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English
Lecture-A & 5
\Tl-rqtDIfrq*:
* Classifications of Yerbs
* Subject-Yerb Agreement

BGS

-L

Classifi

of Ver

Subi ect-Verb Apreement

Verb and its classification
I)efinition:,
A verb. fi'orr tlte Latin veyhurr meaning v,ord, is a
word (part of speech) that in s),ntax corlveys an
actiorr (bring, reacl, u,alk. ru,n. lecu"n), an occurrence

(happen, ltecome), or a state of being (be, exi,st,
stand). In the usual description of English, the basic
forrn, with or witlrout the particle /o, is the infinitive.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in
fornr) to encode !g.!l!e, aspect, r-uood. and voice. A
verb may also agree witlr the pe$on, S:nder. and/or
number of some of its arguments, such as its sub.iect.
or object. Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that
an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that
an action lras beerr done; future, to indicate that an
action will be done.
tqr<& q!]r qsE Sentence q {l{.qE Effi worcl-t cofcql
4t Col?31Tfq $1T Wre r qfuE word-q< qc<l Verb ry<rEcl
e+qt4 r >fi{t-{qs m word a<I m[rdl ft3i+-<t, qs{I, qFFr,
6{f$lT q-m' verb qcq r Verb is the heart of Sentence.
ort Verb r+ <Ir$l-< qI{ T-EI qrT atm r Latin -rq verbal
ralrp qE .mtr* Eqqfu I itfl Effi6g Nor-rn-.43 ffi
Verb q< Ef{ I ,{t Verb. Nor-nt, Pronoun €d( Object r.sfr.c-msr< "ifuqe ?rrr Tlc{ r Verb qM c$lrll Sentence
?sfr T-d. q.I{ qI r Verb erEI }i}tfl-{qs Voice, Tense,
Mood, Narration and Sentence "tffiq >rqmgT +.rr
qlfr+ r esB Sentence q qi <-<r-l-<
Verb <fqq-s {16 e||r{
nq{, Principal verb and Auxiliary verb.
Principal Verb: r{ Verb- ,{< fi-qq qef ql,cs ,!<( qd
ersl-rrK q-{i w{.K €"K ft.6 +-{c\o E-T i'T. Ercs principal
Verb Em
Example: Rana writes an application.
Auxiliarv Verb: m verb- €< frqs qd qrno ct, fr&E
efot< Sentence gqFTI Tense, Voice <I Mood- ,{< ('el
q-di E'{.r verb ro qfcru +-c< eitrs 9-r+ Auxiliarv
"fbrq<
Verb <c"f
Example: Rana is writing an application.
{rq {Fks QI< G Cofr{T Cs'f6qf qqn SSt verb. principal
and Auxiliary EEGI <I{d\5- qcs q]-r< I 6{'14. I arn a
student. q{ln'all' Principal verb. qlfl{, I ant writing
a letter. qelfr;I 'alr' Auxiliary verb. Principal Verb
and Auxiliary Verb ql-gle Finite Verb, Non-Finite
Verb, Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb <r{r,q,
,{em fa-c;r{ 6pr.q q{ftEfr-fi etTarl <16{ {R-s
|

r

r

I

These are the divisions and subdivisions according to svntax:

t
*
*

finite verbs
transitive verbs
intransitive verbs
.1. linking Verbs
t. non-finite verbs (also called verbals)
* infinitives

*
*
*
*
*
*
{.
*

gerunds

participles:
present participle
past participle

perfect participle
helping verbs (auxiliaries)

primary auxiliaries
modal auxiliaries

Verbs can also be classified as finite or non-finite.
can be the main verb of the sentence.
Its form is detenrined by the number and person of
the subject.
I work at a bank.

A finite verb

He works at a bank.
I have worked with children before.
She has workecl with mentally challenged people.
Non-finite verbs cannot be main verbs. There are
mainly three types of non-finite verbs: infinitives,
gerunds and participles.

