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marine cincabaZe
humanitarul mecnierebaTa seria: qarTvelebi da gare samyaro

wigni II

vuZRvni erekle cincabaZes

aRmoaCine aTaswleulebis

saqarTvelo
iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizacia Zv.w. IV - Zv.w. II aTaswleulebi

wigni ibeWdeba 2013 wlis gamocemis amave saxelwodebis safuZvelze.
gamocemis avtors Zveli welTaRricxvis IV aTaswleulis meore
naxevarSi iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizaciis arsebobis aTvlis
wertilad miaCnia qvemo qarTlSi, kazreTSi, saydris-yaCaRianis
msoflios pirveli oqros maRaros arseboba, romelic 500 wliT
uswrebs egviptis oqros maRaros.

Tbilisi 2015

2

redaqtorebi

aRmoaCine aTaswleulebis saqarTvelo

aleko cincaZe
teqnikur mecnierebaTa doqtori

neli maxaraZe
filologiur mecnierebaTa doqtori

recenzentebi

anTropologi lia biTaZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

arqeolog-metalurgi givi inaniSvili
teqnikisa da istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

arqeologi vaJa sadraZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

eTnologi daviT WiTanava
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

kulturologi nino Ciqovani
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

istorikosi Temur kenkebaSvili
konsultantebi

gia kvaSilava
teqnikur mecnierebaTa doqtori

ana mesxi
filologiur mecnierebaTa doqtori
ramaz Sengelia
medicinis mecnierebaTa doqtori

dizaineri

marine leJava

damkabadonebeli

rusudan papiaSvili

ISBN 978-9941-0-4990-3
ISSN 1987-7714

ISBN 978-9941-0-4990-3

Sinaarsi

3

ISSN 1987-7714


winamdebare wigni `aRmoaCine aTaswleulebis saqarTvelo. iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizacia Zv.w. IV- II aTaswleulebi“ Seqmnilia humanitarul
mecnierebaTa sxvadasxva dargSi arsebuli samecniero gamokvlevebisa da
uaxlesi arqeologiuri aRmoCenebis safuZvlebze. naSromSi gaTvaliswinebulia rogorc qarTvel, aseve ucxoel mecnierTa gamokvlevebi, ramac saSuleba momca qristianobamdeli saqarTvelo warmomedgina dasavleT evraziis
kulturis istoriis konteqstSi. gamokvlevis Sedegebma cxadyo, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul iberiul-winareqarTul civilizacias gaaCnda kulturuli wanamZRvrebi Zv.w. VII-IV aTaswleulebSi Casaxuli civilizaciuri dargebis ( miwaTmoqmedeba da mesaqonleoba, keramikuli warmoeba da
meRvineoba, xalxuri rewva, metalurgia ) saxiT; Zv.w. IV-II aTaswleulebSi
Camoyalibebuli iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizacia Tanxvedri aRmoCnda
amave periodis Zveli aRmosavluri ( egvipturi, Sumeruli) civilizaciebis,
aseve igi gvevlineba rogorc dasavlur evropuli Rirebulebis Seqmnis Tanamonawile. berZnul-romauli werilobiTi wyaroebisa da arqeologiuri masalis Tanaxmad, Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebiT TariRdeba winareqarTvel tomTa
urTierToba xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi (saberZneTi, kviprosi, kreta, egvipte,
italia, espaneTi) mcxovreb xalxebTan, romlebTanac savaWro urTierTobis
ZiriTadi sagani iyo `metalurgiuli codnis eqsporti~. es ki migviTiTebs
winareqarTvel tomebSi gavrcelebul savaWro urTierTobis sruliad axal
formaze, aseve zRvaosnobis, ganviTarebuli navigaciis arsebobaze. SavizRvispireTSi, Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulis mijnaze daarsebuli `kolxeTis samefo~, qarTul samyaroSi saxelmwifoebriobis arsebobis 4 000 wlis xangrZlivobiT ganisazRvreba, romlis dros ganviTarebis maRal doneze idga civilizaciis yvela wamyvani dargi. maT Soris gansakuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rirsia
damwerloba, aRmoCenili kunZul kretaze `kolxuri oqrodamwerlobisa“ da
xazovani A damwerlobis saxiT, daTariRebuli Zv.w. II aTaswleulis dasawyisiT.
warmodgenili wigni emsaxureba qarTuli kulturis adgilis gansazRvras msoflio kulturis istoriis konteqstSi. naSromi efuZneba sistemuri analizis principsa da interdisciplinarul meTods, ris safuZvelzec SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cvenma winaprebma didi Sromisa da niWierebis, gamZleobisa da gambedaobis fasad, auracxeleli saganZuri dautoves STamomavlobas, romlis saTanadod Sefaseba qarTvel mecnierTa upirvelesi
pasuxismgeblobaa.

