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Software Engineering


An object class is an abstraction over a set of objects with common attributes and
the services (operations) provided by each object
• Various object models may be produced
• Inheritance models
• Aggregation models
• Interaction models
Object models
• Natural ways of reflecting the real-world entities manipulated by the system
• More abstract entities are more difficult to model using this approach
• Object class identification is recognised as a difficult process requiring a deep
understanding of the application domain
• Object classes reflecting domain entities are reusable across systems
The Unified Modeling Language
• Devised by the developers of widely used objectoriented analysis and design
• Has become an effective standard for objectoriented modelling
• Notation
• Object classes are rectangles with the name at the top, attributes In he middle
and operations in the bottom section
• Relationships between object classes (known as associations) are shown as lines
linking objects
• Inheritance is referred to as generalisation and is shown‘upwards’ rather than
‘downwards’ in a hierarchy

Project Management
It is concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time
and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations
and procuring the software
Project management is needed because software development is always subject to
budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the
Software management distinctions
• The product is intangible
• The product is uniquely flexible
• Software engineering is not recognized as an engineering discipline with the same
status as mechanical, electrical engineering, etc.
• The software development process is not standardised
• Many software projects are 'one-off' projects
Management activities
• Proposal writing includes Feasibility, Project costing, Overall requirements
(Internal and External), terms and conditions
• Resource requirements also include Personnel selection
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