Verbs can be classified in several ways. First, some
verbs require an ob.iect to complete their meaning.
'She read...' Read what?'She read a story.'
These verbs that require an object are called
transitive verbs. Verbs that do not require an ob.ject
are called intransitive verbs.
Note that most verbs can be both transitive

and

intransitive.
'The ship sank.' (lntransitive)
'The explosion sank the ship.' (Transitive)
Some verbs can take a direct ob.iect and an'indirect
ob.iect. These verbs are sometimes called
ditransitive verbs, Of course, this is not a term you
will hear every day.
'Loud music gives rne a headache.'
In the example given above, the verb gives has two
objects - me and headache.

,

I

t
l

I
l

The verb be is nranifested in eight forms: be, is, am,
are. v)as. were, been. and heing. These verbs precede
nouns or adiectives in a sentence, which become
predicate nouns and predicate adjectives similar to
those that function ivith a linking verb. They can
also be follorved by an adverb of place, which is
sometimes referred to as a predicate adverb.
For example:
"Her daughter r.r,ai'a writing tutor."
"The singers v)ere very nervous."
"My house i r down the street."

:

t

;

j

l
I
I
:

-l

rooml.

clon't v;ant to [clean tny

[clean his room],
(Let, Make, Have, Get, HelP)
The English verbs let, make, haven get, and help are
called causative verbs because they cause something
else to lrappen. Here are some specific examples of
how causative verbs work in English sentences.

structuree::
Gramnratical
LjfallllIallCa I sLruc[ul

I

I

Clean )'our room.'

connects a subject with its
complenrent. These verbs are often called co;rular

A linking verb

verbs or copulas.
Most linking verhs are fornrs of the verb be.
She is my sister.
We are happ"v.
They were shocked to hear the news.
A few other verbs related to the five senses are also
considered as linking verbs. Examples are: look,
feel, sound, tasteo smell. Some stative verbs are also
considered as copular verbs. Exarnples are: appear,
seem, become, grow, turn, prove and remain.
Note that a linking verb should be followed by a
noun or an ad.iective.
Students sonretinres incorrectly use adverbs after
linking verbs. This is a mistake.
She looked happv. (NOT She looked happily.)
The Jish .srnell.s au,fttl. (NOT The Jish smells
awfully.) I feel had" (NOT I feel badl.v.)

In grammar, a pro-verb is a word or phrase that
stands in place of a verb (for exarriple, in order that
the verb not need to be repeated). It does for a verb
what the ntore widely known pronoLln does for a
noun. The following are some examples of tliese

*

LET + PERSONiTHING + VERB:(base form)

Exarnples:

*
t

I don't let my kids watch violent movies.
Mary's father won't let her adopt a puppy because
he's allergic to dogs.
t Our boss doeso?t iet us eat lunch at our desks; we
have to eat in the cafeteria.
* Oops! I wasn't paying attention while cooking. and
I let the food.burn.
.i. Don't let the adverlising expenses surpass $1000.
Remember: The past tense of let is also let; there is no
change!

Note: The verbs allow and permit are more formal ways
to say "let." However, with allow and permit, we use to

* verb:

U[[!E

force or require someone to take an action

Grammatical structure:

neighbor's window,
his parents made him PaY for it.
loved
sci-fi
ex-boyfriend
and made me watch every episode of his favorite show'
papers, l'recause the first drafts were not acceptable.

must

LtSe 16

+ verb.

kinds of pro-verb:
"Require" often implies that there is a rule.

won't [do it].
'ts T likepie, as does he fiike pieJ.
'/- Why did yott break the.iar?
[break the.icrr].

-He

different

direction'

"Force" often implies violence' threats,

made me

parkl.

strong pre.\.sure

E[l[E

extremely

give someone else the responsibility to do

something
Grammatical structure

:

Since a to-infinitive is.iust the particle lo plus a bare

infinitive. and a bare infinitive can be elided, the
particle lo doubles as a pro-verb for a to-infinitive:

or

Exarnples of grammatical structure #1:

j,lij;n:x

>) The ship has
,r*.
>) A stricken
deer.
>) I was sfiuck
by her appearance.

