Aiken Aristotle&Heidegger 1991.pdf


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ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE, TRANSCENDENTALISMAND
PHENOMENALISM:ARISTOTLE'S ANSWERS TO THE
QUESTIONS OF ONTOLOGY
D. WYATT AIKEN

JL HE FIRSTEXHAUSTIVELYscientific,
speculative inquiry into the
notion and nature of essence in the Western philosophical tradition
is found inAristotle's Metaphysics.
In contrast to the earlier Greek
and Plato,

philosophers

change Aristotle
of material

after

the problem

considering

reached the conclusion
is an

or ousia,

phenomena,

immanent

and

quality that forms the identity of each particular
Aristotle's

which

however,
ousia
realism,

concept,

phenomenal

constitutes

is not

of being

that the essential

inseparable

Aristotle,

Following

the theme of this present
of essence

nature

and

that Aristotle

whose

sophical
transcendental.

This

deviated

theoretical

extraneous

addresses

of Sein

presence

the
Seienden,
of process.
world

Heidegger's.1
for

the

This

tradition,
and, more
the essence
of the tran
metaphysic.

der
(3) of the Seinsart
in the
manifests
itself

and
Sein

of course,

terminology,

is strictly

of this

present

acuity

and linguistic

Heidegger,

Was

study,

not

only

because

rigor that

istMetaphysik?

useful

of the

ex

it lends to the

(Frankfurt:

Klostermann

1977).

Review of Metaphysics
Metaphysics

particular

of

problematic

(1) of Sein as such, (2) of the

or Da-sein,
in which

in a philo

But it is a type of language that is especially

visual

1
Cf. Martin
Verlag,

in-the-world,
various
ways

purposes

ceptional

the questions

to

predominantly

the

identity
seeks to contrast
and compare
particularly,
scendental
the ousia of Aristotle's
against
philosophers

Ontology

it

the orientation

was
on

of

inquiry into the

from

propensity

focuses
then,
transcendental

article,

form
some

implied, "it"

imputed to that study, evolving

in the Western

essential

the speculative

phenomenality

initially

milieu

article,

for reasons

and

though,

In

phenomenon.

For though its presence may certainly be speculatively
is not.

identity

the original
or
some-thing

"it"-self

and

45 (September 1991): 29-55. Copyright ?

1991 by the Review of