Sinaarsi

5

Sinaarsi
Sesavali .................................................................................................... 9
winasityvaoba ....................................................................................... 11
saxelwodeba “iberi” samecniero literaturaSi. iberebis
kvali evropaSi da maTi gaqrobis mizezi ....................................... 11
iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizaciis niSnebi
(Zv.w. IV – II aTaswleulebi ) ................................................................. 32

Tavi I
iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizaciis kulturuli
wanamZRvrebi ......................................................................................... 37
1) Zv.w. VII_V aTaswleulebis qarTvel tomTa civilizaciis
dargebi ................................................................................................ 39
miwaTmoqmedeba. Zv.w. VII-VI aTaswleulebi ............................ 42
mesaqonleoba. Zv.w. VI aTaswleuli.......................................... 46
naosnoba. Zv.w. VII-VI aTaswleulebi ......................................... 51
metalurgia. Zv.w. VII-IV aTaswleulebi .................................. 52
xalxuri rewva. Zv.w. 3 500 w ........................................................ 58
keramikuli warmoeba. Zv.w. VII-VI aTaswleulebi .................. 59
meRvineoba. Zv.w. VI-III aTaswleulebi ..................................... 65
2) Zv.w. VII-V aTaswleulebSi erTiani enobriv-kulturuli
arealis sakiTxi (anatolia, kavkasia, SuamdinareTi) ............ 72
3) Sumerul-protoqarTveluri urTierTobis problema ....... 75
a) anTropologiuri masala....................................................... 77
b) enobriv-leqsikuri da anbanur-gramatikuli msgavsebebi ........................................................................................ 79
g) anbanuri da gramatikuli msgavsebebi ............................... 82
g) istoriul-kulturologiuri wyaroebi da
arqeologiuri masala .......................................................... 85
4) anatoliur-protoqarTveluri urTierTmimarTebebi ........ 89
xaTurisa da protoqarTveluris msgavsebebi. enobriv
kulturuli erTianobis daSlis Sedegi ................................... 89

6

aRmoaCine aTaswleulebis saqarTvelo

Tavi II
Zv.w. IV_II aTaswleulebis `iberiul-winareqarTuli
civilizaciis sawyisebi~ .................................................................. 99
1. Zv. w. IV aTaswleulis epoqa (axlo aRmosavleTi, mcire azia,
evropa, Sua azia, cimbiri, kontinenturi saberZneTi da kreta,
saqarTvelo) ...................................................................................... 99
2. Zv.w. IV_III aTaswleulebis mtkvar-araqsis kultura
(gavrcelebis arealisa da eTnikuri vinaobis sakiTxi) ...... 113
3. daskvniTi Sedegebi ........................................................................ 118

Tavi III
Zv.w. III aTaswleulis kulturuli garemo da winareqarTuli civilizacia..................................................................... 123
epoqis mimoxilva (egvipte, asureTi, Sumeri. indoevropelebi evropaSi) ................................................................................ 125
1) kavkasiis areali ....................................................................... 135
2) Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebis TrialeTis kultura ................ 140
3) kolxuri kulturis wanamZRvrebi ....................................... 151
4) Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi kavkasiaSi kulturuli kuTvnilebis
problema (avtoqtonobis sakiTxi, anTropologiuri da
arqeologiuri masala, ZvelberZnuli werilobiTi
wyaroebi) .................................................................................... 153
5) Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi winareqarTvel tomTa savaWro
kavSirurTierToba .................................................................. 167
asureTi ...................................................................................... 174
dasavleTi evropa ................................................................... 175
saqarTvelos CrdiloeTi regionebi .................................. 177
migraciebi samxreTi zRvebisaken ....................................... 182

Tavi IV
Zv.w. II aTaswleulis kulturuli samyaro ............................. 187
1. Zv.w. II aTaswleulis epoqa ............................................................ 189
a) saqarTvelos teritoriaze kulturuli mravalfe
rovnebisa da sakuTari kalendris arsebobis sakiTxi .. 194
b) socialuri pirobebi da warmatebebis Sedegebi

Sinaarsi

7

(mentaluri portreti) ............................................................ 202
2. kolxeTis samefo da kolxuri kultura ................................. 211
3. Zv.w. II aTaswleulis civilizaciis dargebi ............................ 226
“kolxuri oqrodamwerloba” ....................................................... 226
warmarTuli musika _ kolx-pelasgTa simRera-galobis
tradicia ........................................................................................... 243
medicina ............................................................................................. 245
xalxuri rewva .................................................................................. 249
metalurgiuli warmoeba .............................................................. 251
a) teqnologiuri siaxle ........................................................ 257
b) metalurgiis gavrcelebis kerebi .................................. 259
g) saerTaSoriso savaWro urTierToba .............................. 261
zRvaosnoba da kartografia ...................................................... 265