The businesslnan
hadI his secretary
make copies of
the repoft.
gramrnaticar structure
#2:
X;f}f: of r;'";';
r;;i, Ll",'jffi
il:, :"' llq i:
y4rure(r
;Ji'il:,'l,x;
;#
rnrs
weekend.
Bob
;vJ ;.:x
0., o
Y1.
r"
::T
I
had ,is leeth;;;.
?

his srnile looks great!
\4y washing
M{
washins ,"".fri
,-.^"il"d' tt
broken; i need
," irr"'ii ,.,ji,."l"tn'n"
,, infirnrat sp""ch. we ofren
use get in these
CASCS:
):::,

I'rn going to gel nrr
h

>) Awake >)
awoke
\\ awaked,awoke
_ke >)
^...^,_ t
>) ,-.^,,,
- , crowea,.r.,1,"*"!]::#ff

]l [:::

]] 3:lg ..

cut ton)orrow
w"'I g.?ti,;;;;'i"'Jl'' painted
this weekend.
Bob onr hio r^_^*r- __.:_.;se
his
'*rr'r,i;;"'
srnile
looks great!
rtav
:::'r",le.d;

," L", ii

is

broken:

'l

""rrt.ed.rnacnlne

_r)hung >)
>)
hung

lli::n"!;::'e i p"oloi','; r,ung.a >.) hanged

.

>) Lie (rectine)

need

[FfE convince/encr
c riffi at icr,'.rrr.i,l,:.1'rage sonr eon e to do som ethi ng
F GET + PERSON +.t-O +
VERB
: E.xarnples:
e,nproyees ro arrive
i ffiH:n ff "otcs
on tirne?
nTff,lt"
housework; I can
never
wash

I

ihe

brother

|

,il;;l

get him to

grr,r. a ,"#t

,.
ffi m:nlli}'lJ
ftffi

:;'i ;:,:ru?:'h.,,"

ff;*

som erhin g

HE,LI.

: ". "help." i,.-i.lrXil i l8lr",fflT
After
you can) ,,." Ir^1, ::I"
correct. In general. use "to" or not

the

com't.lor.t;
:.
::

".,,
-

He helped nre carry
lhe boxes.
He helped rne to
carry the boxes.

I**l*ffil.;ffi:#ff?"I;.
I::j::: Fp* n.io,,,*
b.q

,".,]_.

,)

Your Arro
>) You urc bourdil,'"'
Your Prontise.
>t e ar)n*;;

;i":l

driver was ctrunk.

]] Cloven
T.
>)
hoofs.
have cteft rny heafl
]]
I-",
in rwo.
>) lll-gotten
*.ulth.'
>) He has got
tny letter.
hidden tneaning.

l:r.

lJ Her rneanirrg
>J
is
>) A shrunken

botil'ways.ari

form u,ithout,.1o,,,,
i_

nid rc1. hidden).

bodv.

:] Sunken
Ih. ctoth has sttiunk in water.
>)
eyes.

beilefers to birth the past partciple
is born;but
to carry away,the past partciple

>) He was horn
to 1t
>; He was bornin,*i31

is

,

life of splendour and

shame.

>).The pnze was
hon

eating sushi, but
my

*rr:;l i*t

Where

where hear n.leans
n0rne.

";;;;

,) the i'^i -'^rili[!i.::uv bv a voung lad or fifteen.
Dy the ass with great

Haneed,hung:
When troogGt"r,
p u n ishm eni
s;;;
hanged and the pa
(2)-

difficulty'

i:,i# :e j,f,?f:fl"3l,:;::,il
i:Hlll'J;""";", ":' i: Jilifr $:, i' :"1:* :: r*1r
hanged the criminat.
]]J.h.,murderer
was hanged.
:JLh.

hung the pi.tr..."on'
the wall.
>) The pictures
,r.".e lrrrzg br. them
on the wall.
(3) Lie,lav:

]JII"t

or prace something down;ra
*) To lav
*) ,r,^
*\
r:^
To lie
>)
tay
thetabre.
>) I_prease
always lie on my left

[: I!^ilil:.,lput

side.
>) The serv
ant laid the table.

>) Let him tie
there.
hen has taid five
eggs.
]JIh.lay there taking fris.r.est.
and sadty we tsidhim
l] -Slowtf
down.
is tying asteep under
the
tree.
>) She-/ard the
booi< on rhe ;;;;."".
toy aw,ake the whote,tgh;
taid me uncter obtigarion.
>) He has lain
down to rest

:]I.

