models, Schemas, and Instances


2.1.2: Schemas, Instances, and Database State
2.2 DBMS Architecture and Data Independence
2.2.1: Three-Schema Architecture
2.3 Database Languages and Interfaces
2.3.1 DBMS Languages
2.3.2 DBMS Interfaces
2.4 Database System Environment
2.5 Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMS's
2.6 Classification of DBMS's
2.7. Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship Model
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Database Management System


2.8 Entity-Relationship (ER) Model
2.8.1 Entities and Attributes
2.8.2: Entity Types, Entity Sets, Keys, and Domains
2.8.3 Initial Conceptual Design of COMPANY database
2.9 Relationship Types, Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
2.9.1: Ordering of entity types in relationship types
2.9.2 Degree of a relationship type
2.9.3 Constraints on Relationship Types
2.9.4 Attributes of Relationship Types
2.10 Weak Entity Types
UNIT 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints and Relational
3.1 Relational Model Concepts
3.1.2 Characteristics of Relations
3.1.3 Relational Model Notation
3.2 Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas
3.2.1 Domain Constraints
3.2.2 Key Constraints
3.2.3 Relational Databases and Relational Database Schemas
3.2.4 Entity Integrity, Referential Integrity, and Foreign Keys
3.3 Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations
3.3.1 Insert
3.3.2 Delete
3.3.3 Update:
3.3.4 Transactions and dealing with constraints

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Database Management System


3.4 Relational Operation
3.5 Relational algebra operation Set theory Operations
3.6 JOIN Operations
3.7 Additional Relational Operations
3.8 Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra
3.9 Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping
UNIT 4 SQL The Relational Database Standard


4.1 Data Definition, Constraints, and Schema Changes in SQL2
4.2 Basic Queries in SQL
4.3 More Complex SQL Queries
UNIT 5 SQL The Relational Database Standard


5.1 Update Statements in SQL
5.2 Views in SQL
5.3 Additional features
5.4 Database Programming
5.5 Embedded SQL
5.6 Dynamic SQL
5.7 Database stored procedures and SQL/PSM
UNIT-6 Data Base design-1


6.1 Informal design guidelines for relation schemas
6.1.1 Semantics of relations attributes
6.2. Inference Rules
6.3 Normalization
6.3.1 First Normal Form (1NF)
6.3.2 Second Normal Form (2NF)
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Database Management System


6.3.3 Third Normal Form (3NF)
6.4 Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)
UNIT-7 Data base design 2


7.1 Properties of relational decomposition
7.2 Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design
7.2.1 Decomposition and Dependency Preservation
7.2.2 Lossless-join Dependency
7.3 Multivolume Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
7.3.1 Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
7.4 Join Dependencies and 5 NF
7.5 Other dependencies:
7.5.1 Template Dependencies
7.5.2 Domain Key Normal Form
UNIT 8 Transaction Processing Concepts


8.1 Introduction to Transaction Processing
8.2 Transactions, Read and Write Operations
8.3 Why Concurrency Control Is Needed
8.4 Why Recovery Is Needed
8.5 Transaction and System Concepts
8.6 The System Log
8.7 Desirable Properties of Transactions
8.8 Schedules and Recoverability

Page 6

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