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Eng Lec 4 8.pdf

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of Ver

Subi ect-Verb Apreement

Verb and its classification
A verb. fi'orr tlte Latin veyhurr meaning v,ord, is a
word (part of speech) that in s),ntax corlveys an
actiorr (bring, reacl, u,alk. ru,n. lecu"n), an occurrence

(happen, ltecome), or a state of being (be, exi,st,
stand). In the usual description of English, the basic
forrn, with or witlrout the particle /o, is the infinitive.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in
fornr) to encode !g.!l!e, aspect, r-uood. and voice. A
verb may also agree witlr the pe$on, S:nder. and/or
number of some of its arguments, such as its sub.iect.
or object. Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that
an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that
an action lras beerr done; future, to indicate that an
action will be done.
tqr<& q!]r qsE Sentence q {l{.qE Effi worcl-t cofcql
4t Col?31Tfq $1T Wre r qfuE word-q< qc<l Verb ry<rEcl
e+qt4 r >fi{t-{qs m word a<I m[rdl ft3i+-<t, qs{I, qFFr,
6{f$lT q-m' verb qcq r Verb is the heart of Sentence.
ort Verb r+ <Ir$l-< qI{ T-EI qrT atm r Latin -rq verbal
ralrp qE .mtr* Eqqfu I itfl Effi6g Nor-rn-.43 ffi
Verb q< Ef{ I ,{t Verb. Nor-nt, Pronoun €d( Object r.sfr.c-msr< "ifuqe ?rrr Tlc{ r Verb qM c$lrll Sentence
?sfr T-d. q.I{ qI r Verb erEI }i}tfl-{qs Voice, Tense,
Mood, Narration and Sentence "tffiq >rqmgT +.rr
qlfr+ r esB Sentence q qi <-<r-l-<
Verb <fqq-s {16 e||r{
nq{, Principal verb and Auxiliary verb.
Principal Verb: r{ Verb- ,{< fi-qq qef ql,cs ,!<( qd
ersl-rrK q-{i w{.K €"K ft.6 +-{c\o E-T i'T. Ercs principal
Verb Em
Example: Rana writes an application.
Auxiliarv Verb: m verb- €< frqs qd qrno ct, fr&E
efot< Sentence gqFTI Tense, Voice <I Mood- ,{< ('el
q-di E'{.r verb ro qfcru +-c< eitrs 9-r+ Auxiliarv
Verb <c"f
Example: Rana is writing an application.
{rq {Fks QI< G Cofr{T Cs'f6qf qqn SSt verb. principal
and Auxiliary EEGI <I{d\5- qcs q]-r< I 6{'14. I arn a
student. q{ln'all' Principal verb. qlfl{, I ant writing
a letter. qelfr;I 'alr' Auxiliary verb. Principal Verb
and Auxiliary Verb ql-gle Finite Verb, Non-Finite
Verb, Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb <r{r,q,
,{em fa-c;r{ 6pr.q q{ftEfr-fi etTarl <16{ {R-s




These are the divisions and subdivisions according to svntax:


finite verbs
transitive verbs
intransitive verbs
.1. linking Verbs
t. non-finite verbs (also called verbals)
* infinitives



present participle
past participle

perfect participle
helping verbs (auxiliaries)

primary auxiliaries
modal auxiliaries

Verbs can also be classified as finite or non-finite.
can be the main verb of the sentence.
Its form is detenrined by the number and person of
the subject.
I work at a bank.

A finite verb

He works at a bank.
I have worked with children before.
She has workecl with mentally challenged people.
Non-finite verbs cannot be main verbs. There are
mainly three types of non-finite verbs: infinitives,
gerunds and participles.

Verbs can be classified in several ways. First, some
verbs require an ob.iect to complete their meaning.
'She read...' Read what?'She read a story.'
These verbs that require an object are called
transitive verbs. Verbs that do not require an ob.ject
are called intransitive verbs.
Note that most verbs can be both transitive


'The ship sank.' (lntransitive)
'The explosion sank the ship.' (Transitive)
Some verbs can take a direct ob.iect and an'indirect
ob.iect. These verbs are sometimes called
ditransitive verbs, Of course, this is not a term you
will hear every day.
'Loud music gives rne a headache.'
In the example given above, the verb gives has two
objects - me and headache.