:]I"
:]I.
:lt

(4) Riseoraise:
.Rise mean s to get up or to come up;,.raise means
to set up right, to lift,...or to rouse.

*) To

*) To raise

rise

You can't I a. learn ] a foreign language in

1.

>) The sun rrse in the east.
>) The danger ruisad his sPirits.
>) All rose to receive hitn.

lb. teach l

|

| a. elenied ) thatthe statement is true'
lb. refused)

2.

>) He rilsed his hands in PraYers.
>) He has riser from sleeP.
>) He has raised his countrY'
>) Tlre barometer has risen.
>) Has anyone rilsed an objection?

4.

Sf,. 1 u. mucle ) a speech on lndependence Day'
fb. gave l
ihe prisoner was I a. bountl ] hand and foot'

5.

lb. boundenl
The sun la. rose ] in the

J.

fb. raise$

fp5--1p16

a large and

beautiful city Qyow).

8.
9.

The

her-r

and the

sailors{swia)

-lsink)
has--five eggs (/aY).

He---the knot with great difficulty

lb.Practice l
lb.answeretll

ashore,

(loose).

'

[l[!l! The + adjective : noun (Plural)'
Example:
1. The rich (be) haPPY. Ans. are
2. The pious [be] haPPY.
3. The honest [be] believed bY all'
4. The poor [be] helPless'
5. The virtuous [be] haPPY.

the car (bitt).
Rice was----by the farmers in the first shower (sow)'
He has-----mad(ga).
Our bugles--truce.The song was-----well( slng)'
The patli was---------with flowers (strew).

lillllUtr All+plural
Example: All [be]

ng, r6body, nothing , anything , someone '

a
"*
anybody , tnuny , either , neither etc' are used as

suLiect in a sentence, the verb will be singular'
Exaplesi 1. No cow was there'
2. Everybody [bel present. Ans' was'

has-by his or her efforts (arise).
one thousand rupees.Often a lie

verb
haPPY.Ans.are'

ffiT?t|t If any, each, no one, every one, everybody'

32. We---our enemies in tlre battle.Our arnly was--(heat)'
33. She----a noble life.l have-----a pure life (leafi'
34. He---hard to win the first prize (strive).
35, She---a thousand teats (weep).
36. Suddenly the stonn---.Every great man or woman
37.This-him

I to my letter.

i5. The murderer gasla.lled I to Bangladesli.
lb.flown l

Do as you are---to:do.She----us good-bye with a
sorrorvful heart.John --"fifteen thousand rupees for

.

1. He [a,' denieil' ] to lrelp me. fb'tefused )

14. He has not Yetla rePlied

Trousers are llow generally:--:'7(wear).
Her ganrents were----in many places (tear).
Tlrey have-----hinr as their Prpsident (choose)'
A mad dog-her. $he v/as-;$y a mad dog(bite).

31

'

I

lb:,advise" l''
13. Ia: P-iaclise ]rnakes one perfect'

He----down under a tree to take a resl'(lie).
His patience was------out at last'(wear).

28.
29.
30.

''ri'

12.lla:gilvice: I You to work hard'

He was------ dead (strik e)
He has----all his motrey (lose).
Wine has-----lris tongue (loose).
The ship

,

lb. Lookl

1

I rvas---in 1950 (bear).
Slre has--three sons (heot).
The door---open Wil.
Her voice has----the whole world(stake).
He--in prayer to God (kneet).
The kite--gaily into the air f/y).

I

: i.,:,.1,

10.

He was---blind (Dear).
He--the pictures on the wall (hang).
i

.

la.sank ] and all thes;ailqrsvere'
sunk
a.
llb.drownen I , . l'
f
it is our @.Liunct I duty.to help,the poor'
lb.bountlen l
fr. *orf A noi1u. tittdir') Io.me. lb. hear l
The river has fa.ove-tflp.iued ]'its banks.

7.

They have-----a new mosque (builA.
Tlre nrurderer was------ (hang)'
She has---down to rest (lie).
Tlre dri ver w as--(lr ank).
My remarks---her (slring).

east'

The ship

6.

