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volume1 issue1 arabic abstract 57 60 .pdf


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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‪ /‬ﺷﺘﺎء ‪2010‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪60-57:‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪ | 57‬ﺑ ﻴ ﺮ ﻧ ﻐ ﺮ‬

‫ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺭﺍﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺮﻳﻎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻭﺗﻠﻴﺪﺝ ‪ 464 :‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ‪، 5-978041587152 :‬ﺳﻌﺮﻩ‪ 59.95 :‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻛﻴﺮﺕ ﻟﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻮﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﻻﺷﻲء ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1986‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺯ ﻛﻞٌ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻛﺴﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﺎﻛﻮﻣﺒﺰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺩﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﺷﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺪﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﺮﻳﻎ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 26‬ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 52‬ﻛﺎﺗﺐ ﻣﻦ ‪ 25‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺈﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮء ﺃﻥ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﺤﻮﻡ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﻴﺐ ﺍﻵﻣﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭﻭﻝ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺳﻬﻼ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺜﺎ ﻹﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺯﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺴﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺭﺍﻟﻒ ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻐﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﺴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻳﺪﺍﻫﻮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‪ /‬ﺷﺘﺎء ‪2010‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪60-57:‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺑ ﻴ ﺮ ﻧ ﻐ ﺮ| ‪58‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺤﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﺯﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ ﻭﻧﻴﺠﻴﺮﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻭﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻓﻴﻨﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻭﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻛﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺷﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻄﺊ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ( ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎ ﻃﻮﻳﻼً ﻟﺘﻘﻄﻌﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻛﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻭﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍً ﻟﻠﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻭﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺛﻮﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻐﻠﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻛﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺷﺮﺍء ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﺮﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳﺪﺕ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃُﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‪ /‬ﺷﺘﺎء ‪2010‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪60-57:‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺑ ﻴ ﺮ ﻧ ﻐ ﺮ| ‪59‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻐﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻤﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﺗﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ‪ %85‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎً ﻻﻣﻌﺎً‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺗﺴﻮﻕ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﺧﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺩﺑﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺴﻮﻕ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻛﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻼﺫٍ ﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﻊ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺬﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺰﻫﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻟﺞ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎً‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2009‬ﺑﺪﺕ ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﺑﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺮﺕ ﻭﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﻣﺲ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻋﻠﻨﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺤﺪﺛﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ) ﺍﻻﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻧﺸﺎء ﺟﺰﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎء‬
‫ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻕ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺑﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺑﻲ ﻟﺮﺑﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻱ ﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺳﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺑﻮﻇﺒﻲ ﺳﺘﻐﻄﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺑﻲ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺤﻈﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻃﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺮﺝ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺮﻭ ﺩﺑﻲ ﻭﻓﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻛﻤﺤﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‪ /‬ﺷﺘﺎء ‪2010‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪60-57:‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺑ ﻴ ﺮ ﻧ ﻐ ﺮ| ‪60‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺰﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺄﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺴﺒﻮﻙ ﻭﺗﻮﻳﺘﺮ ﻭﺩﻳﺞ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺦ( ﻓﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺧﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﻋﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﻼﻡ ‪.‬‬


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