Tavi V
eEvropuli Rirebulebebis sawyisebi da winareqarTveli
tomebi xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi .................................................... 273
Sesavali ................................................................................................. 275
winareqarTveli tomebi xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi (finikiurprotoqarTveluri Sexvedrebi. saxelwodeba `aia~-sa da
"pelasgis" etimologiuri mniSvneloba) ..................................... 275
Zv.w. II aTaswleuli ......................................................... 300
kontinenturi saberZneTi da kolx-pelasgebi .......................... 300
a) argonavtebi SavizRvispireTSi .............................................. 302
b) qarTul-kolxuri Tema berZnul miTologiaSi,
xelovnebis dargebsa da istoriul wyaroebSi ................. 308
kunZuli kviprosi – winareqarTvelTa metalurgiuli kera ... 311
kunZuli kreta da kolx-pelasgebi................................................ 320
egviptur-protoqarTveluri urTierTobebis sakiTxi.......... 330
Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebi ................................................... 341
kontinenturi italia da etruskebis problema ....................... 345
a) kolx-pelasgTa dasaxlebebi ................................................ 347
b) kolx-pelasgTa devna balkaneTidan .................................. 349
g) etruskuli warwerebi ............................................................ 350
d) arqeologiuri masala _ kolx-pelasgTa nakvalevze.. 352
kontinenturi espaneTi. dasavleT da aRmosavleT iberebis
sakiTxi ..................................................................................... 360

8

aRmoaCine aTaswleulebis saqarTvelo

a) anTropologiuri masala .................................................... 362
b) arqeologiuri masala .......................................................... 366
g) eTnologiuri masala ........................................................... 366
d) folklori .............................................................................. 369
e) leqsikuri msgavsebebi ......................................................... 369
v) leqsikur-gramatikuli msgavseba ..................................... 370
z) istoriul-kulturologiuli masala da sxva .............. 371
bolosityvaoba da daskvna .......................................................... 380
gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da gaTvaliswinebuli
literatura ........................................................................................ 398
dargobrivi saZiebeli..................................................................... 426

winasityvaoba
saxelwodeba `iberi~ samecniero literaturasa da
literaturul wyaroebSi
Tanamedrove teqnologiurma miRwevebma da bunebaSi momxdarma bolodroindelma kataklizmebma adamiani daarwmuna
imaSi, rom dedamiwaze mcxovrebi TiToeuli cocxali arseba erTiani jaWvis nawilia da am saerTo sistemaSi TiToeul nawils
Tavisi kuTvnili funqcia gaaCnia. `dedamiwis istoria~ am siaxlovis axsnis realur safuZvels iZleva. ase magaliTad: genetikuri meTodis meSveobiT dadginda, rom kavkasiaSi gavrcelebul salamandras, romelic iSviaT, endemur saxeobas warmoadgens, 15 milioni wlis winaT saerTo winapari hyavda portugaliaSi. kavkasiis tyis sami saxeobis Tagvi enaTesaveba evropuls.
geografiuli agebulebiTY kavkasia Sedis xmelTaSua zRvis e.w.
geosinklinur sartyelSi, xolo kavkasiis Sida mdinareebi (enguri, rioni, Woroxi da sxva) ekuTvnis atlantiis okeanisa da
kaspiis zRvis (mdinareebi mtkvar-araqsi, sulaki, Tergi da sxva)
auzebs. anTropologebis gamokvlevis Tanaxmad 15 aTasi wlis
winaT amerikis pirveli macxovreblebi beringis srutiT gadasulan aziidan. amitomac amerikeli indielebi fizikurad yvelaze axlos monRolebTan pouloben msgavsebas. aris varaudi,
rom dedamiwaze mcxovreb adamians erTi Ziris warmomavloba
aqvs. mxolod ganviTarebam da gamravleba-gavrcelebam warmoqmna is mravalferovneba, rac sxvadasxva eTnosSi iqna Camoyalibebuli. Tundac am da sxva auxsneli movlenebis niSniT, kavkasia
samyaros Sesacnobi erT-erT mniSvnelovani nawilia. ase magaliTad: XXI saukuneSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze, dmanisSi pirvelyofili adamianebis naSTebis aRmoCenis safuZvelze saqarTvelo pirveli evropelebis samSoblod iqna aRiarebuli. kavkasiis samxreT kalTaze mcxovrebi qarTvelebi ki msoflios uZvelesi xalxis warmomadgenlebi varT. Tundac am niSniT aris Rirebuli Cveni warsulis fesvebis Zieba da gamovlena.
Tavdapirveladve minda ganvmarto is Tvalsazrisi, ramac
mimiyvana kavkasiis arealSi Camoyalibebuli iberiul-winareqarTuli civilizaciis arsebobis aRiarebamde. kerZod, winareqarTul samyaroSi Casaxul TiToeul dargebTan (miwaTmoqmedebis, metalurgiis, keramikuli warmoebis, naosnobis, meRvineobis, ieroglifuri damwerlobis, medicinis da sxva) dakavSire-


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