Bikaner

a rnonth'

has-a life (cast)'

,.t

-

ffi

The p.p form of rnain verb
after have, has, had.

willbe

2.

placed

3.

Such as:

I.
2.
3,
4.
ffiffi

I have eaten rice.
He has done the sum.
Monika had eaten a meal.
We r.vill have gone there.

4.

fflfillEll Public, people, cattle, poultry.

peasantry,

The driver and the helper are dead.

After +past perfect tense *before +
indefinite. Past Perfect tense + before+

negative or interrogative
[ffi!ffi To make
'be'

past
past

indefinite.
L The patient died after tlre doctor had come.
2. The doctor had come before the patient died.

[1EIlnFI The noun after 'one of is plural but verb
is sirrgular.

gentry, mankind + plural.

Example: 1. One of the girls is absent'
the

do, does, did

Examples:
L He eats rice. finterrogative] : Does he eat rice?
2. We enjoyed the beauty of the girl [Neg]: We did
not en.ioy the beauty of the girl.
3. They rvent round the fair. [interrogative]= Did
they go ror"rnd?

[lsffi If the sentence is Universal truth. habitural
truth. it will be in present indefinite tense.
Example: l. The eafth moves round the world.
2. The sun sets in the west.

lilITlW,! News,

physics, wages, mathernatics,
polities, gallows are not plural. After these 'the verb
will be singular.
Example:
l. The news is good.
2. Mathernatics is a hard subject.
3. Plrysics is not so easy subject.

If

sornetinres. alr.vays. norrnally , regularly,
usually. everyday, daily, often are in any sentence.
the sentence will be in present indefinite tense.
Example:
L Mother always reads the Quran.
2. I usually go to school at 9.30 am
3. Monika goes to school everyday.

fffiEf]! If two sub.iects are added with the word
'and'they mean the sanle person . the verb will be
singular. But if they mean different lseparute person,
the verb will be plural.
Example:
1. The driver and helper is dead.

are comin.

MilE

If the subject of present indefirrite tense is
third person singr:lar number, you will add 's' or 'es'
at the end of main verb.
Examples: 1. Sanzida goes to school everyday.

verb, we Llse
sentence withoLrt
according to tense and subject.

The headmaster and secretary of the school is
coming.
The headtnaster and the secretary ofthe school

H1I?EI,! fs{ +present

indefinite.

Example:
l. Let me drink any'thing.
2. Let. him do the work.

ffillfEl

In the sentence which are arranged with "

Either or ,4',leither nor

, the verb will

be placed

according to 2nd subject.
I

.

2.

Either you or your brother has done this .
Neither you nor your brothers were present there.

I wish | +befwere].
Example: I wish I were aPoet

FElllDfi! There is+ singular/there are +plural
Example:
1. There is a play ground in the school.
2. There are two madrashas in the village.

Level-2
[s[

Sentence qfr Present Indefinite 1sn5s

qr €{(

Subject Third Person singular number QT, s(-{ verb-

€T Crq sies

1e {r<t
Rusafa (write) a letter.
Ans : Rusafa writes a letter.
The baby (cry).
Ans : The baby cries.
to school regularlY.
The boy (go)
goes
to school regularly.
Ans: The boy
to school daily.
The boy does not (go)
Ans: The boy does not go to school daily.
to college at 8 a.m'
The boy generally (go)
Ans: The boy generally goes to college at 8 a.m'

c$rfil r'lq cr+TrE present
(qc{
ffi16 cl{f{qs Now, at
Continuous Tense {Tl

EE!$r <6ffi{ D{cE,{r-{

Trv yourself :
Mr. Kiran (go)

His father (conte)

abroad every month.
hotne every r'veek.

Present irrdefinite tense-q SLrb.lect third
person singular number Es$ qqE can. must, should€{ el-C< verb-€{ Wq s/es I{Itt Cr{ {I

ffiF

I

the work.
The man can (do)
Ans: The lran can do tlre work.
to her office in time.
She rnust (come)
to her office itr tinle.
cotne
ntust
Ans: She
his lessons regularly'
The student should (learn)
Ans: The student shoLrld learn his lessot'ts regurlarly'

-

-

-

Try yourself

:

-

Habitual fact (qermaiio o(l tt;rfr .<14flT \oRcE
sentence fr Present lndefinite Tense {T, c{:l-{:
round the sun.
The earth (move)
Ans: The earth troves round the sun.
the east.
The sun (rise)
Ans: The sun rises in the east.
the west.
The sun (set)
Ans: The sutr sets in the west.
Try yourself :
water.
We knorv that ice (float)
round.
(be)
earth
The teacher said that the

-

Iitt*l

q qfr

r

Try i,ourself
Rahman very often (come)

anthem.

the television now'
The boys (watch)
the television now'
watching
are
Ans: The boys
a song now.
They (enjoy)
a song now.
enjoYing
are
They
Ans:

-

-

Try yourself :
TV at this tnornent. '.
They (watch)
his land now'.-.
(cultivate)
The farmer

Does he (read)

-

-

. '.

-

ro[rql Sentence-q <fr already, yet, ever, just,
recently, lately, recently, today,- this
w.eLlyear, in the mean time, never, ever tgfifr {o
qr{
ellr<F., Er{Fi Sentencefr Present perfect tense

ffiftil
jffi.*,
:

I

Have you ever (be) to Cox's-Bazar?
Ans : Have you ever been to Cox's-Bazar?
I (receive) the letter just now.
Ans : I have received the letter.fust now'
He (1oin) there recentlY.
Ans : He has joined there recentlY'

I (not see) You this week'
Ans : I have not seen You this week'
her dinner just now'
Rabeya (take)
Ans: Rabeya has taken her dinner just now'
him recentlY.
I (see)
Ans: I have seen him recentlY.
home.
He already (reach)
Ans: He has alreadY reached home'

-

Try yourself :
to the zoo?
Have you ever (be)
my letter yet?
Have you not (receive)

-

:

me'
the newspaper daily?

:

-

sometimes, often,
ut*uyt. regularl.v, daily' everyday, usually,
generalll'.,rJrmaliy', ordinarily' occasionally ?snfr
f,6a a3q-t fiA @[il.I rr[TK ftrtl 4l crcs. E-c< SentenceE
Present Indetlrtite qm
Usuall,v father (walk) in the moming.
Ans : Usually father walks in tlre rnorning.
He (get) up early in the morning everyday.
Ans : He gets up early in the morning everyday.
Anwar sornetimes (work) in his flower garden.
Ans : Anlvar sonretimes r,vorks in his flower garden'
her lessons regularly.
Sabiha (learn)
Ans: Sabiha learns her lessons regularly.
the stlrdents.
He always (disturb)
the students.
disturbs
He
always
Ans:
his lessons regularly'
A good student (learn)
Ans: A good student learns his lessons regularly'
c+-trnl Sentence-

-

ffifilFl Sentence- q have/has alr$-(E SentenceB
present perfect Tense qr< | GT{a letter to her mother'
She has (write)
a letter to her mother'
written
has
Ans: She
nrY tneal.
I have (have)
rleal,
mY
had
have
I
Ans:
letler.
her
She had (have)
Ans: She had had her letter.
Try yourself :
to the zoo?
Have you ever (be)
America'
Colombus has (discover)

five miles at a time.
He can (walk)
(go)
to college on foot.
not
The girl must
rifr
u n i v ersal truth (B<s{- s-e-I).
Ru I e- 3 : S enten ce

-

present. at this momentffiTl{q(T-flc-s)
the national anthem'
Now the students (sing)
the national
singing
are
studeirts
Ans: Now the
|

-

fiss
al1y,

Sentence-q each, every, everyone, anyone'

every- thing, anybody'
one, nothing, anything, something'

lrany a, everybody,

notody, no

ffi

Before EIKI Eft Past tense {6 ar$rq before(<' qlltl{ qqI-l Past perfect tense- q<( elr{-{ qq"I Past
Indefinite tense ql
We (reach) our school before the bell rang.

E$fffi,

ql'rf,cFl verb- q<
someone, one of, either, neither
Singular Number {-{ t mq{Every mother (love)_ her child.
Ans: Every ntother loves her child.
One of the students (be)_ very brilliant.
Ans: One of the students is/was very brilliant.
Each of the boys (be)-present yesterday.
Ans: Each of the boys was present yesterday.

I

Ans: We had reached our

school before the bell rang.

The patient had died before the doctor (come).
Ans : The patient had dieci before the doctor'came'

ffiIffi After EKi EE Past tense {6 alKrE'!( sffl{
q(T Past Indefinite tense q<( ercfi qi,I Past perfect

Try yourself :
Many a boy (ruin)_his career through laziness.
Neither of the two boys (be) . . . .. present today.
Efrffi €st?trfi qRqrq$qH GI+Trq Subiectrq?r(o

tense

q-IT

I

They arrived the station after the train (leave).
Ans : They arrived the station after the train had left.

Pluralqrie verb- q< Singular NumberQl
a long way.
Previously fifry nriles (be)
Ans: Previously fifty nriles was a long way.

The patient (die) after the doctor had come.
Ans : The patient died after the doctor had come.

not a great distance now a days.
Twenty miles (be)
Ans: Twenty miles is not a great distance now a days.
was enough for him.
Sixty cents Oe)
Ans: Sixty cents is/was was enough for him.
Try yourself:

fimFTI No sooner had

not sufficient in titre.
Twenty dollars (be)
(be)
enough
at that titne.
cents
Fifty

No sooner had the bell (ring) than the teaclier (enter)

t

tltan, Scarcely had
qqi{ q(*I Past perfect
when:
when, Hardly had
tense wSIft cn qdB Vegb-e< Past participle form Q(<
ftfi$ q.T Past Indefinite tense q-$t-ft eI q{s Verb- q<

-

t

-

Past

-

Fffil

r

I (draw) a picture yesterday.
Ans : I drew a picture yesterday.
I (get) the parcel last month.
Ans : I got the parcel last ntonth.
You (viii| there long before.
Ans : You visited there long before.
hotne yesterday.
The boy (go)
Ans: The boy went honre yesterday.
to college yesterday.
She did not (go)
Ans: She did not go to college yesterday.
home yesterday?
Did he (come)
Ans: Did he come home yesterday?
Try yourself :
London last week.
The man (go)

-

l]tr

the classroom.
Ans : No sooner had the bell rung than the teacher
entered the classroom.
Scarcely had he (arrive) at the bus stand when the
bus (leave).
Ans : Scarcely had he arrived at the bus stand when

Yesterday, ago. long since, long before, last
night, last weak, last month, day before yesterday
iglTfr qqis Ws ffi <t Phrase sentence-q {l+-ffi Past
Indefinite tense qdtq Verb-e< Past form Q-{

He (leave)

fortr

the bus left.

Hardly had the snatcher (take) the chain when

he

(run) away.
Ans : Hardly had the snatcher taken the chain when
he ran away.
q<(

qwmqs Since nffi 1E Clause Tc' atrco
fisffil qlrtm
q(xi Present Indefinite/Present perfect

Sin."-or
tense QrE '1r-{'{ q({ Past Indefinite tense q$ c{qq:
It is many years since he (give) up smoking'
Ans : It is many years since he gave up smoking'
Five years have passed since he (leave) the house'
Arrs : Five years have passed since he left the house'

-home last night.

EE!@ rr*truq. tor.norrow, the after tomorrow, next,
in future, in the tinre to come ffi sRvq ffir+ <r+l
word/phrase qlt-srq verb- q< future indefinite tense
E{ I R:HWe (not go) there in future.
Ans : We shall not go there in future.
Neela (come) from Dhaka the day after tornorrow.
Ans : Neela will conre from Dhaka the day after
tomorrow.

[$$!

qr<m Since El*I Clause T@'{rsro

a{( Since-'!<

ql(tt Clause 1l <lcsi3 9(*l Past Indefinite tense {(E efm{
q<{ Verb-,g3 Past perfect tense STI
Many years passed since I (meet) him last.
Ans : Many years passed since I had rnet hirr last'
It was many years since I (visit) there.
Ans : It was rnany years since I had visited there.

,}

I

Passive voice-{

fornr

rydqT

Verb-,e< Past participle

QlTl

This work was (do) by him.
Ans : This work was done by him.
The problem has been (solve) by him.
Ans : The problem has been solved by him.
The school r.r,as (close) for sine die.
Ans : Tlre school was closed for sine die.

ffi

Si,ple Sentence-€ 1fi verb {r+rq frqr

E-qr Verb E* qrctito <'c{l
He saw the boy (PlaY) in the field.
Ans : He saw the boy playing in the field.
I heard hinr (speak).
Ans : I heard lrim speaking.
He lielps me (make) the house.
Ans : He helps me making the house,
Note :frfr-q Verb fr \fr Crq-r c<rqlc\, <l<.qE 5, uc< frfri

Verb-e{ q'm ing c{I?lqr

Verb-ur glcal to

qqlKl

SentenceB

Active voice {c4 can, could,

may. might. shall. should. will, would, n1ust, need,
dare. used to, oLrght to 49fr Modal Auxiliary Verb-

fortt {Ifl Crl:T{,

€< flI< present

very soon.
Your duty must (perform)
Ans: Your duty ntust be performed very soon'
Try yourself :
It can not (deny)
tomorrow.
The English book will (buy)

-

{HRqs Sentence-sfr sRrq firf'ro }rq

Bffiffi

<I

Fhrus. cqm Tomotrow, the day after totnorrow, in
q<(
future, ng11 tqflfr {Frre FLrture lndefirrite tense qK
verb-q< Present form

TCI|

I (go) to Dhaka tomorrow. .. ' ,,
Ans : I shall go to Dhaka tomorrow. '
' :'
He (oin) there the next daY'
Ans : He will.ioin there the next day.

$ffipfl

,

Sentence-q< Subject Singular Number

Verb Singular

QT e<<

Subject Plural

{.{

{rq

Verb plural

{{l -' ,- .' . '
The flowers of the garden (to be) beautiful.

Number

TC{t

I went to the librar,v (read) newspaper.
Ans : I went to the library to read newspaper.
He repaired the boat (sell) it.
Ans : He repaired the boat to sell it.

[$$!

All the mangoes could (eat).Ans: All the maugoes could be eaten.

He can (do) it easily.
Ans : He can do it easily.

Everybody should (respect) his parents.
Ans : Everybody should respect his parents.
It may (rain) today.
Ans : It nray raitt today.
the sum.
The bo-v-, can (work out)
Ans: Tlie boy can work out the sum.
all the mangoes.
He could not (eat)
Ans: He could not eat all the mangoes.
your dutY ProPerlY.
You must (do)
your duty properly.
do
must
Ans: You
Try yourself
today.
It rnay (rain)
(take)
care of one's health.
One should
- Passive voice {rf, can, could,
Sentencefr
:

fissl

nray, ntight, shall, slrould, will, would, lllust. need,
dare, used to, ought to 49fu Modal Auxiliary Verb€1 'f{ be+ Verb-qr past participle form {Tt c{:FI,
immediatelY.
The work can (do)
Ans: The work can be done immediately.

-

Ans : The flowers of the garden are beautiful'
These papers (to be) Printed.
Ans : These papers are Printed.

,

allflc{
1n Verb-or sTm to be /having/got

Verb-sr Past particiPle fom Q{l
I do not mind (have) a cuP of coffee.
Ans : I do not mind having a cup of coffee.
He went home (have) his salarY.
Ans : He went home having his salarY.
the policerran'
The thief ran away having (see)
Ans: The thief ran away having seen the policernan'
The Principal desired the notice to be (hang)-'
Ans: The Principal desired the notice to be h'ung'
immediately.
The work is to be (do)
Ans: The work is to be done immediately'
Try yourself :
bY him.
I got the letter (write)
his dutY he went out.
Having (do)

-

tss[fl

iin.y ffir

It is time, lt is high

time, wish,
oir.n Subject e bracket € {4 Verb {lom
form qlt

qmmqs

Verb-er Past
It is time you (finish) a course on English language'
Ans : lt is time you finished a course on English
language.

I wish I (sing).

Ans:lwishlsang.


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